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of the 


Rev. Canon Scadding, 

L. * " " 










Omnia mortal! mutantur lege creata, 

Nee se cognoscunt terrse vertentibus annis 








r- ; 

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand 
eight hundred and forty - nine, by 


in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District 
of New York. 



1 J ,v * 


THE present work is intended as a text-book for the 
combined study of ancient Geography and History, 
two branches of education that ought never to be sep- 
arated, but of which the former is either entirely neg- 
lected among us, or else only taught out of superficial 
and defective compends. Now that classical instruc- 
tion aspires to be something more than a mere ringing 
of changes on letters and syllables, and the recitation- 
rooms of our colleges are beginning to have the dull 
routine of mere verbal translation enlivened by in- 
quiries and investigations calculated at once to in- 
terest and improve, a knowledge of ancient sites and 
localities, that are more or less identified with the 
stirring events of former days, can not but prove an 
important aid in advancing the good work. The vol- 
ume here offered may also be found of service to those 
of our young countrymen who intend to pursue a 
course of foreign travel, and may prepare them for 
some of the scenes on which they are about to enter, 
or, at all events, may save them from the mortifica- 
tion of discovering only after their return from abroad 
how many objects of deep and abiding interest have 
been passed by completely unnoticed. 

In preparing the work, no pains have been spared 
as regards the collecting of materials. The best sources 
of information have been consulted, and every thing 
calculated to interest or instruct, from whatever quar- 
ter it could be obtained, has been freely used. In- 
stead, however, of ostentatiously encumbering each 


page with authorities, it has been deemed sufficient to 
make this general acknowledgment in the preface, and 
to append to it a list of the different works, exclusive 
of the classical writings, that have either been con- 
sulted, or have furnished materials for the volume. 
The main sources of supply, however, have been the 
treatises of Cramer, on the ancient geography of Italy, 
Greece, and Asia Minor, of which the present work 
will be found to furnish a brief, but yet comprehen- 
sive abridgment ; and the London Penny Cyclopaedia, 
in which are embodied a variety of the most valuable 
articles on the subject of ancient geography and his- 
tory, as well as the results of numerous recent investi- 
gations, made by modern travellers, and forming the 
subject of communications to the Royal Geographical 
Society of Great Britain. The historical sketches are 
principally derived from this latter source. To these 
may be added, Pilchard's " Researches into the Phys 
ical History of Mankind," Forbiger's " Handbuch der 
alten Geographic," and Sickler's "Handbuch der al- 
ten Geographic." 

The present work professes to be a system, not mere- 
ly of ancient, but also of mediaeval geography. This 
latter division of the subject, however, has only been 
so far attended to as was rendered absolutely neces- 
sary for the clearer understanding of particular cases. 
To have entered more minutely into mediaeval details 
would have made the work too voluminous, without 
adding much to its utility. Even as it is, the book is 
a large one, but by no means too large for the object 
in view. Ancient geography, in order to be studied 
to advantage, must be studied thoroughly and care- 
fully ; and it is a very mistaken idea to suppose that 
a mere enumeration of names of places, with a few 
brief remarks appended, or a regular historical work, 
with short sketches added in order to give it a geo- 


graphical appearance, can prove of any real advant- 
age, or produce any lasting impression on the mind 
of the learner. Besides, the arrangement of the pres- 
ent volume is such as to answer for two courses of in- 
struction : the first a general one, confined to the more 
prominent and leading topics ; the second, one enter- 
ing more into details, and intended for advanced stu- 
dents ; for it ought to be carefully borne in mind, that 
geographical and historical studies, particularly the 
former, should accompany the pupil, in a greater or 
Jess degree, throughout every stage of his academic 
and collegiate career. 

It was the intention of the editor to have prepared a 
series of maps and plans for the present work, but the 
recent appearance of Findlay's Classical Atlas has for 
the present obviated any necessity for so doing. This 
Atlas (which may be procured from the publishers of 
the present volume) will be found to answer all the 
purposes of the student. It is undoubtedly the best col- 
lection of Classical Maps, for its size, that has hitherto 
appeared, and the interesting information contained in 
the Introduction renders the work doubly valuable. It 
must be borne in mind, however, that whenever dis- 
crepancies occur between our text and the Atlas of 
Findlay, the former is to be followed, as being based 
on later or more reliable authority. These discrepan- 
cies, however, are comparatively few in number, and 
are principally confined to the Maps of Ancient Spain. 
Our guides in fixing sites and localities have been the 
best and most recent European Atlases, a list of 
which will be found below. 

It only remains, for the editor to express his ac- 
knowledgments, as usual, to his friend and colleague, 
Professor Drisler, for his valuable co-operation in, and 
supervision of the present work ; and to his friend 
and former pupil, Mr. John M'Mullen, to whom he is 


indebted for many important maps and plans brought 
by bim from Europe, and also for not a few valuable 
suggestions, the fruit of well-directed foreign travel. 

COLUMBIA COLLEGE, Sept. 10th, 1849. 



Adrichonrius Theatrum Terra? Sancto. Col. Agripp., 1628, fol. 

Ainsworth, Travels in the Track of the Ten Thousand Greeks. London, 1844, 

12mo. ^ 

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Arndt, Ueber den Unsprung der Europaischen Sprachen. Frankfort, 1827, 8vo 
Arundell, Visit to the Seven Churches of Asia, 8vo. London, 1828. 

" Discoveries in Asia Minor, 8vo. London, 1834, 2 vols. 
Balbi, Atlas Ethnographique du Globe, fol. Paris, 1826. 
Beaufort, Caramania, &c., 8vo. London, 1818. 
Billerbeck, Handbuch der Alten Geographie, 8vo. Leipsic, 1826. 
Bischoff und Moller, Worterbuch der Geographie, 8vo. Gotha, 1829. 
Bunsen, Egypt's Place in Universal History, 8vo. London, 1849, vol. i. 
Bobrik, Gcographie des Herodot, 8vo. KSnigsberg, 1838. 
Buckingham, Travels in Assyria, &c., 8vo. London, 1830, 2 vols. 
Cambden, Britannia, 4to. London, 1600. 

Cellarius, Notitia Orbis Antiqui, ed. Schwartz, 4to, 2 vols. Lips., 1773. 
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" Germania Antiqua, fol. Lugd. Bat., 1616. 
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Cramer, Description of Ancient Italy, 8vo. Oxford, 1826, 2 vols. 

" " " Greece, 8vo. Oxford, 1828, 3 vols. 

" Asia Minor, 8vo. Oxford, 1832, 2 vols. 
Cramer and Wickham, Dissertation on the Passage of Hannibal over the Alpg, 

8vo. London, 1828. 
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" Antiquit6 Geographique de Plnde, 8vo. Paris, 1775. 

" E'tats formfcs en Europe, &c., 4to. Paris, 1771. 

" M6moires sur 1'E'gypte, &c., 4to. Paris, 1766. 

D'Arc, Histoire des Conquetes des Norraands en Italic, &c., 8vo. Paris, 1830. 
Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, 8vo. London, 1848, 2 vols. 
Dieffenbach, Celtica, 8vo. Stuttgart, 1839. 
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2 vols. 
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Weimar, 2 vole. 
Dumbeck, Geographia Pagoram Gennanire, 8vo. Berol., 1818. 


Dureau de la Malle, Geographie Physique de la Mer Noire, 8vo. Paris, 1807. 
" " Recherches sur la Topographie de Carthage, 8vo. Paris. 


Kadie, Biblical Cyclopaedia, 8vo. London, 1849. 

Eichwald, Alte Geographie des Kaspischen Meeres, 8ro. Berlin, 1838. 
Encyclopaedia Americana, 8vo. Philadelphia, 13 vols. 
Eustace, Classical Tour through Italy, 8vo. London, 1815, 4 vols. 
Fellows, Tour in Asia Minor, 4to. London, 1839. 
" Discoveries in Lycia, 4to. London. 1841. 

Forbiger, Handbuch der alten Geographie, 8vo. Leipsic, 3 vols., 1842-1847. 
Gell, Geography and Antiquities of Ithaca, 4to. London, 1807. 

" Itinerary of Argolis, 4to. London, 1807. 

" Pompeiana, 8vo. London, 1832, 2 vols. 

" Rome and its Vicinity, 8vo. London, 1834, 2 vols. 
Georgii, Alte Geographie, &c., 8vo. Stuttgart, 2 vols. 
G6ller, De Situ et origine Syracusarum, 8vo. Lips., 1818. 
Gossellin, Recherches sur la Geographie des Anciens, 4to. Paris, 4 vols: 
Gliddon, Otia ^Egyptiaca, 8vo. London, 1849. 
Grote, History of Greece, 8vo. London. 

Hamilton, Researches in Asia Minor, &c., 8vo. London, 1842, 2 vols. 
Heeren, Historical Researches, &c., 8vo. Oxford, 1832-1833, 5 vols. 
Hoare, Tour through Italy and Sicily, 8vo. London, 1819, 2 vols. 
Hobhouse, Journey through Albania, &c., 8vo. Philadelphia, 1817, 2 vols. 
H6ck, Kreta, 8vo. Gottingen, 1823, 3 vols. 
Hoskins, Travels in Ethiopia, 4to. London, 1835. 
Hutton, History of the Roman Wall, 8vo. London, 1802. 
Itinerariutn Antonini, ed. Parthey et Piuder, 8vo. Berol., 1848. 
Karcher, Handbuch der alten Classischen Geographie, 8vo. Heidelberg, 183G. 
Kinneir, Journey through Asia Minor, &c., 8vo. London, 1818. 
Kitto, Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature, 8vo. New York, 2 vols. 
Knight's Pictorial History of England, 8vo. New York, 1846-1848, 4 vols. 
Laurent, Introduction to the Study of Ancient Geography, 8vo. Oxford, 1830. 
Layard's Nineveh and its Remains, 8vo. London, 1849, 2 vols. 
Leake, Travels in Northern Greece, 8vo. London, 1835, 4 vols. 

" Travels in the Morea, 8vo. London, 1830, 3 vols. 

" Tour in Asia Minor, 8vo. London, 1824. 
Letronne, Cours E'lementaire de Geographie, 12mo. Paris, 1846. 
Long, Ancient Geography, 8vo. Charlottesville, 1829. 

Lynch, Narrative of the Expedition to the Jordan and Dead Sea, 8vo. Phila- 
delphia, 1849. 

Malte-Brun, Geographie Universelle, 8vo. Bruxelles, 1830, 4 vols. 
Mannert, Geographie der Griechen und R6mer, 8vo. Leipsic, 1799-1825, 10 vols. 
Milner, History of the Seven Churches of Asia, 8vo. London, 1832. 
Murray's Hand-Book for Spain, 12mo. London, 1847. 

" " " France, 12mo. London, 1848. 

" " Switzerland, &c. London, 1846. 

" " Northern Italy. London, 1846. 

" " Central Italy. London, 1843. 

" the East. London, 1845. 
" " Egypt. London, 1847. 

National Encyclopaedia, 8vo. London, 1847, &c., 4 vols. 
Nibby, Viaggio Antiquario, &c., 8vo. Rome, 1819, 2 vols. 
Pacho, Voyage dans la Marmariqne, &c., 4to. Paris, 1828. 


Penny Cyclopaedia, 8vo. London, 1833-1846, 29 vols. 

Prichard, Researches into the Physical History of Mankind. London, 1841-1847, 

5 vols., 8vo. 
Ptitz. Grandriss der Geographic mid Geschichte der Staaten des Alterthums. Koln, 

1839, 2 vols. 

Reichard, Kleiiie Geographische Schriften, 8vo. GUns, 183G. 
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Reunell, Geography of Herodotus, 8vo. London, 1830, 2 vt>Is. 

of Western Asia, 8vo. London, 1831, 2 vols. 
'' Illustrations of Xenophou's Anabasis, 4to. London, 1816. 
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Ritter, Die Erdkunde, &c., 8vo. 

Robinson, Biblical Researches, &c., 8vo. Boston, 1841, 3 vols. 
Rosenintiller, Biblical Geography of Central Asia, &c. translated by Morren, 

12mo. Edinburgh, 183G, 2 vols. 

Schacht, Lehrbuch der Geographic, 8vo. Mainz, 1846. 
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2 vols. 

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2 vols. 

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Williams, Essays on the Geography of Ancient Asia, 8vo. London, 1829. 
Wilson, Ariana Antiqua, 4to. London, 1841. 
Wordsworth, Pictorial History of Greece, 8vo. London, 1839. 



Arrowsmith, Comparative Atlas of Ancient and Modern Geography. London and 

Eton, 1828. 

Atlas Antiquus, Dr. E. Spruner. Gotha, 1848. 
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Colonien. Berlin, 1846. 
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Maps of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. London. 
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" " " von F. S. F. Hoffman. Leipsic, 1841. 

* " " " " Gotha (Perthes), 1847. 


1. NAME. 

I. THE name " Europe" (Evp^nrj) first occurs in the so-called 
Homeric hymn to Apollo, where it embraces merely Greece, 
exclusive of the Peloponnesus, together with Macedonia, Illyr- 
icum, and Italy. 

II. Herodotus says he does not know how the appellation 
came to be given to Europe, except it were from Europa, the 
daughter of Agenor, king of Tyre ; but he seems hardly satis- 
fied with this explanation. 

III. In all probability, the name is of Phoenician origin, and 
denotes the " Evening-Land," that is, the land of sunset or 
gloom, in opposition to Asia, the " Land of Light." 

OBS. 1. The passage referred to above, in the Hymn to Apollo, occurs at v. 
73, sq., and is as follows : 

7j6* oaoi EvpUTcqv TS nal au^cpvrov^ Kara 
tleiz, however, proposes to read here "Hneipov for 'EvpuTrrjv. Compare Ilgen 
and Hermann, ad loc. 

2. The passage of Herodotus referred to in II. occurs at iv., 45. It is im- 
portant as giving a hint respecting the true origin of the name in the language 
of Phoenicia. 

3. The Phoenician term, from which the name of Europe is probably derived, 
may be traced in the Hebrew Ereb, i. e., " Evening." Bochart is altogether too 
Jtmciful in deducing the name of Europe from the Semitic Ur-appa, or terra 
^cv/coTTpdfOTTOf. (Pkaleg., col. 298.) 


I. THE circuit and boundaries of Europe do not appear to 
have been clearly and definitely settled among the Greeks and 
Romans until the time of Ptolemy the geographer. 

II. At the period when Herodotus flourished, the River Pha- 
eis was regarded by some as the eastern boundary of Europe ; 
by others, the Tanais. In the time of Plato the Phasis was 
viewed as the boundary ; but in that of Eratosthenes, the Ta- 


nai's. In this latter opinion Pomponius Mela and Ptolemy also 

III. According to Ptolemy, the boundaries of Europe are as 
follows : on the north, the Northern Ocean or Icy Sea ; on the 
west, the Atlantic ; on the south, the Mediterranean ; on the 
east and southeast, the River Tanai's (now Don), the Palus 
Mseotis (now Sea of Azof or Assow), the Pontus Euxinus 
(now Black Sea), the Propontis (now Sea of Marmara), the 
Hellespont (now Dardanelles), and a part of the 

OBS. 1. The language of Herodotus is as follows (iv., 45): ovp/oy/ara avrfj 
(yj?) NetAdf re 6 AiyvxTios eredrj, KCLI $a<ri<; 6 Ko/l^Of ol ds Tdva'iv TTOT- 
auov TOV MatrJTrjv nal Hopdfj.Tjla ra Kt/Lifigpta "kiyovai. 

2. The passage of Plato referred to occurs in, the Phaedon (109, B.): ^c 
oiKeiv ftsxpiC 'Hpa/c/lwwv arri^dv anb 3>dai6o<; h cfj.iitp) TIVI popiy, K. r. "k. Com- 
pare Agathem., i., 1 : 'Acuaf <Je /cat EvpaJTr^f ol fj,sv apxaloi J\.eyovai QaaiV -Korafibv 

Hal TOV &Jf KaCTTTiOf IcdflOV. 

3. The Phasis was the principal river in ancient Colchis, and is called at the 
present day the Faz, and sometimes the Rion. It flows in a westerly direction 
into the Euxine. Its having been selected by some as the eastern boundary of 
Europe appears to have arisen from the circumstance of its having been better 
known to the earlier Greeks than the Tanai's, through the legend of the Argo- 
nautic expedition, in which mention is made of it. (Cellaring, Geog. Ant., i., 1 1.) 

4. Eratosthenes (ap. Strab., i., p. 174, ed. Tzsch.) makes the Tanai's the more 
commonly recognized boundary between Europe and Asia. He adds, however, 
that some regarded as the eastern boundary the neck of land between the Cas- 
pian and Euxine. Compare Mela, i., 3, 1 : " Europa terminos habct ab Orientc 
Tanaim, et Maotida, et Pontum," &c. 


I. THE original population of Europe appears to have con- 
sisted of Finnish nations, belonging probably to the same stock 
with the primitive nations of Southern India, or the Dekhan. 

II. Many ages after the settlement of these Finnish tribes, 
the great Celtic race came in from the East, and thus formed 
the first and earliest branch of the great Indo-European family. 

III. This Celtic race consisted originally of the priestly and 
military classes only ; but, on coming in contact with the 
Finnish nations already established in Europe, they reduced 
these to vassalage ; and hence we find in all Celtic countries a 
lower caste, deprived of all civil rights, and looked upon as 
mere vassals or serfs. 

IV. After the Celtic race had spread themselves over and 
subjugated a large portion of Europe, the Teutonic tribes came 
in from the east and drove the Celtae farther toward the west ; 


and it is from the fact of the Celtic nations, when first noticed 
in history, occupying the western extremities of Europe, that 
we draw the inference of their having been among the earliest 
tribes that migrated from Asia. 

V. The Teutonic tribes were of a pure Indo-European ori- 
gin, and did not mix with any conquered race, as is plainly 
shown by the perfect equality which prevailed among them, 
and from the people being all free. 

VI. After the Teutonic tribes came the great Sclavonic race, 
which spread itself over a wide extent of both Asia and Eu- 
rope, namely, from the Pacific to the Baltic, from the Adriatic 
to the Arctic Sea. And the boundary in early times between 
the Sclavonic and Teutonic tribes was the River Vistula. 

VII. The different tribes that spoke the Sclavonic tongue 
were known to the ancients under the names of Rhoxolani, 
Krobyzi, Sarmatse, Sauromatae, Pannonians, Illyrians, and Ve- 
nedi or Wemdse. At present the Sclavonic language is spoken 
by the Russians, Poles, Bulgarians, Bohemians, Moravians, &c. 

VIII. It appears, moreover, from the researches of philolo- 
gists, that the common or Pelasgian element of the Greek and 
Latin languages was allied to the Sclavonic tongue. In sup- 
port of which opinion it may be stated, that the resemblance 
of the Russian to the Latin tongue is very remarkable, and 
that coincidences equally striking may be found between the 
Sclavonic tongues and the most ancient monuments of the 
Greek language. 

IX. The additional or Hellenic element of the Greek, which 
afterward pervaded the whole language, seems to have come 
from the East by Asia Minor ; at any rate, we find that the 
Hellenes make their first appearance in the northeastern quar- 
ter of Greece. 

X. On the other hand, the Latin language appears to have 
arisen from an intermingling of the Sclavonic element with 
both a Celtic and a Teutonic one, it being highly probable that 
Celtic and Teutonic tribes had previously settled in succession 
in the Italian peninsula. 

OBS. 1. On the settlement of the Finnish nations in Europe, compare the re- 
marks of Prichard, Researches into the Physical History of Mankind, vol. iv., p. 
605. Arndt has shown very clearly that a connection existed, in point of lan- 
guage, between the Celtic nations and the Finns, Samoiedes, &c., and in this 
way we may account for the striking resemblance between so many words in 


the Basque language, a branch of the Celtic, and the Samoiede and other Fin- 
nish tongues. (Arndt, Ursprung dcr Europ. Sprachcn, p. 17, seqq.) 

2. The claims of the Celtic to be regarded as one of the Indo-European lan- 
guages have been fully established by Prichard, in his Eastern Origin of the Cel- 
tic Nations, Oxford, 1831 ; and by Pictct, De VAffinite des Langues Cdtiques atec 
le Sanscrit, Paris, 1837. 

3. The origin of the Indo-European languages is traceable to Iran, a country 
bounded on the north by the Caspian, on the south by the Indian Ocean, on the 
east by the Indus, and on the west by the Euphrates. This region, therefore, 
is regarded by the best authorities as the original home of the great Indo-Euro- 
pean race. (Donaldson, New Cratylus, p. 80, seq.} 

4. On the affinity between the Russian and the Latin, consult the work of 
Galiffc, " Italy and its Inhabitants," &c., vol. i., p. 356, seqq. ; and compare the 
remarks of Winning, "Manual of Comparative Philology," p. 121. In relation 
to the affinity between the Sclavonic and the Greek, consult the work of Dan- 
kovsky, tl Homer us Slavicis dialcctis cognata lingut&scripsit," &c., Vindob., 1829 ; 
and compare Donaldson, New Crat., p. 92. 

5. On the origin of the Latin tongue, consult the work of Klotz, " Handbuch 
der lat. Literatvrgesch., vol. i., p. 157, seqq. 


I. THE earliest notices of the history of Europe are in the 
writings of the Greeks, who inhabited the southeastern corner 
of that continent. 

II. From this country the geographical knowledge of Europe 
extended by degrees to the west and north. 

III. Homer, who probably lived about one thousand years 
before the Christian era, was acquainted with the countries 
around the yEgean Sea, or Archipelago. 

IV. He had also a pretty accurate general notion respecting 
those countries which lie on the south coast of the Euxine ; 
but what he says about the countries west of Greece, on the 
shores of the Mediterranean Sea, is a mixture of fable and 
truth, in which the fabulous part prevails. 

V. It would seem that in his age these seas were not yet 
visited by his countrymen, and that he obtained his knowledge 
from the Phoenicians, who had probably for some time sailed 
to these countries, but who, according to the common policy of 
trading nations, spread abroad false accounts of these unknown 
regions, in order to deter other nations from following their 
track, and sharing in the advantages of this distant commerce. 

VI. It is probable, also, that the Phoenicians long excluded 
the Greeks from the navigation of the Mediterranean ; for. 
when the Greeks began to form settlements beyond their na- 


tive country, they first occupied the shores of the ^Egean, and 
afterward those of the Euxine. 

VII. As the European shores of the Euxine are not well 
adapted for agriculture, except a comparatively small tract of 
the Peninsula of Crimea, their early settlements were mostly 
made on the Asiatic shores, and consequently little addition 
was made by these colonies to the geographical knowledge of 

VIII. But the navigation of the Phoenicians was checked, 
in the middle of the sixth century before Christ, apparently by 
their country being subjugated by the Persians. 

IX. About this time, also, the Greeks began to form settle- 
ments in the southern parts of Italy, and on the island of Sici- 
ly, and to navigate the Mediterranean Sea in its full extent. 

X. Accordingly we find that, in the time of Herodotus (450 
B.C.), not only the countries on each side of the Mediterranean, 
and the northern shores of the Euxine, were pretty well known 
to the Greeks, but that, following the track of the Phoenicians, 
they ventured to pass the Columns of Hercules, and to sail as 
far as the Cassiterides, or Tin Islands, by which name the 
southwestern part of England must be understood. 

XL It is even said that some of their navigators sailed 
through the English Channel, and entered the North Sea, and 
perhaps even the Baltic. 

XII. It must be observed, however, that Herodotus professes 
himself totally unacquainted with the islands called Cassiteri- 
des ; and Strabo expresses a very unfavorable opinion of the 
alleged voyages to the north. 

XIII. Thus a considerable part of the coasts of Europe was 
discovered, while the interior remained almost unknown. 

XIV. When the Romans began their conquests, this deficien- 
cy was partly filled up. The conquest of Italy was followed 
by that of Spain and the southern parts of Gaul, and, not long 
afterward, Sicily, Greece, and Macedonia were added. 

XV. Caesar conquered Gaul and the countries west of the 
Rhine, together with the districts lying between the different 
arms by which that river enters the sea. His two expeditions 
into Britain made known, also, in some measure, the nature 
of that island and its inhabitants. 

XVI. Thus, in the course of little more than two hundred 


years, the interior of all those countries was discovered, the 
shores alone of which had been previously known. 

XVII. In the mean time nothing was added to the knowl- 
edge of the coasts, the Greeks having lost their spirit of dis- 
covery by sea with their liberty, and the Romans not being in- 
clined to naval enterprise. 

XVIII. After the establishment of imperial power at Rome, 
the conquests of the Romans went on at a much slower rate, 
and the boundaries of the empire soon became stationary. 
This circumstance must be chiefly attributed to the nature of 
the countries which were contiguous to the boundaries. The 
regions north of the Danube are mostly plains, and at that 
time were only inhabited by wandering nations, who could not 
be subjected to a regular government. Such, at least, are the 
countries extending between the Carpathian Mountains and 
the Euxine ; and, therefore, the conquest of Dacia by Trajan 
was of short continuance, and speedily abandoned. 

XIX. The most important addition to the empire and to geo- 
graphical knowledge was the conquest of England during the 
first century after Christ, to which, in the following century* 
the south of Scotland was added. 

XX. Nothing seems to have been added afterward. The 
geography of Ptolemy contains a considerable number of names 
of nations, places, and rivers in those countries which were not, 
subjected to the Romans. Probably they were obtained from 
natives, and from Roman traders who had ventured to penetrate 
.beyond the boundaries of the empire. But these brief notices 
are very vague, and, in most cases, it is very difficult to deter- 
mine what places and positions are indicated. 

XXI. The overthrow of the Roman empire by the northern 
barbarians destroyed a large part of the geographical knowl- 
edge previously obtained, except, perhaps, as to that part of 
Germany which was subject to the Franks, and which, by de- 
grees, became better known than it was before. 

XXIE. Two sets of men, however, soon made their appear- 
ance, who contributed largely to extend the geographical knowl- 
edge of Europe, namely, missionaries and pirates. 

XXIII. The Christian religion had been introduced into all 
the countries subject to the Roman power. The barbarians 
who subverted the empire soon became converts to the Chris- 


tian faith, and some of them ventured among other barbarous 
nations for the purpose of converting them also. 

XXIV. They visited the natives who inhabited the eastern 
part of Germany, but here their progress was at first slow ; 
they did not cross the River Oder, or at least they did not ven- 
ture far beyond it, and the geographical knowledge of this part 
of Europe was, consequently, not much increased. 

XXV. The progress of those missionaries was more impor- 
tant who penetrated from Constantinople into the interior of 
Russia, where they succeeded in converting to the Greek 
Church the different tribes into which the Russians were then 
divided. This was effected in the ninth century. 

XXVI. In the tenth century the western missionaries pene- 
trated into and gradually converted Poland, and in the thir- 
teenth century Christianity was introduced among the Prus- 
sians by force of arms, the Knights of St. John having conquer- 
ed the country. 

XXVIL To the pirates we are indebted for our acquaintance, 
with the northern parts of Europe, especially the Scandinavian 
peninsula ; this, however, was not owing to pirates who went 
to, but to pirates who came from these countries. 

XXVIII. The Northmen or Normans, who inhabited Den- 
mark, Norway, and Sweden, first laid waste and then settled 
in part of France, and afterward conquered England. In their 
new settlements they maintained a communication with their 
native countries, which thus gradually became known wherever 
the Normans had settled. 


I. THE seas and numerous gulfs by which the European 
peninsula is washed constitute one of the characteristic fea- 
tures of this part of the world. No such vast bodies of water, 
penetrating deeply inland, are found in Asia or Africa, or even 
in the New World, to the same extent as in Europe. 

II. The influence of these on the temperature, which they 
render humid and variable, is sensibly felt. They serve also 
to assist communication and trade, and, conjointly with the 
mountain chains, they form barriers to defend the independence 
of nations. 

III. On the west lies that wide sea, till the time of Colum- 


bus unpassed, by which the Old World is divided from the 
New. This was called by the Greeks ^ 'ArAavTj/t?) QdXaaaa, by 
the Romans Mare Atlanticum, and is now the Atlantic Ocean. 
, IV. In the north we find the Arctic Ocean, with that deep 
and frozen inlet known by the name of the White Sea. These 
two were called by the general name of 6 Kpoviog 'QKtav6$ t 
Mare Cranium, or Pigrum. 

V. Descending from the high north, we enter, below Cape 
Stat in Norway, a gulf called the North Sea, extending from 
the Shetland Isles to the Straits of Dover and coast of En- 
gland. This was called Mare Germanicum. 

VI. To the entrance of the channel which lies between Den- 
mark, Norway, and Sweden, three small straits leave openings 
for communication with the Mediterranean of the North, the 
Baltic Sea. The Baltic was called Mare Sucvicum, and its 
southwestern part the Sinus Codanus. 

VII. Retracing our course, we pass the Straits of Dover, 
called anciently Fretum Gallicum, and enter the British Chan- 
nel, or Oceanus Britannicus, narrow and of little depth, but 
exposed to the winds and tides of the Atlantic. 

VIII. Crossing the Bay of Biscay, or Oceanus Cantabricus, 
and sailing through the Straits of Gibraltar, or Fretum Her- 
culeum, we find ourselves in the Mediterranean Sea, called by 
the Romans Mare Internum, or Nostrum. 

IX. The western portion of the Mediterranean ends at Cape 
Bon, on the coast of Africa, the ancient Hermceum Promonto- 
rtum, and at Messina in Sicily, the ancient Zancle, or Messana. 

X. This western portion is itself divided into two unequal 
parts by the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, of which parts 
the more western one contains the Baleares and Pityusae In- 
sulse ; while the eastern one, or Sea of Italy, is scattered with 
volcanic islands, connected, no doubt, with the common focus 
which feeds the fires of Vesuvius and ^Etna. 

XI. The second, or eastern portion of the Mediterranean, 
nearly double the extent of the western one mentioned under 
$ IX., stretches uninterrupted from the coasts of Sicily and 
Tunis to those of Syria and Egypt. 

XII. In the north of this eastern portion of the Mediterranean 
are found two inlets, celebrated in history, and important in 
geography. These are the Adriatic, or Sinus Hadriaticus, and 

E u R 6 p A. 9 

the Archipelago, or Mare JEgceum, the latter covered with 
groups of islands. 

XIII. But the most remarkable of the seas connected with 
the Mediterranean is the Black Sea, or Pontus Euxinus. 

XIV. The magnificent entrance to this is formed, 1. By the 
Strait of the Dardanelles, or ancient Hellespontus; then, 2. 
By the Sea of Marmara, the ancient Propontis ; and, lastly, 
3. By the Strait of Constantinople, or the ancient Bosporus 

XV. The Black Sea, or Euxine, fed by the largest rivers of 
Europe, receives through the Strait of Caffa, or Feodosia, 
called anciently Bosporus Cimmerius, the waters of the Sea of 
Azof or Assow, the ancient Palus Mceotis. 

XVI. Here terminates the series of inland seas, which, sep- 
arating Europe from Asia and Africa, serve as the medium of 
communication between the more important parts of those 
quarters of the globe. 

XVII. It has been conjectured that a strait, subsequently fill- 
ed up by the soil torn from Caucasus, united, at a period beyond 
the reach of authenticated history, but posterior to the great 
convulsions of the globe, the Palus Mseotis to the Caspian Sea. 

OBS. 1. Various other names for the Atlantic, besides those given in I., are 
found in the ancient writers, a few of which may be here mentioned : # efcj 
orr]7(.iuv ftakaaaa, and # 'Ar/lovr/f (Herod., i., 202 ; Aristot., Meteor., ii., 1 ; Aga- 
thcm., de Geogr., ii., 14, p. 56); # ffw /ecu ^eycU?? #a2,ar-a (Aristot., Probl., xxvi., 
55) ; fj KTOC tfaAarra (Polyb., xvi., 29) ; Mare Magnum, Mare externum, &c. 
(Flor., iv., 2). The Mediterranean is called by the Greeks i] Qdhaaca, Hdt. 

2. Other names for the Arctic Ocean are Occanus Boredlis, Arctous, Septen- 
trionalis, Mare glaciate, &c. According to Philemon, as quoted by Pliny (H. 
N., iv., 27), the Cronian Sea lay beyond the Rubeas Promontorium, while on this 
side of the same promontory lay what the Cimbric nations called Morimarusa, 
or " the Dead Sea," a name derived from its frozen state. The Mare Amalchi- 
um, or " the congealed sea," also a native term, extended, according to Heca- 
taeus (Plin., I. c.), along the coast of Scythia. The explanation of the term 
Cranium has been sought in the Celtic croinn, "thick," "coagulated" (Class. 
Journ., vol. vi., p. 297), while others, far less plausibly, deduce the appellation 
from the Danish groen, " green," a root existing also in the name of Greenland, 
(Plin., H. N., Panckoucke, vol. iii., p. 312.) The name Morimarusa has been traced 
to the Cymric or Welsh mar, " sea," and mare, " dead." ( Class. Journ., I. c.) 

3. It is a very common error to make the Sinus Codanus an ancient appella- 
tion for the entire Baltic. On the contrary, it answers merely to the Gulf of 
Kattegat, in the southwestern part. In the name Codanus we may see a re- 
semblance to that of the great Gothic race. The term Baltic appears to be de- 
rived from the northern bait, or belt, denoting a collection of water ; whence, 
also, the name of the straits, Great and Little Belt. 


4. The Euxine, or Ilovroj- Evfrivof, was originally called "A&voc by the 
Greeks, that is, " the inhospitable sea," from the savage tribes surrounding it. 
When commerce became extended, and colonies were planted along its borders, 
it changed its name to Evfavof, or " the hospitable." 

5. The term Bosporus (commonly, but erroneously, written Bosphorus) is the 
Greek BdfTropof, and means strictly ox-ford (f3ov^, Trdpof), and is generally sup- 
posed to be connected with the legend of lo. Some, however, maintain, that 
Trdpof , when said of a river, does not mean a ford or pass across the stream, but 
the passage or road which the stream itself affords in the direction of its length ; 
and that, taking Bof (or /3ovs) merely as an intensive prefix, we will have Bdf- 
Tropof, signifying, properly, a large and broad stream or river. (Griffiths, ad 
.Esch., P. V., 733.) 


1. THE main rivers of Europe are six in number, arranged 
as follows, according to their respectiversizes : 

1. The Volga, anciently called Rha. 

2. " Danube, " " Danubius, or Ister. 

3. " Dnieper, " " Borysthenes. 

4. " Don, " " Tand'is. 

5. " Rhine, " Rhcnus. 

6. " Dwina, " " Carambacis. 

II. Those next to them in rank are eight in number, namely, 

1. The Po, anciently called Padus. 

2. " Rhone, " " Rhodanus. 

3. " Ebro, " " Iberus. 

4. " Guadalquivir, " Bcetis. 

5. " Tagus, " Tag-us. 

6. " Loire, " Liger. 

7. " Elbe, Albis. 

8. " Vistula, " " Vistula. 

III. All of these eight united would scarcely be equivalent 
to the Volga alone. 

OBS. 1. The name Rha appears to be an appellative term, having an affinity 
with Rhca or Reka, which in the Sclavonic tongue signified " a river ;" and from 
the Russian denomination of Vclika Rheka, or " Great River," appears to be 
formed the name Volga. In the Byzantine and other writers of the Middle 
Ages, this stream is called Atel or Etel, a term signifying, in many northern lan- 
guages, " great " or " illustrious," with which we may compare the German Adel. 

2. The Borysthenes was called, in a later age, Danapris, or Danapcris (Aavd- 
Trpjf), whence the modern name is formed. The appellation Danapris first oc- 
curs in an anonymous periplus of the Euxine. (Geogr. Gr. Min., iii., p. 298, ed. 
Gail.) The root of the name (Dan-) is found, also, in that of the Tawais, Dan- 
ubius, Rhodawus, Eridamis, &c., and is supposed to mean " water," or " river." 

3. The Carambacis is mentioned by Pliny (H. N., vi., 13). Hardouin makes it 


correspond to the Dwina, while others seek to identify it with the Niemen. 
(Plin., ed. Panck., v., p. 220.) The former appears to be the true opinion. 


I. THE Ural Mountains, probably the ancient Monies Rhi- 
pcei, or Hyperborei, are common to Europe and Asia. They 
can not be said to constitute a regular chain, but rise gradu- 
ally and insensibly from the centre of Russia, in a direction 

II. Far in the west, the Scandinavian Alps (Mount Kjoleri), 
probably the Sevo Mons of antiquity, present a more marked 
chain, but wholly unconnected with the rest of the European 
mountains. They extend from Cape Lindesnces in Norway, to 
Cape North in the island of Mageroc. 

III. The Grampian or Caledonian Mountains, in Britannia, 
the Mons Grampius of the ancients, constitute an insulated 
group of several parallel chains of no great comparative height. 
Of these the Welsh Mountains, and those in the northwest of 
England, appear to be inferior branches. 

IV. The north and east of Europe may therefore be consid- 
ered as one uniform plain, over which, in the west, the Cale- 
donian and Scandinavian Mountains rise insulated. Very dif- 
ferent, however, is the character of central and southern Eu- 
rope. From the Columns of Hercules to the Bosporus, from 
./Etna to Blocksberg, all the mountains constitute in reality 
but one system, which custom has divided into four masses. 

V. The most celebrated of these are the Alps, called by the 
Romans Alpes, of which one of the principal chains, Alpes Pen- 
nince, contains Mont Blanc, the highest point in Europe. 

VI. South of these are the Apennines, called by the Romans 
Apennini, a branch of the Alps, extending through Italy. 

VII. An eastern branch of the Alps passes between the af- 
fluents of the Danube and the Adriatic, and thus unites the 
Alpine chain to that of Mount Hcemus, the modern Balkan. 

VIII. The northern branch of the Alps comprises the Jura 
range, or Mons Jura, and that of the Vosges, or Mount Voge- 
sus. The latter is connected with the mountains of Central 
Germany, and consequently with the Carpathian range, the 
ancient Monies Carpdti or Carpatici. 

IX. The Cevennes, the ancient Mons Cebenna, or Monies 


Cebennici, although connected with the Pyrenees by the Black 
Mountain, and separated from the Alps by the narrow valley 
of the Rhone, are regarded as forming part of the system of 
the Alps. 

X. The peninsula of the Pyrenees, or Monies Pyrencei, may 
be regarded as a central plateau of considerable elevation, on 
which rise various distinctly-marked chains of mountains. The 
Pyrenees in the north, and the Alpujarras, or Sierra Nevada 
in the south, the Mons Ilipula of the Romans, are the grand 

XI. At the other extremity of Europe, Hsemus and its 
branches fill a peninsula, not less remarkable than those of 
Italy and Spain. Witoscha Berg', or^the ancient Scomius, 
north of Macedonia, may be regarded as a centre, whence pro- 
ceed four chains : that of the Alb ano- Dalmatian Mountains, 
the ancient Scardus, Berliscus, Adrius, Bebii Monies, and 
Albanus, which connect themselves with the Alps ; that of 
Hccmus, properly so called, the modern Balkan, which extends 
due east to the Euxine ; that of Rhodope, now Despoto Dag, 
running down through Thrace, along the River Nestus, not far 
from the western boundary ; and, finally, the fourth, which, 
under the poetical names of Olympus, Pindus, (Eta, Parnas- 
sus, Helicon, and Lycceus, crosses the whole of Greece. 

XII. The Carpathian or Hercynian system is separated from 
the Alps and Haerrras by the basin of the Danube. In two 
places, namely, in Austria, and between Servia and Walla- 
chia, the branches of these systems approach so closely that 
the river is obliged to work its way through real denies. 

XIII. The principal parts of the Carpathian system are the 
Transylvanian Mountains, or Alpes Bastarmcce ; the Carpa- 
thian Mountains, or Monies Carpatici, between Hungary and 
Poland ; the Riesengebirge (Giant-mountains), or Vandalici 
Monies, between Silesia and Bohemia, and the Erzgebirge, 
or Metallifcri Monies, between Bohemia and Saxony; and, 
finally, the different small chains of central Germany, com- 
prised anciently in the Hercynian forest, or Silva Hercynia. 

Having given this slight sketch of the physical geography of 
Europe, we shall now proceed to examine how far the knowl- 
edge of the ancients extended respecting each of its parts, com- 
mencing from the west with Hispania, or Spain. 



I. UNDER the name of Hispania the Romans comprehended 
the whole of that peninsula which is now divided into the sep- 
arate kingdoms of Spain and Portugal. 

II. It was bounded on the north by the Montes Pyreneei, or 
Pyrenees, which separated it from Gallia, or France, and also 
by the Oceanus Cantabricus, or Bay of Biscay ; on the west 
by the Oceanus Atlanticus, or Atlantic Ocean ; on the east by 
the Mare Internum, or Mediterranean Sea ; and on the south 
by the Oceanus Atlanticus and Mare Internum, which unite 
in the Fretum Gaditanum or Herculeum, now the Strait of 

2. NAMES. 

I. THE name Hispania is probably of Phoanician origin, and 
appears to have been borrowed, with a slight alteration, by the 
Romans from the Carthaginians, through whom they first be- 
came acquainted with the land. 

- II. The Greeks gave the country the name of Iberia ('I6?/pt<z), 
but attached to this appellation different ideas at different times. 

III. The earlier Greeks, down to the time of the Achsean 
league, when they began to be better acquainted with Roman 
affairs, understood by Iberia the whole Mediterranean coast 
from the Fretum Herculeum to the mouth of the Rhodanus or 
Rhone ; while they gave the name of Tartessus (TaprTjcaog) to 
a district on the Atlantic coast, near the Fretum Herculeum 
and Gades, or Cadiz. 

IV. The interior of the country, on the other hand, for which 
the natives themselves had no common appellation, the earlier 
Greeks designated as part of the great region of Celtica (fj Ke/l- 
rt7/), a name which they gave to the whole of western and 
northwestern Europe. 


V. The lapse of time gradually brought about a change in 
these geographical ideas, and the later Greeks understood by 
Iberia the same country which the Romans called Hispania. 

VI. The writers of the second and third centuries of our era 
were the first who regularly introduced the Latin name into the 
Greek language, namely, 'lorravia, although both this and the 
form I>TTdvia are occasionally found in somewhat earlier writers. 

VII. Spain was also called by the Romans, especially the 
poets, Hesperia, or the Western land, from its lying west of 
Italy ; but, as Italy itself was denominated Hesperia ('Eorrspia) 
by the Greek poets, a distinction was sometimes made, and 
Spain was called Hesperia ultima. 

OBS. 1. The name Hispania is said to come from the Phoenician saphan, or, 
as some write the word, span, " a rabbit," as meaning " the land of rabbits," 
and the Phoenicians are reported to have given it this name from the great 
number of these animals which they found there, as well as from the injury 
which they did to the crops, &c., by their burrowing. (Bochart, Gcogr. Sacr., 
iii., 7, col. 168.) Others derive the word from the Phoenician span, in the sense 
of "hidden," and make it indicate "a hidden," that is, "a remote," or "far- 
distant land." (Malte Brun, Precis de la Geogr., t. iv., p. 318.) Others, how- 
ever, regard the Spanish form Espanna as the original one, and derive it from 
Ezpanna, the Basque term for " a border" or " edge," that is, the outermost 
part of any thing, and hence, according to them, the country in question was so 
called from its position at the southwestern extremity of Europe. (Compare 
W. Von Humboldt, Prufung, &c., p. 60.) 

2. Pliny (H. N., hi., 4) deduces the name Iberia from that of the River Iberus, 
the modern Ebro. Humboldt, with good reason, regards this as very improba- 
ble, and thinks that the true etymology may be traced in the Basque term Ibar- 
ra, "a dale" or " valley." (Prufung, &c., I. c.) Others refer the term to the 
Phoenician Iber, or Eber, " beyond," or " over," and make Iberia mean " the 
country beyond the sea." (Sickler, Handbuch d. alt. Geogr., i., p. 4.) This last 
appears to be the most plausible derivation. 

3. Compare, as regards Tartessus, Scymn., Ch., v. 164, v. 198 ; Bdhr, ad 
Herod., i., 163, and page 43 of this volume. With respect to the general mean- 
ing of Celtica, consult Mannert, Geogr., i., p. 234. 

4. Among the writers prior to, or in the early part of the second century of 
our era, in whom the forms 'lonavia and Vnavia occasionally appear, may be 
mentioned Strabo, iii., p. 252, Casaub. ; Plutarch, de Flumin., p. 32 ; and also 
St. Paul, Ep. ad Rom., xv., 24, 28. 

5. As regards the term Hesperia, compare Mannert, Geogr., i., p. 234 ; Georgii, 
Alte Geogr. Abth., ii., p. 7. Horace has Hesperia ultima, Od., i., 36, 4. 


I. THE earliest inhabitants of the land with whom history 
makes us acquainted were the Cynesii or Cynetes, the Cemps^ 
and Safes, the Tartessit, and the Iberi. 


II. These five early communities appear, as far as we can 
gather from the imperfect and scattered accounts of the Greek 
writers, to have been settled in this country before the period 
of the first Persian war, or about 600 B.C. It is more than 
probable, however, that the primitive population of Hispania all 
belonged to one great race, namely, the Iberian. 

III. The Cynesii (Kvv^atoi), called, also, Cynetes (Kth^re^), 
are said to have dwelt on both banks of the River Anas, or 
Guadiana, near its mouth. Their western limit coincides 
with the modern Faro in Algarve, and their eastern one with 
the bay and islands formed by the small rivers Luxia and Uri- 
um, the modern Odiel and Tinto. 

IV. To the west of the Cynesii, in the part subsequently 
called Cuneus, dwelt the Cempsi and SsBfes. 

V. On the lower coast, in a northwest direction from the 
Fretum Herculeum, and in the vicinity of Gades, now Cadiz, 
and the mouth of the Baetis, or Guadalquivir, were the Tar- 
tessii (TapTrjaoLoi), who, at the period when the Phocseans set- 
tled in Spain, were ruled over by a king named Arganthonius. 

VI. The Iberi occupied the Mediterranean coast of the coun- 
try in its whole extent, and also a large portion of the interior. 
They even extended into Gaul, occupying the coast as far as 
the mouth of the Rhodanus, or Rhone. 

VII. We come next in order to the immigrating nations and 
the foreign settlers who subsequently established themselves 
in the land. These were, 1. The Celtce ; 2. The Phoenicians ; 
3, The Phocceans; 4. The Rhodians ; 5. The Massaliots ; 6. 
The Zacynthians ; 7. The Carthaginians ; 8. The Romans. 

VIII. The Celtse appear to have crossed the Pyrenees, and 
passed into Spain, at a period long antecedent to positive his- 
tory. After penetrating into the interior of the country, and 
waging long and bloody wars with the powerful race of the 
Iberi, they finally united with a portion of them, and formed 
one people, who, under the name of Celtiberi, distinguished 
themselves at a later period in their resistance to the Cartha- 
ginian, and subsequently to the Roman sway. 

IX. Some of the Celtse, however, separating from the main 
body, settled on both banks of the Anas, toward its mouth ; 
while another portion of them wandered as far as the north- 
western extremity of the land, where later geographical writers 


found them under the name of Artabri. The portion, however, 
which had settled on the Anas, retained their original appella- 
tion of Celta? or Celtici. 

X. The Phoenicians also appear to have become acquainted 
with Spain long prior to positive history, but whether before or 
after the great Celtic immigration is altogether uncertain. It 
was doubtless, however, long before the foundation of either 
Rome or Carthage. For some time their settlements, of which 
Ghadir, called by the Romans Gades, now Cadiz, was the 
principal, were limited to the coasts of Bsetica, whence they 
supplied the natives with the products of Asia, in exchange for 
the gold, silver, iron, and other valuable products of the Pen- 
insula. But as they became better acquainted with the coun- 
try, they penetrated into the interior, where they founded Kar- 
tabah, called by the Romans Corduba, and now Cordova, and 
explored the mountainous districts of Navarre in search of iron. 

XI. The Phosnicians, however, were not the only maritime 
nation which had settlements on the coast of Spain. The Pho- 
cseans founded the town of Dianium, which is now Denia, and 
probably, also, that of Chersonesus, now Peniscola, on the east- 
ern coast. 

XII. The Rhodians visited the shores of what is now Cata- 
lonia, and founded a town which they called Rhodes or Rhoda, 
now Rosas. 

XIII. The Massaliots, or Massilians, founded the town of 
Emporion, now Ampurias, and the Zacynthians Saguntum. 

XIV. The Carthaginians also directed their views toward 
Spain. Having insidiously possessed themselves of Ghadir, or 
Cadiz, which they took from the Phoanicians, they proceeded 
into the interior with a view to the subjugation of the country, 
an attempt, however, in which they completely failed. 

XV. The Romans came after the Carthaginians, and suc- 
ceeded in subjugating the whole of the country and making it 
a portion of their empire. 

XVI. From what has here been said, a natural division pre- 
sents itself of all the Spanish- tribes, though many in number, 
namely, into unmixed native tribes, and tribes mixed with those 
that had ivandered into or settled in the land. 

XVII. The first of these divisions occupied the whole north- 
ern and western coasts (excepting the portions possessed by the 


Artabri, in the northwest, and the Celtae, on the Anas), the 
Pyrenees, and the greater part of the country lying east of the 
Iberus, or Ebro. 

XVIII. The tribes coming under this division are the Lusi- 
tani, Carpetani, Callaici, and Vaccsei, on the western side ; the 
Astures, Cantabri, and Vascones, on the northern side ; the in- 
habitants of the Pyrenees, through which mountain regions for- 
eign tribes had, it is true, passed, but had not settled therein, 
together with other Iberian communities as far as the River 
Iberus ; and, on the south side, some of the inhabitants of the 
range of Mount Ortospeda, between the Celtiberi and the tribes 
along the coast ; for example, the Oretani, Olcades, Bastitani, &c. 

XIX. The second of these divisions, or the mixed tribes, con- 
sisted of the Celtiberi, and the communities along the southern 

XX. The Celtiberi, in an extended sense, comprehended all 
the midland tribes. On the first entrance of the Celtse into 
Spain, they came into contact with the Iberi, on the River Ibe- 
rus. After the union of the two races, this combined people 
possessed the mountainous district from the western bank of 
the Iberus to the sources of the Durius, now Douro, and the 

XXI. The limits which have just been mentioned mark the 
possessions of the Celtiberi in the stricter sense. The race, 
however, grew gradually more numerous and powerful, until, 
at length, they proved an overmatch for their neighbors, and 
settled themselves in part among the possessions of the latter. 
Hence some writers reckoned the Vaccsei, Carpetani, Oretani, 
&c., among the Celtiberian communities, though this, perhaps, 
is going too far. 

XXII. The tribes along the coast were, on the side immedi- 
ately beyond the Straits of Hercules, a mixture of the earliest 
inhabitants with Phoenician settlers, and, on the Mediterra- 
nean side of the straits, with Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthagin- 
ians, and Romans. This intermingling with strangers caus- 
ed all national peculiarities gradually to disappear. The traf- 
fic, too, which they carried on, disposed them the more readily 
to the receiving of foreign customs and habits ; and hence the 
tribes in the interior held them in contempt, and made frequent 
inroads into their territories, from which inroads the communi- 



ties on the coast found it difficult to defend themselves, even 
with the aid of the foreigners who had settled among them. 

OBS. 1. The Iberian race was undoubtedly Caucasian. Its connection with 
the Finnish nations of Northern Europe has already been referred to. Many of 
the Spanish writers trace the descent of the Iberians from Tubal, son of Noah ! 
(Minna-no, Diction., t. iv., p. 2.) 

2. Herodotus uses both appellations, KVVTJCIOI (ii., 33) and Kvvrjrec (iv., 49). 
We obtain an account of their territory from Avienus. (Ora Marit., 200, scqq.) 
They are probably the same with the Conii or Cunii of the Roman writers, and 
their name is connected with the district called Cuneus (the modern Algarve), 
a name Avhich the Romans erroneously sought to explain in their own language 
by making it refer to the wedge-like form of the country. (Compare Schhcht- 
horst, ubcr den Wohnsitz der Kynesier : Getting., 1793.) 

3. Herodotus gives the account of the Phocaean settlement in Spain, and of 
King Arganthonius (i., 163). According to a fragment of Hecataeus of Mile- 
tus, the Tartessii dwelt immediately to the we^t of the straits. (Compare 
Herod., iv., 152, 192; Crcuzer, ad Hec. Mil., p. 51 ; Bahr, ad, Herod., i., 163; 
Heeren, Ideen, i., 2, p. 46, seqq.) 

4. That the Celtae were invaders of Spain, and long posterior to the Iberi, 
and that the latter were the aborigines, was the general persuasion of the an- 
cient writers. (Strab., iii., p. 162, Cas. , Appian, Bell. Hzsp., 2 ; Diod. Sic., v., 
33 ; Lucan., iv., 9 ; Sil. Ital., iii., 140.) Recently, however, an opinion has been 
started in direct opposition to this, which makes the Celtae to have come first 
into Spain, and the Iberians some time after, and the Celtse to have given way 
to these through a great part of the Peninsula. (Prichard, vol. iii., p. 46.) This 
opinion, however, though advocated by Niebuhr and Humboldt, especially the 
latter, is decidedly erroneous. An insurmountable difficulty is in the way. 
Had the Celtse preceded the Iberians, valiant bands of hardy Celtic mountain- 
eers could never have been expelled from the fastnesses of the Pyrenees by 
the less warlike Iberians. Yet this whole tract of country was occupied solely 
by Iberian tribes. (Diefenbach, Vcrsuch ciner genealog. Gcsch. der Kelten: Stutt- 
gart, 1840.) 

5. On the traffic of the Phoenicians with Spain, consult Heeren, Idecn, i., 2, p. 
44, scqq. (vol. ii., p. 63, scqq., Eng. transl.). The prodigious quantity of the 
precious metals which the Phoenicians found here on their first arrival, so ex- 
cited their astonishment, that the traditions preserved respecting them seem 
very remarkably to suit the pictures given by the Spanish discoverers of Peru. 

6. Strabo has rj 'Porfof (iii., p. 160, Cas.)\ Stephanus Byzantinus, 'Po^rj. 
(Compare Liv., xxxiv., 8 ; Mela, ii., 6 ; Scymn. Ch., 205 ; Meurs. Rhod., i., 28 ; 
Marco. Hisp., ii., c. 18.) 



I. THE Iberi, or aborigines, are disturbed in their possessions 
by the Celtae, who invade the Peninsula from Gaul. From the 
union of a part of these Celtse with a portion of the Iberian 
race arises the mixed nation of the Celtiberi. 

II. The rich corn-lands, the mines, and sea-ports of the Pen- 
insula attract the attention of the early Phoenician navigators, 


who form settlements in various parts, especially along the 

III. Settlements formed on the eastern shores by the Rhod- 
ians, Phocseans, and others of the Greeks. 

IV. The Carthaginians also direct their views toward Spain, 
possess themselves of Gades, or Cadiz, which they take from 
the Phoenicians, and proceed into the interior with a view to 
the subjugation of the country, but completely fail; for, al- 
though the Carthaginian generals, Hamilcar, his brother Has- 
drubal, and his far more celebrated nephew Hannibal, com- 
pletely reduced the southern part of the Peninsula, they were 
unable to subdue the warlike tribes of the interior. 

V. This attempt on the part of the Carthaginians leads to 
the second Punic war, and Spain is freed, before its close, from 
the Carthaginian yoke by the elder Africanus. The Span- 
iards, however, only change masters. Spain is made a Roman 
province, and divided into Citerior and Ulterior, or Hither and 
Farther Spain. 

VI. Until the time of Augustus, the Cantabri, the Callaici, 
and the Astures, who inhabited the northwestern parts of the 
Peninsula, are not even nominally subjected to the republic ; 
and the other portions of Spain, Celtiberia in the northeast, 
Bsetica in the south, and Lusitania in the west, become the 
scene of constant warfare and rebellion. 

VII. The most remarkable of the native insurrections during 
the period just referred to, is that organized in Lusitania by 
Viriathus, who, during more than eleven years, defeats the 
ablest generals of the republic, and is only put down by the 
treachery of Csepio, B.C. 140. 

VIII. Spain, soon after this, becomes the theatre of the civil 
war between Marius and Sulla, Sertorius, a leader of the de- 
feated party, having fled hither, and carrying on the war for 
some time with great ability and success. 

IX. Spain having espoused the cause of Pompey, Julius Cae- 
sar repairs hither in person, and by his military skill triumphs 
over his enemies. Cneius, the son of Pompey, is defeated at 
Munda, and peace is restored to the country. 

X. It is only under Augustus that Spain is completely sub- 
dued. Augustus himself visits Spain, and divides the country 
into three great provinces, Baetica, Lusitania, and Tarraconen- 


sis, a division which subsists until the reign of Constantino the 
Great. During this period, Spain is considered one of the most 
valuable and flourishing provinces of the empire. 

XI. About the beginning of the fifth century, the Suevi, un- 
der their king Hermeric ; the Alans, under Atace, and the 
Vandals, or Silingi, under Gunderic, after overrunning the 
provinces of Gaul, cross the Pyrenees, and settle in the Penin- 
sula. They are speedily followed by a host of Visigoths (A.D. 
411), led by their king Athaulf, who establishes himself in Cat- 
alonia, though nominally dependent upon his brother-in-law 
Honorius, the Roman emperor. 

XII. It is not, however, until the time of Euric (A.D. 466- 
83), that the Goths become complete rrfasters of the Peninsula ; 
and the Gothic dynasty continues until the time of Roderic, 
in whose reign (A.D. 711) the Arabs of Africa, commanded 
by Tarik Ibn Zeyad^ cross the straits, and, after defeating the 
whole force of the Gothic monarchy on the banks of the Gua- 
dalete, take the capital Toledo, the ancient Toletum. 

OBS. For an able sketch of the remaining history of Spain, consult Penny Cy- 
clopedia, vol. xxii., p. 293, segg., from which work the above sketch is taken. 
And, as regards the movements of the barbarous nations that invaded, in suc- 
cession, this quarter of the Roman empire, consult D'Anville, tals formes en 
Europe, &c., p. 144, seqq. 


I. THE Romans, after having overthrown the Carthaginian 
power in Spain, and conquered a considerable portion of the 
country, divided their possessions into two provinces, distin- 
guished by the names of Hispania Citerior and Ulterior, or 
Hither and Farther Spain. The former of these embraced a 
great part of the Mediterranean coast, together with as much 
of the country lying back of it, in the interior, as the Roman 
arms had thus far reduced ; the latter comprehended very near- 
ly what was afterward called Bsetica. 

II. The limits of both these provinces became gradually ex- 
tended as the Roman arms advanced, but particularly Hispania 
Citerior, since most of the Roman conquests were made from 
this quarter toward the north and west. The Roman com- 
manders of the other province were principally employed in 
operations against the neighboring Lusitani, and hence the 


country of the latter, after their subjugation, became part of 
Hispania Ulterior. 

III. In process of time, Hispania Citerior changed its name 
to Tarraconensis, from Tarraco, now Tarragona, the residence 
of the Roman praetor, and, consequently, the capital of the prov- 
ince. Its limits, also, became definitely established, and were 
as follows : it extended from the River Magrada, at the foot of 
the Pyrenees, on the upper coast, to the mouth of the River 
Durius, now Douro, on the Atlantic shore, comprehending all 
the north of Spain, together with the south as far as a line 
drawn from Baria, now Vera, below Carthago Nova, now Car- 
thagena, and continued upward in an oblique direction to the 
vicinity of Complutica, now Compludo, above Salmantica, now 
Salamanca, until it struck the banks of the Durius. 

IV. This was the arrangement up to the time of Augustus. 
That emperor, or rather Agrippa, made an alteration in it. 
The province of Tarraconensis, indeed, although embracing 
more than two thirds of the whole of Hispania, remained the 
same as before ; but Farther Spain, or Hispania Ulterior, was 
now subdivided into two provinces, Bcetica and Lusitania. 

V. Bcetica extended from Baria, where Tarraconensis ter- 
minated, to the mouth of the River Anas, or Guadiana, which 
river formed also its western and northern boundary. Its limit 
on the northeast and east was formed by a line drawn from a 
point on the River Anas, northeast of Sisapo, in an oblique di- 
rection to Baria. This province, therefore, comprised the mod- 
ern Andalusia, a part of the Portuguese province of Alentejo, 
that portion of Spanish Estremadura which lies south of the 
Anas, and a large part of La Mancha. 

VI. Lusitania was bounded on the south and west by the 
ocean, on the north by the River Durius, and on the east by 
Tarraconensis. It comprehended, therefore, modern Portugal, 
with the exception of the two provinces north of the Douro, 
namely, Entre Douro y Minho and Tras os Monies. It em- 
braced, also, the greater part of Spanish Estremadura, Sala- 
manca, and part of New Castile and Toledo. 

VII. Independently, however, of this distinction of provinces, 
Spain, under the Roman government, was divided into juris- 
dictions called Conventus, that is, judicial districts or circuits, 
in which the Roman proconsul or governor dispensed justice. 


Of these there were fourteen, each one formed of the union of 
several cities. This arrangement was an extremely politic one 
on the part of the Romans, since it tended directly to break up 
the nationality of the different tribes, and, of course, to confirm 
the Roman sway. 

VIII. In the writers of the fourth and following centuries we 
find a new arrangement of provinces prevailing. Spain was 
now divided into seven of these, the names of which are as fol- 
lows: \.Bcetica; 2. Lusitania ; 3. Callcecia ; 4. Tarraconen- 
sis ; 5. Carthaginiensis ; 6. Insula Balearicce ; 7. Maurita- 
nia Tingitana. 

IX. This last-mentioned arrangement is commonly ascribed 
to the Emperor Hadrian, but it owed i^ origin, more probably, 
to Constantine. Of these seven provinces, moreover, Bcetica 
and Lusitania remained the same in size as before. Calltecia, 
however, comprehended all the Conventus and communities 
north of the Durius and west of the Vascones. Carthaginien- 
sis, again, had Carthago Nova for its capital, and answered to 
Murcia, a part of New Castile, and southern Valencia. And, 
finally, Tingitana in Africa was added, in order to equalize 
the provinces as much as possible. 

OBS. 1. In giving Baria as the point of separation between Baetica and Tarra- 
conensis, we have followed D'Anville. Mannert and others, however, give 
Murgis, now Mujakar, as the limit. 

2. The Roman language, and, along with it, Roman customs, became estab- 
lished in a great part of the land soon after the Sertorian war ; and it was this 
that led, of course, to the establishment of Conventus. These received their fuD 
development under Augustus. 


THE principal mountain-chains of Hispania are eight in 
number, namely, 

1. Py renal Monies. 5. Mons Solorius. 

2. Mons Idubeda. 6. Mons Herminius. 

3. Mons Orosp&da. 7. Mons Medullus. 

4. Saltus Castulonensis. 8. Mons Vindius. 

I. Pyrencei Monies, now the Pyrenees, divided Hispania 
from Gallia, closing the isthmus between the Mediterranean 
and the Oceanus Cantabricus, or Bay of Biscay. After this 
they continued westward, along the northern coast of the Pen- 
insula, and sent out various branches, encumbering the north* 


west corner of Hispania, or the modern provinces of Gallicia 
and Asturias. 

The Romans were acquainted with only three main passes 
over these mountains. The northernmost of these ran by Fons 
Rapidus, the modern Fontarabia, a place situate at the mouth 
of the Menlascus, now the Bidassoa. The second, a more cen- 
tral one, led to Beneharnum, in Aquitania, now Orthes ; and 
the third, or southernmost one, to Ruscino, in Gallia Narbo- 
nensis, now Roussillon, on the Mediterranean. At the present 
day there are six government roads through these mountains, 
the northernmost of which, and the principal one, corresponds 
to the Roman one running by Fons Rapidus. 

Historically, these mountains are associated with the cele- 
brated march of Hannibal, and the warfare of Caesar against 
the Pompeian party in Spain. At a later period they formed 
the limit of the Frarikish conquests under Clovis, but were 
passed by the ambition and power of Charlemagne, who, how- 
ever, lost his rear guard among the defiles. The range of the 
Pyrenees is about 294 miles in length. 

II. Mons Idubeda ('I6ov6e<5a), now Sierra d' Oca, commenced 
among the Cantabri, near the sources of the River Iberus, in 
what is now Asturias and Burgos, and, running nearly paral- 
lel with the Pyrenees, terminated on the coast of the Mediter- 
ranean, near Saguntum, which place lay at its foot. 

III. Mons Orospeda, or, according to Ptolemy, Ortospeda 
(JOpoontda, 'OprdffTre&z), was properly a continuation of the 
range of Idubeda, springing from this last near the southern 
termination of its course, and not far from the sources of the 
River Bsetis, or Guadalquivir. Strabo calls a part of it the Sil- 
ver Mountain ("Opo^ 'Apyupoih'), and Pliny, Saltus Tugiensis. 
It first ran through the Spartarius Campus in the shape of a 
chain of small hills, until, increasing in height, one part of it 
terminated in the form of a segment of a circle on what is now 
the coast of Murcia and Granada. The other part, divided 
into two arms, ran off to Bsetica. One of these arms pursued 
nearly a western direction, and was called Mons Marianus, or 
Monies Ariani, now Sierra Morena, while the other ran more 
to the southwest, near the coast, and was called Mons Ilipula 
('lAtTrotua), now Alpujarra, or Sierra Nevada, and ended at 
Calpe, or Gibraltar. 


IV. Saltus Castulonensis, now Sierra de Cazorle, a branch 
of the Mons Marianus, taking its ancient name from the town 
of Castulo, on the River Bsetis. 

V. Mons Solorius, now Sierra de Solorio or Soloria, com- 
mencing at the sources of the River Baetis, and stretching in a 
southern direction. It formed in a part of its course the separ- 
ation between Tarraconensis and Baetica. 

VI. Mons Herminius (TO *0po$ 'Eppiviov), now Sierra de la 
Estrella, south of the River Munda, or Monde go, in Lusita- 
nia, and running in a southwestern direction until it touched 
the coast of the Atlantic near Olisippo, or Lisbon. This chain 
is sometimes erroneously placed between the Tagus and the 
Anas, and is thus confounded with the^mountains of Portale- 
gre and Evora. It is the highest mountain range in modern 
Portugal. In this chain the Lusitani had their places of ref- 
uge, and it was here that they afforded so much trouble to Cae- 
sar and his lieutenants. 

VII. Mons Medullas, in Hispania Tarraconensis, on the 
River Minius, or Minho. It was a continuation of the chain 
of Mons Vindius, and is now las Medulas. 

VIII. Mons Vindius, or Vinnius, a range of mountains trav- 
ersing the country of the Cantabri from east to west, now 
Montanos de Europa. 

OBS. 1. The name of the Pyrenees is written by Strabo usually in the singu- 
lar, HvprjvTj. This name Uvpr/vrj occurs also in Herodotus (ii., 33), but it is there 
given to a city near which the River "I<rrpof, or Danube, has its source. Oth- 
ers of the Greek writers employ the plural, rd flvpr/vala oprj. Among the Latin 
writers, Caesar has the plural, Pyrenai Monies ; Pliny, indifferently, the singular 
or plural ; and Lucan has given (Pharsal., i., 689) the Greek form Pyrene. 

2. The name of the Pyrenees was commonly supposed to be derived from 
the Greek term nvp, " fire," they having been said to have been at one time 
devastated by fire. The true derivation, however, is probably to be sought in 
the Cymric (Welsh) Brynn, or the Celtic Byrin, " a mountain," " a rocky mount- 
ain," from which same source may be deduced, also, the name of Mount Bren- 
ner and Mount Ferner in the Tyrol, that of Pyern in Upper Austria, and many 
others. (Adelung, Mtthradates, vol. ii., p. 67.) Diefenbach is in favor of an 
Iberian origin for the name (Cellica, i., p. 178), but it is far more probable that 
the appellation originated among the Celtae in Gaul, and was brought by them 
into Spain. 


THE ancient geographers have enumerated twenty-three 
promontories along the coast of Hispania ; the principal ones, 
however, may be reduced to thirteen, as follows : 


1. On the Mediterranean Coast. 

I. PyrencBum Promontorium, at the northeastern extremity 
of Hispania, now Cape Creux (Cabo de Creux). It was also 
called PyrencB Promontorium, and, by Strabo, TO rfjs Uvprjvris 

II. Dianmm Promontorium, in the territory of the Contes- 
tani, and below the mouth of the River Sucro, now Cape St. 
Martin. It was also called Artemisium and Ferraria. The 
inhabitants in the vicinity term it Artemus. 

III. Saturni Promontorium, near Carthago Nova, now Cape 

IV. Charidemi Promontorium, southwest of Carthago Nova, 
in the territory of the Bastetani, now Cape Gata. 

V. Calpe Mons sive Promontorium, now Gibraltar. 

2. On the Atlantic Coast. 

VI. Junonis Promontorium, below Gades, and near the town 
of Bsesippo, now Cape Trafalgar. 

VII. Cuneus Promontorium, in the southern part of the Cu- 
neus Ager, or Algarve, now Cape St. Maria ( Cabo de St. Ma- 
ria), forming the southernmost extremity of modern Portugal. 

VIII. Sacrum Promontorium, Strabo's 'lepbv dfcpurripLov, the 
southwestern extremity of the Cuneus Ager, now Cape St. Vin- 
cent. It was regarded by the ancients as the most westerly 
point of the earth ; and it was fabled to be the spot where the 
sun, at his setting, plunged his chariot into the sea. Hence its 
name of Sacred Promontory. The earliest name of this prom- 
ontory appears to have been Promontorium Cepresicum. 

IX. Barbarium Promontorium, below the mouth of the Ta- 
gus, now Cape Espichel. 

X. Promontorium Magnum sive Olisiponense, a little to the 
northwest of Olisipo, or Lisbon, now Cape Roca ( Cabo da Roca). 

XI. Promontorium Artdbrum, called also Nerium and Cel- 
ticum, in the northwestern angle of Spain, in the country of 
the Artabri, now Cape Finisterre (Cabo de Finisterra). 

3. On the coast of the Bay of Biscay. 

XII. Trileucum Promontorium, called also Coru, the north- 
ernmost point of Spain, in the territory of the Callai'ci, now 
Cape Ortegal. 

XIII. (Edso Promontorium, at the northern extremity of the 


Pyrenees, now Cape Higuera (Cabo de la Higuera). Near 
it lay the town of the same name. Pliny calls this promontory 
Olarso, and Marcianus larso. 

OBS. 1. According to the ancient writers, the Promontory of Calpe was one 
of the Pillars of Hercules, the other being Mount Abila, on the African shore. 
The name of the latter is written by Dionysius (Pcrieg., 336) 'AMdy, Alyba. 
Eustathius informs us (ad Dionys., p. 64) that in his time the promontory on 
the Spanish side was called Calpe by the barbarians, but Alyba by the Greeks ; 
and that Abila, on the African shore, was called by the natives Abenna. At 
what time, however, the present Gibraltar began to be called Calpe is difficult 
to determine, but it was certainly long antecedent to the time of Eustathius. 
Calpe itself is only Alyba shortened, and pronounced with a strong Oriental as- 
pirate. In the word Alyba we likewise detect the root of the term Alp, or rather 
the term itself, which may be traced directly to the Celtic radical Alb, indicat- 
ing a lofty mountain. 

2. A great variety of opinions were entertained^lmong the ancients as to the 
spot where the Pillars of Hercules were to be sought for, and also what these 
Pillars actually were. Some placed them at Gades, as, for example, Pindar, 
who calls them IR-Acf Tadeipidac. (Nem., iii., 36) ; some, again, were in doubt 
whether they were pillars, cities, mountains, or promontories ; while some made 
them actual statues of Hercules. Tacitus makes mention of Columns of Her- 
cules in the north of Europe, which tradition placed somewhere in the vicinity 
of the Baltic. (Germ., c. 3 and 34. Compare Serv. ad Virg., JEn., xi., 262.) 
So, again, the appellations for the Columns of Hercules were various. Many 
of the Greek writers knew them merely by the name of 2r?//la<. (Herod., iv., 
42, 181 ; Scylax, 1 ; Polyb., iii., 35 ; Diod. Sic., iv., 18.) The Latin writers, on 
the other hand, called them Herculis Columns, or Hcradca Columns, and Flo- 
rus, in his florid phraseology, Herculis Specula (iv., 2). Dionysius styled them 
Tepfiara 'Qxeavolo. (Compare Schwartz., Diss. de Col. Here. : Altorf, 1749, 4to. 
Popowitsch, Untersuch. vom Mecre, &c. Gosselin, Rech., t. iv., &c.) 


THE chief rivers of Hispania are eight in number, namely, 
the Iberus, Sucro, Bcetis, Anas, Tagus, Munda, Durius, and 

I. Iberus, called by the Greeks "I%> and "167/po^ now the 
Ebro, a large, navigable river, rose in the territory of the Can- 
tabri, not far from Juliobriga, in what is now the range of 
Mount Santillana, forming part of the ancient chain of JJube- 
da. Its whole course, including windings, is rather more than 
four hundred miles. According to the ancient accounts, it was 
navigable from Varia, now Varea, in the territory of the Ve- 
rones, not far from Lograno. Modern statements, however, 
make it now begin to be navigable for boats at Tudela, the 
ancient Tutola, below Calagurris. The Iberus ran directly 
through Hispania Tarraconensis, in a southeastern direction, 


after having first pursued a course east-southeast as far as the 
town of Doubriga, in the territory of the Berones ; and it falls 
into the Mediterranean, by the Tenebrium Promontorium, in 
a southeast direction from Dertosa, the modern Tortosa. The 
valley of this river, lying between the great Pyrenean chain 
and the highlands of modern Castile, forms a natural division 
between the northern provinces of Spain and the rest of the 
Peninsula, and the course of the Ebro, therefore, has been often 
assumed as a military line in the wars of this country. Pre- 
vious to the second Punic war, it formed the line of demarka- 
tion between the dominions of Carthage and those of Rome. 
It afterward formed the boundary between the dominions of 
Charlemagne and his successors and those of the Moors. The 
French, in their Spanish wars, have repeatedly purposed to 
make the Ebro the boundary between France and Spain. 

II. Sucro, called by the Greek writers Sov/cpcov, now the Xu- 
car, a river of Hispania Tarraconensis, rose in the chain of 
Mount Idubeda, and, separating the territories of the Contes- 
tani from those of the Edetani, flowed into the Mediterranean 
below Saguntum, giving name to the Sucronensis Sinus, or 
Gulf of Valencia. Its whole course considerably exceeds two 
hundred miles. At its mouth lay the town of Sucro, answer- 
ing, probably, to the modern Cullera. Strabo says it could be 
passed on foot. The river at the present day also loses a con- 
siderable portion of its waters by the irrigation of the adjacent 
country. Were it not for this, it would probably be navigable 
for the last thirty or forty miles from its mouth. 

III. BcetiSj called by the Greek writers Bam^, now the Guad- 
alquivir, the principal river of Hispania Bsetica, to which it 
also gave name, rose in the Saltus Tugiensis, near Tugia, now 
Toia, in the chain of Mons Argentarius, now Sierra Segura. 
It ran for the most part in a southwestern direction, and en- 
tered the Atlantic near Gades. The whole course of the Bae- 
tis is given by the ancients at about three thousand stadia; 
according to modern authorities, the length is short of three 
hundred miles. From the sea to Hispalis, the modern Seville, 
it was navigable for large vessels ; from Hispalis to Ilipa, the 
modern Penaflor, for vessels of smaller size ; and from Ilipa to 
Corduba, now Cordova, for boats. At the present day, it is 
first navigable for river boats below Cordova, immediately after 


it is joined by the River Genii,, or Xenil, the ancient Singilis, 
and sloops may ascend it to Seville. The banks of the river, 
or their immediate vicinity, are said to have been covered with 
numerous cities and towns. From a short distance below His- 
palis, the Bsetis, which has at present but one mouth, was con- 
tinued anciently by two streams to the sea, embracing an isl- 
and, which, in remote antiquity, was celebrated, according to 
some, under the name of Tartessus. Of these two arms, the 
lower one exists no more. The upper mouth of the river was 
difficult of navigation, on account of the numerous sand-banks, 
and also the sunken rocks ; and hence a pharos, or light-house, 
was erected here, on the northwestern extremity of the island 
of Tartessus, called Csepio's Tower, gcepionis Turris. The 
modern name of this stream is corrupted from the Arabic Wti- 
da-l-Kebir, " the Great River." 

IV. Anas, called by the Greeks "Ava<r, now the Guadiana 
(corrupted from the Arabic Wadi- Ana, " the River Ana"), rose 
in the territory of the Oretani, in the chain of Mount Orospeda, 
near the ancient Laminium, now Montiela in New Castile. 
The ancient accounts agree substantially with the modern. 
The Guadiana rises in a series of small lakes, and, after hav- 
ing run a few miles, disappears under ground, and continues 
to run under ground for more than twelve miles, when it issues 
from the earth as a strong stream between Villarta and Day- 
miel. The place where the river reappears is called Los ojos 
de la Guadiana (" the eyes of the Guadiana"), and consists 
of several small lakes. The Anas, after this, ran in a westerly 
direction for a considerable distance, until, near Pax Augusta, 
it bent around, and flowed in a southwestern, and then south- 
ern direction, into the Atlantic, to the east of the Cuneus Prom- 
ontorium. Its course exceeds four hundred and fifty miles. 
According to Strabo and others, it entered the sea with two 
mouths. It has little water, notwithstanding its length, and 
can only be ascended by flat-bottomed, small river-barges to 
Mertola in Portugal, the ancient Myrtilis, not much more 
than thirty miles from its mouth. 

V. Tagus, in Greek Tayo^, called now Tajo by the Span- 
iards, and Tejo by the Portuguese, while in our own language 
we have adopted the Roman name, rose among the Celtiberi, 
between the ranges of Orospeda and Idubeda, in what is now 


the Sierra Albarracin. It flowed in a direction between west 
and southwest through the territories of the Vettones, Carpe- 
tani, and Lusitani, into the Atlantic, a short distance above 
the Barbarium Promontorium, and had at its mouth Olisipo, 
the modern Lisbon or Lisboa. The whole course of the river 
exceeds five hundred and fifty miles. It is described by the 
ancient writers as abounding in oysters and fish, and as having 
auriferous sands. Grains of gold are said to be still obtained 
from it. 

VI. Munda, now Mondego, rose in the territory of the Vet- 
tones, in Lusitania, near the town of Lancia Oppidana, now 
Guarda, and flowing by Conimbriga, now Coimbra, fell into 
the Atlantic nearly midway between the Tagus and Durius. 
It was not navigable far. Pliny calls it Munda ; Mela, how- 
ever, Monda, and Ptolemy, also, Movda. Strabo styles it Mov- 
Xiddas . It must not be confounded with the city of Munda, 
among the Bastuli Pceni, near Malaca, where Caesar fought his 
desperate battle with the son of Pompey. 

VII. Durius, called by Strabo Aovpiog, by Ptolemy and Ap- 
pian Awptof, is now in Portuguese the Douro, in Spanish the 
Duero. This river, one of the principal streams of the Penin- 
sula, rose among the Pelendones, not far from Numantia, which 
was situate upon it, in the range now called Sierra de Urbion, 
part of the ancient range of Idubeda. It ran first for a short 
distance to the south, then turned in a western direction until 
it reached the confines of Lusitania, when it again bent off to 
the south for some distance, when, resuming its westerly course, 
it flowed on to the Atlantic coast, entering the sea near Calle, 
the modern Oporto. The whole course of the Douro, with its 
numerous windings, is nearly five hundred miles. According 
to the ancients, it was navigable for eight hundred stadia, about 
ninety English miles, from its mouth, and gold was said to be 
found in its bed. 

VIII. Minim, called in Greek Mivio$, and by Strabo Balvis 
(Bcenis), now the Minho, rose in the northern part of the ter- 
ritory of the Callai'ci, a little distance above Lucus Augusti, 
the modern Lugo, in that part of the range of Mons Vinnius 
which answers to the modern Montanas de Asturias. It ran 
in a southwestern direction, receiving in its course a large trib- 
utary coming in from the east, now called the Sil, but which 


the ancients appear to have regarded as the main stream, and 
to have confounded with the Minius itself; and it flowed into 
the Atlantic nearly midway between the mouth of the Durius 
and the Artabrum Promontorium. The course of this river, in 
a straight line, is about one hundred and fifteen miles, and, 
along the windings, one hundred and sixty miles. Though 
abundantly supplied with water, however, it is not navigable 
within modern Spain, on account of its great rapidity. 

OBS. 1. Various etymologies have been assigned for the ancient names of 
some of the principal rivers of Spain, a specimen of which may here be given : 
1. The Iberus, in all probability, derived its name from Iberia, one of the early 
appellations of Spain, and an explanation of which may be found under 2, 
Obs. 2. 2. The Batis is supposed to have been so called from the Phoenician 
bitsi, "marshy," the tsade. (ts) having been changed by the Greek and Roman 
writers into t. This etymology may not be incorrect, the river being swampy 
in some parts, especially toward its mouth, where the low and swampy islands 
of Menor and Mayor are formed. Hence, too, the Libystinus lacus, in this quar- 
ter, mentioned by Avienus (Or. Mar., 289), which seems to contain the same root. 
3. The Anas appears to derive its name from the Phoenician hanas, the explana- 
tion of which is sought to be obtained from the Arabic hanasa, "to withdraw 
or hide one's self," and is thought to allude to the subterranean nature of the 
stream in the early part of its course. 4. The Tagus is supposed to have been 
so called from the Phoenician dag, " a fish," or dagi, " fishy," " abounding in fish," 
a character which the ancients expressly assign to this stream. 5. The Minius, 
according to Isidorus, took its name from the minium, or vermilion, which was 
found abundantly in the country which it traversed. On all these etymologies, 
consult the remarks of Bochart, Phalcg., col. 626, seqq. ; col. 606. 

2. According to Stephanus Byzantinus, the name given to the Baetis by the 
natives themselves was Perkes (Ui-pKijc)- Out of this Bochart makes Perka, 
and derives this from the Phoenician bcrca, " stagnum," an etymology agreeing 
with the one given above. In Livy, the ignorant copyists have corrupted this 
into Certes or Certis. (Lit)., xxviii., 22.) 

3. In giving the source of the Sucro we have followed Mannert. The editors 
of the French Strabo maintain that Mannert is here in error, and that the chain 
in which the river rises is not that of Idubeda, but of Orospeda. Their opinion, 
however, is an untenable one. 


THE smaller rivers of Hispania may be enumerated as fol- 
lows : 

I. Of the tributaries of the Iberus, on the northern side, we 
may name the Gallicus, the Cinga, and the Sicoris. The 
Gallicus is now the Gallego, and flows into the Ebro near 
Saragassa. The Cinga is now the Cinca, and flowed into the 
Sicoris. The Sicoris is now the Segre. It flowed past Ilerda, 
now Lerida, and received the Cinga just before falling into the 


II. Of the tributaries of the Iberus, on the southern side, 
may be named the Sato, called also the Bilbilis, and running 
by the town of Bilbilis, in the territory of the Celtiberi. The 
waters of this river were famed for their property of tempering 
iron. The modern name is Xalon. 

III. Between the Iberus and Bsetis we may name, 1. The 
Uduba, now the Mijares ; 2. The Turia, now the Guadala- 
viar ; 3. The Scetdbis, falling into the Sucro near its mouth, 
now the Montesa ; 4. The Tader, now the Segura ; 5. The 
Mcenoba, a little to the east of Malaca, now the Velez ; 6. The 
Maldca, now the G-uadalmedina ; 7. The Salduba, below 
Munda, now the Verda ; 8. The Barbesula, near Carteia, now 
the Guadiaro ; 9. The Belcv, on the Atlantic side of the straits, 
at the mouth of which stood the town of Belon ; now the Bar- 

IV. Between the Baetis and the Anas we may name the 
Urium, now the Tinto, and the Luxia, now the Odiel. 

V. Between the Munda and Durius we find the Vacua, now 

VI. Among the tributaries of the Durius may be named the 
Astura, now the Esla, and Arcva, now the Urcero. 

VII. Between the Durius and the Minius we have the Avo, 
now Ave ; the Celddus, now Celado ; the Ncebis, now Neya ; 
and the Limia, now Lima. 

VIII. We find the following flowing into the Oceanus Can- 
tabricus : 1. The Navilubio, now Navia ; 2. The Melsus, now 
Abono ; 3. The Salia, now Sulla ; 4. The Saunium, now Sa- 
ja, near Portus Victorias ; 5. The Magrada, now Urum^a. 

IX. Between the Iberus and the Pyrenees we have the Tul- 
eis, now the Francoli, at Tarraco : the Rubricatus, now Llo- 
bregat ; and the Alba, now the Ter. 

I. THE Iberij before they yielded obedience to the Romans, 
occupied a kind of middle station between barbarism and civil- 
ization, with a preponderance, however, in favor of the former. 
They were equally formidable as cavalry and infantry ; for, 
when the horse had broken the enemy's ranks, the men dis- 
mounted and fought on foot. Their dress consisted of a sag-urn, 
or coarse woollen mantle ; they wore greaves made of hair, an 


iron helmet adorned with a red feather, a round buckler, and a 
broad two-edged sword, of so fine a temper as to pierce through 
the enemy's armor. They were moderate in eating and drink- 
ing, especially the latter ; fond of decorating their persons, of 
dancing and song, and of robbery and war. Their habitual 
drink was a sort of hydromel, or mead, brought into the coun- 
try by foreign traders. The land was equally distributed, and 
the harvests were divided among all the citizens ; the law pun- 
ished with death the person who appropriated more than his 
just share. They were hospitable nay, they considered it a 
special favor to entertain a stranger. They sacrificed human 
victims to their divinities, and the priests pretended to read fu- 
ture events in their palpitating entrails. At every full moon 
they celebrated the festival of a god without a name, and from 
this circumstance their religion has been considered a corrupt 
deism. They were acquainted with the art of writing. The 
Turduli, an Iberian tribe, are said to have had among them 
very ancient historical records, and also written poems and laws 
in many thousand verses. 

II. The Lusitant, a nation of freebooters, were distinguished 
by their activity and their patient endurance of fatigue. Their 
usual food was flour and sweet acorns ; beer was their common 
beverage. They were swift in the race. They had a martial 
dance, which the men danced while they advanced to battle. 

III. The Turdetani were more enlightened than any other 
people in Bsetica, and were skilled in different kinds of industry 
long before their neighbors. When the Phoenicians arrived on 
their coasts, silver was so common among them that their or- 
dinary utensils were made of it. What was afterward done 
by the Spaniards in America was then done by the Phoenicians 
in Spain : they exchanged iron and other articles of little value 
for silver ; nay, if ancient authors can be credited, they not only 
loaded their ships with the same metal, but, if their anchors at 
any time gave way, others of silver were used in their place. 

IV. The Callalci or Gallceci^ according to the ancients, had 
no religious notions. The Vacccei were the least barbarous of 
the Celtiberians. The fierce Cantabri had a custom for two 
to mount on the same horse when they went to battle. The 
Concdni, a Cantabrian tribe, showed their ferocity by mingling 
the blood of horses with their drink. Among the Celtiberi, an 


assembly, composed of old men, was held every year, a part of 
whose duty it was to examine what the women had made with 
their own hands within the twelvemonth, and to her, whose 
work the assembly thought the best, a reward was given. An 
ancient author mentions that corpulency was considered a re- 
proach by the same people ; for, in order to preserve their bod- 
ies light and active, the men were measured every year by a 
cincture of a certain breadth, and some sort of punishment was 
inflicted upon those who had become too large. 

V. Strabo enters into some details concerning the dress of 
the ancient Spaniards. The Lusitani covered themselves with 
black mantles, because their sheep were mostly of that color. 
The Celtiberian women wore iron collars, with rods of the same 
metal rising behind and bent in front ; to these rods was at- 
tached a veil, their usual ornament. Others wore a sort of 
broad turban, and some twisted their hair round a small ring 
about a foot above the head, and unto the ring was appended a 
black veil. Lastly, a shining forehead was considered a great 
beauty ; and on that account they pulled out their hair, and 
rubbed their brows with oil. 

OBS. 1. The authorities from which the above has been drawn are as follows : 
Strab., Hi., p. 139, 158, 163, 164 ; Diod. Sic., v., 33, seq. ; Justin., xliv., 2 ; Liv., 
xxiii., 26 ; xxiv., 42 ; xxviii., 12 ; Pint., Vit. Mar., 6 ; Vol. Max., iii., 3 ; Hirt., 
Bell. Hisp., 8 ; SU. Ital, i., 225 ; iii., 389 ; xvi., 471 ; Flor., ii., 18 ; Oros., v., 7 ; 
Sickler, Hand, der alt. Geogr., i., p. 14 ; Malte Brun, Precis de la Geogr. Univ., 
iv., p. 318, seqq. 

2. The passage relative to the Turduli is quoted by Strabo (iii., p. 139) from 
Polybius, as follows : 2o0wrarot 6' k^eru^ovTai rtiv '\6fjpuv OVTOI, teat -ypa/j,fj,aTiKy 
XptivTai, Kdl riis irahaL&s [ivfinrjs ex ovat - T <* ov-yypdppara, nal rcoL^fj-ara, nal vopovs 
^MU^rpovf e^aKi^i^.L(jv LTTUV, &c (j>aai /cat ol a/lAoi "Wripe^ xptivrai ypa^fiariK^, ov 
fu$ i(Jsa, ov6e yap yTiurrtj idia. In giving the meaning of this passage, we have 
adopted the emendation of Palmerius, namely, eirtiv for kruv. It is much to be 
regretted that all these curious monuments of early civilization were effaced by 
Roman conquests. 


THE products of ancient Hispania may be summed up briefly 
as follows : 

L Good horses, similar to those of the Parthians ; mules ; 
excellent wool. 

II. Fish of different kinds, such as mackerel and tunny, salt- 
ed and dried. 

ffl. O7, figs, wine, corn, honey, beer, flax, linen, Spanish 



brown (spartum), used in the manufacture of mattresses, shoes, 
shepherds' cloaks, cordage, &c. ; various plants used in dyeing; 

IV. Copper, silver, gold, quicksilver, cinnabar, tin, lead, 
steel, &c. 

OBS. The spartum, or Spanish broom, grew abundantly along the coast above 
Carthago Nova, and gave to this region the name of Spartarius Campus. Pliny 
says, that " in the part of Hispania Citerior about New Carthage, whole mount- 
ains were covered with spartum." The true Latin name was genista, the term 
spartum being borrowed from the Greek (anapTov), and the use of the Greek 
name in Hispania Citerior having been owing, probably, to the Grecian settle- 
ments on that coast from Massilia and other quarters. On the whole subject 
of the spartum, consult the learned and able remarks of Yates, in his Textrinum 
Antiquorum, p. 318, scqq. 

12. MINES, &c. 

I. SPAIN was the Peru of antiquity. She was the richest 
country in the ancient world for silver, and she also abounded 
in gold, and in the less precious metals, especially tin. 

II. The mine- works of the Phoenicians for the precious met- 
als seem to have been confined to the region afterward known 
by the name of Bsetica. According to Strabo, the oldest of 
these were situate on the Silver Mountain ("Opof 'Apyvpovv), 
near which the Baetis took its rise, in the southeastern angle 
of the country. Gold and silver were both found in Bsetica ; 
the former, it is said, exclusively, unless we except the white 
gold, as it was termed, that was found among the Callai'ci, and 
that appears to have been a mixture of gold and silver, but 
with a decided preponderance of the latter. The Phoenicians, 
however, opened in other parts of the Peninsula valuable mines 
of lead and iron, and they likewise had tin mines on the north- 
ern coast of Spain beyond Lusitania. 

III. The Carthaginians, who succeeded the Phoenicians, dis- 
played much more energy in searching for the precious as well 
as the more ordinary metals. The silver mines, about twenty 
stadia from Carthago Nova, were particularly famous. In Ro- 
man times, these works comprised a circuit of four hundred 
stadia, kept employed forty thousand laborers, and yielded daily 
twenty-five thousand drachmas' worth of metal, or about $4400. 

IV. Cinnabar was found at Sisapo, in the northeastern angle 
of Bsetica ; vermilion among the Callaici ; tin and lead among 
this same people, and also in the vicinity of Castulo, on the 


Baetis. Iron was found nearly every where, but of a peculiarly 
excellent quality on the Promontorium Dianium, at the north- 
eastern extremity of the Spartarius Campus, now Cape St. 



I. LUSITANIA must be considered under two aspects : 1. Its 
extent prior to the Roman division of Hispania into three prov- 
inces ; and, 2. Its dimensions under that division. 

II. Lusitania, strictly speaking, meant at first merely the 
territory of the Lusitani, and this territory extended only from 
the Durius to the Tagus, and from the coast of the Atlantic to 
what are now the eastern limits of the kingdom of Portugal. 
As, however, these Lusitani were for the most part seen, dur- 
ing their inroads into the more southern parts of the country, 
united with other tribes, which, though different in name, yet 
resembled them in language, manners, mode of warfare, &c., 
the name Lusitani became gradually extended, and applied to 
several of the communities dwelling south of the Tagus. This 
is the earlier aspect under which the name is to be regarded. 

III. When, however, the Romans divided the land into the 
three provinces of Tarraconensis, Bcetica, and Lusitania, the 
boundaries of Lusitania were as follows : On the north, the 
River Durius or Douro ; on the south, the Atlantic, from the 
mouth of the River Anas, or Guadiana, to the Sacrum Prom- 
ontorium, or Cape St. Vincent ; on the west, the Atlantic ; on 
the east, a line separating it from Tarraconensis, drawn from 
the Durius near Cornplutica, to the Anas above Sisapo ; and 
on the southeast, the Anas to its mouth, separating it from 

IV. Lusitania, therefore, according to this latter division, 
comprehended, as we have before remarked, a less extent than 
modern Portugal from north to south, since it did not embrace 
the two provinces of Entre Minho y Douro and Tras os Mon~ 
tes, which lie to the north of the Douro ; but it extended fur- 
ther than Portugal from west to east, since it took in also the 
modern Salamanca, a large part of Spanish Estremadura, and 
a portion of New Castile and Toledo. 



ACCORDING to Strabo, the eastern part was mountainous and 
rugged, and not very productive. From this quarter to the 
sea, however, the country became gradually more level and 
productive, its increased fertility being principally owing to the 
larger and smaller rivers along the coast. 


I. THE Lusitani) dwelling between the Tagus and Durius, 
and reaching eastward as far as modern Portugal now extends. 

II. The Turduli (Tovpdovhoi), called Turduli Veteres, to dis- 
tinguish them from the Turduli in Baetica, came originally 
from this latter province, and made an expedition into Lusita- 
nia along with some Celtic bands from the vicinity of the Anas ; 
but, having quarrelled among themselves, the Turduli settled 
on the southern side of the Durius, while the Celtae passed on- 
ward to the northwestern extremity of the Peninsula. These. 
Turduli soon became blended with the Lusitani, and hence 
Pliny and Mela are the only two writers who mention them 

III. The Vettones (OWTTUVSC;) occupied the eastern side of the 
province to its very frontiers, so that their territory corresponded 
to Salamanca and a great part of Estremadura. They appear 
to have been distinguished from the Lusitani only in name. 

IV. The Celtici lay below the Tagus, and extended from 
the Anas to the western coast, occupying what is now the prov- 
ince of Alentejo, and the southern part of Portuguese Estrema- 
dura. A part of them, on the eastern side of the Anas, belong- 
ed to the territory of Baetica. 

V. The Turdetani occupied the southern extremity of the 
land, extending into Lusitania from the country around the 
Bsetis, where their territory commenced. It is very probable 
that the portion of them which dwelt to the west of the Anas 
were the same with the people whom ancient historians call 
Cunii or Conii (Kovviot, Kovioi). The Romans called the 
strip of land from the Anas to the Sacrum Promontorium by 
the name of Cuneus, from its resemblance to a " wedge ;" but 
there is great reason to believe that the Roman appellation is 
a mere corruption, and that the true name points to settlements 
in this quarter on the part of the Cunii or Conii, and is, of 


course, earlier than Roman times. The modern name of the 
Cuneus Ager is Algarve, signifying "the West," from the 
Arabic al, " the," and garb, " west." 

OBS. Strabo, among others, alludes to the pretended Roman origin of the 
name Cuneus: 7% A.arivtj <j>uvy naTiovai Kovveov, c<j>rjva crrjfiaiveiv fiovhofievoi (iii., 
p. 137). The arguments against this derivation are many and forcible, and 
show conclusively that the name existed prior to Roman times. For example, 
when Publius Scipio came into Spain, he learned that the force of the Cartha- 
ginians was divided into three parts, and that one portion, under Mago, was sta- 
tioned beyond the Columns of Hercules, among the so-called Konii (kv rote Kov- 
/oif. Polyb., x., 7). Now, as the Romans had not yet come into these regions, 
they could not, of course, be at all acquainted with the name of this people, nor 
have given them a Latin appellation instead of their real one. Again, Appian 
relates that the Lusitani, on one occasion, took Conistorgis, the great city of 
the Cunii (de Reb. Hisp., c. 56), and Strabo also makes mention of Conistorgis 
as the most celebrated city of the Celtici (iii., p. 141). Appian, moreover, fre- 
quently makes mention of the Conii. From these and similar authorities, it 
may very reasonably be inferred, that the Romans merely corrupted an ancient 
name when they called the country in this quarter Cuneus, and that the Cunii 
are none other than the Cynesii or Cynetes of Herodotus, already mentioned. 
(Vid. p. 16.) 


THE Conventus, where all legal controversies were decided, 
were three in number : 1. Emeritensis, held at Augusta Eme- 
rita, now Merida ; 2. Pacensis, held at Pax Julia, now Beja ; 
and, 3. Scalabitanus, held at Scalabis, now Santarem. 


THESE may be arranged in two classes : 1. Cities between 
the Anas, and Tagus ; and, 2. Cities between the Tagus and 

1. Cities between the Anas and Tagus. 

Cities on the coast. 

1. Balsa, west of the mouth of the Anas, now Tavira. It 
appears from coins to have been a municipium. 2. Ossonoba, 
now Estoy, a little north of the modern Faro, where there are 
still numerous ruins. The promontory in this vicinity is the 
Cuneus Promontorium, now Cape St. Maria. 3. Portus Han- 
nibalis, near the modern Albor, where Punic remains still ex- 
ist. 4. Lacobriga, at the commencement of the Sacrum Prom- 
ontorium, or Cape St. Vincent. It is now Lagos. The ter- 
mination briga, in Celtic, means "a city." o. Merobriga> 
north of the Sacrum Promontorium, near the modern St. la- 


go de Cagem^ and answering probably to Sines. 6. Cetobriga, 
the Caetobrix of Ptolemy, north of Merobriga, and situate near 
the modern Setuval. 7. We then come to the Barbarium 
Promontorium, now Cape Espichel, and, above this, to the 
mouth of the Tagus, on a bend within which stood Equabona, 
now Coyna, and, on the opposite or northern bank of the stream, 
Olisipo, now Lisbon. This place is called by Mela Ulisippo, 
and was fabled to have been founded by Ulysses during his 
pretended wanderings in the Atlantic. The name is variously 
written in the MSS. This place was the only municipium of 
Roman citizens in the whole province, and, as such, had the 
appellation of Felicitas Julia. The neighboring territory was 
remarkable for the swiftness of the horses reared in it. The 
Promontorium Magnum, or Olisiponense, is now Cape Roca 
(Cabo da Roca). 

OBS. For some remarks on the endings of Celtic names of places, consult 
page 160, seq. 

Cities in the Interior. 


1. MyrtiliS) on the Anas, now Mertola. It was a Latin colo- 
ny, and had the right of coinage. The name given to the place 
on its coins is Julia Myrtilis. 2. Arandi, southwest of Myr- 
tilis, is now Ourique. The range called Mom Sacer, lying 
below this place and Myrtilis, gets its name from being con- 
nected with the Sacrum Promontorium, which forms its south- 
western extremity. 3. Pax Julia, northwest of Myrtilis, was 
a Latin colony, and the seat of a Conventus. Pliny calls it 
Colonia Pacensis. It answers, undoubtedly, to the modern 
Beja. Some make it correspond to Badajoz, but this last be- 
longed to the province of Baetica. 4. Rarapia, west of Pax Ju- 
lia, is now Ferreira. 5. Salacia, an old Latin colony, with the 
cognomen of Urbs Imperatoria, was situate on the River Cal- 
lipos, to the northwest of Rarapia. It was a municipium, and 
answers to the modern Alcager do Sal. 6. Conistorgis, a 
large city, according to Strabo, and of which mention is also 
made by Appian. It may have been destroyed by the Lusi- 
tani in one of their numerous inroads, and is probably the same 
with the Anistorg'is of Livy. The name Conistorgis evidently 
contains the same root with the national appellation of the Co- 
nil or Cunii. Its termination would seem to make it the name 
of a Celtic city. 




1. Ebora, now Evora, lay to the north of Pax Julia. It 
was a municipium, and is called in inscriptions Liber alit as 
Julia. Mela evidently errs when he places an Ebora on the 
Promontorium Magnum, by Olisipo. 2. Langobriga, on the 
southern bank of the Tagus, not far from its mouth, in the vi- 
cinity of the modern Benavente. Metellus laid siege to it with- 
out success in the war against Sertorius. The Itinerarium An- 
tonini makes mention of another Langobriga in the neighbor- 
hood of the Durius. 3. Medubrica, or Medobrig-a, now Mar- 
vao, in the neighborhood and to the west of the modern Porta- 
legre. It lay northeast of Ebora. Pliny calls the inhabitants 
Plumbarii, probably from their lead mines. Near it was one of 
the mountain strong-holds of the predatory Lusitani, and which 
was reduced by Q. Cassius Longinus, Csesar's lieutenant. 


1. Emerita Augusta, on the Anas, southeast of Medobriga, 
and now Merida in Estremadura. It was a Roman colony of 
veterans, settled by Augustus after the close of the Cantabrian 
war, and the seat of a Conventus, whence it was regarded as 
the capital of the province. The neighborhood of this place was 
famed for producing in abundance the coccus, or scarlet-berry, 
as it was thought to be, and also sweet olives. 2. Badia, to 
the west of Emerita, supposed to correspond to the modern 
Badajoz, but without any certainty. 3. Castra Cecilia, north 
of Emerita, now Caceres. 4. Castra Julia, or Trogilium, 
southeast of the former, now Truxillo. 5. Norba Ccesarea, to 
the northwest, on the Tagus, now Alcantara. It was a Roman 
colony, and was also called Norba CcEsariana, and Colonia 
Norbensis. 6. Moron, to the southwest, on the Tagus, made 
by the Romans a place of arms in their wars with the Lusitani. 
It answers, probably, to the modern Montalvao. 7. Oxthraccz, 
according to Appian, the largest city of the Lusitani. Its site 
is unknown. 8. Scalabis, below Moron, on the northern side 
of the Tagus. As a Roman colony, it bore the name Prcesid- 
ium Julium. It was the seat of the Conventus for all the coun- 
try north of the Tagus, and is now Santarem, a name corrupt- 
ed from St. Irene. 


2. Cities between the Tagus and Durius. 

Crossing the range of Mount Tagrus, we come to, 1. Conim- 
briga, now Coimbra, on the River Munda, now Mondego, and, 
to the north of this, 2. Lavara, as given on some maps, just be- 
low the mouth of the Vacua, now Vouga. Its existence, how- 
ever, is very doubtful, and it is only another name, probably, for, 
3. Talabrlga, a little to the north, on the Vacua. This was one 
of the largest and most turbulent cities of Lusitania. Brutus 
took it in his march against the Callaici. Polybius calls it Er- 
cobriga. It occupied the site of the modern Aveiro, according 
to Ukert. D'Anville, however, makes it answer to the modern 
Torocas. 4. Langobriga, further north, near the mouth of the 
Durius, in the vicinity of the modern Villa Feira. 5. Augus- 
tobriga, to the southeast of Langobriga, on the western frontier 
of the Vettones, and nearly midway between the Durius and 
Tagus, near the modern Puente de Arzobispo. 6. Lancia Op- 
pidana, a little to the southeast of Augustobriga, and near the 
sources of the Munda, answers, probably, to the modern Guarda. 
7. Lancia Transcudana, to the east of the former, was so called 
because lying on the other side of the River Cuda, now Coa, a 
tributary of the Durius, which ran between the two places. It is 
supposed to correspond to the modern Ciudad Rodrigo. 8. Igce- 
dita, called also Egitania, lay below Lancia Oppidana, and 
now answers to Idanha la Vieja. 9. Rusticiana, to the east 
of the former, now Corchuela. 10. Capara, north of Rustici- 
ana, now las Ventas de Caparra. 11. Ad Lippos, to the north- 
east, near the modern Calzada. 12. Salmantica, farther to 
the north, now Salamanca, on the River Tormes. It is the 
same, in all probability, with the Elmantica of Polybius, and 
the Hermantica of Livy. It was a large city, and from the 
circumstance of the Vettones being often confounded with the 
Lusitani, it was assigned by some of the ancient writers to the 
former people, by others to the latter. It was properly a city 
of the Vettones. Hannibal took it in his expedition against 
the VaccaBi. 


2. B^TICA. 

I. BY Bcetica originally was meant merely the strip of land 
on both sides of the River Baetis, between the mountain chains 
of Ilipula to the south, and Mons Marianus to the north. And 
even this strip of land was in still earlier times, according to a 
tradition mentioned by Strabo, known by the name of Tartessis. 

II. The country also received from the Turdetani, its most 
powerful tribe, the name of Turdetania ; but the part toward 
the northwest, between Mons Marianus and the Anas, had also 
the special appellation of Baeturia, while along the southern 
coast, also, the Bastuli were separately numbered. The Tur- 
duli, who are placed by Polybius to the north of the Turdetani, 
appear to have been merely a branch of the same race with 

III. Augustus brought in a new arrangement, and created 
the province of Baetica, the boundaries and extent of which 
were as follows: The northwestern and western boundary of 
the country was formed by the River Anas, the northeastern 
and eastern boundary by a line drawn from the Anas above 
Sisapo, and striking the coast near Baria, at the mouth of what 
is now the Almanzor. 

IV. Bcetica, therefore, according to this arrangement, com- 
prehended the modern Andalusia, a part of the Portuguese 
province of Alentejo, the southern part of Spanish Estremadu- 
ra, and a large portion of La Mancha. 

OBS. Stephanus Byzantinus makes Baetica and Turditania synonymous : Tovp- 
diravia, rj K.OL BCLITIKT} Kafalrai. He adds, that Artemidorus gave to this country 
the name of Turtytania (Tovprvravia), and called its inhabitants Turti (Tovprot) 
and Turtutani (Tovprovravoi). It has been supposed that the Tartcssus of the 
Greeks is to be traced to this name of TovprvTavia, the word having been some- 
what changed in form to adapt it to Grecian ears. This would serve to throw 
some light on the tradition mentioned by Strabo, and referred to under $ 1. 
(Compare the French Strabo, vol. i., p. 390, not.) 


ACCORDING to Strabo and Pliny, Baetica abounded in valuable 
products. In the mountains, and more particularly Mons Ma- 
rianus, were found gold, silver, copper, iron, cinnabar, marble, 
and lapis specularis. The range of Mount Ilipula yielded ex- 
cellent naval timber, honey, wax, tar, &o., and contained rich 
pastures, where were fed sheep remarkable for the richness of 


their fleeces. (Merinos ?) The coasts afforded very productive 
fisheries, especially of the tunny, and abundance of good salt. 
An active traffic was hence carried on in these varied products. 


1. THE Turdetani and Turduli, two branches of the same 
race, and hence commonly regarded as forming but one people. 
The Turduli, however, dwelt to the northeast of the Turdetani, 
while the latter occupied the western half of the province from 
the River Singilis, now the Genii, and a part of the chain of 
Mons Marianus to the River Anas. They had even, as we 
have already remarked, spread beyond this river. 

II. The Bastuli, a mixed race, consisting of Phrenician set- 
tlers blended with the old inhabitants ^f the land, occupied the 
whole coast homJunoms Promontorium, now Cape Trafalgar, 
to the easternmost limits of the province. Whatever Grecian 
colonies were settled in any part of this tract became soon for- 
gotten, and were all merged into the common name of Bastuli, 
or Bastuli Poem. The Bastuli, however, possessed nothing but 
the mere coast ; the nearest cities in the interior belonged to 
the Turdetani and Turduli. 

III. The Celtici. These were a horde that had separated 
from the great host of the Celtse that once crossed the Pyre- 
nees and occupied a large part of the Peninsula. A portion 
of them passed into Lusitania, and settled in the vicinity of the 
Anas, where it begins to bend round to the south, and gradual- 
ly spread themselves from this quarter to the shores of the 
Western Ocean. The part that remained in Bactica occupied 
a portion of the country immediately east of the Anas. 

IV. The Bastitani, to the northeast of the Bastuli Pceni. 
They were properly one people with the Bastuli, except that 
they were not intermingled with Phrenician settlers. They 
extended into Tarraconensis, and are even assigned by some, 
though incorrectly it would seem, entirely to that province. 

OBS. 1. We have followed D'Anville as regards the position of the Bastitani. 
If, however, the dividing line between Baetica and Tarraconensis be made to 
strike the coast at Murgis, the Bastitani will be entirely included within Tarra- 
conensis. This appears by no means correct. 

2. Appian (Hisp., c. 56) calls the Bastuli BhaaTotioivinee. Marcianus speaks 
of the BTiaarovpoi ol itatovfievoi Hoivoi, and Ptolemy of the Baarov/loj ol /caAou- 
fievoi Uotvoi. Schweighaeuser proposes BaarovXoQoiviKec (ad Appian, L c.), but 
consult Ukert, Geogr. der Gr. und R., vol. ii., p. 408, n. 



The Conventus were four in number, namely, 1. Corduben- 
sis, held at Corduba, now Cordova. 2. Astigiensis, held at 
Astigi, on the Singilis, now Ecija. 3. Hispalensis, at Hispa- 
lis, now Seville. 4. Gaditanus, at Gades, now Cadiz. 


I. ACCORDING to Strabo, Bsetica contained two hundred cities. 
Pliny, however, makes the number one hundred and seventy- 
five, and Ptolemy only ninety-two. 

II. The cities of Bsetica may be arranged in two classes : 
1. Cities on the coast, and, 2. Cities in the interior of the 

1. Cities on the Coast. 

Cities between the mouth of the Anas and the Straits of Hercules. 

1. Lcepa, now Lepe, by Ayamonte. 2. Onoba, between the 
rivers Luxia, now Odiel, and Urius, now Tinto. Strabo places 
it on an estuary, having in front of it the island of Hercules. 
It is now Huelva, where many Roman ruins still remain. The 
island is now called Saltes. We then come upon a range of 
sand-hills, called by Pliny Arence Monies, now Arenas Gordas. 
About the middle of this tract we find Olintigi, probably Mo- 
g'uer. Coins are often dug up here with the inscription Olont. 
We then reach the Baetis, or Guadalquivir, which, as already 
remarked, entered the sea by two mouths, embracing between 
them an island, extending far inward, and having along the sea 
a breadth of one hundred stadia, or over eleven English miles. 
The island now no longer exists, the lower mouth of the river 
having been dried up ; but where this mouth once was, the 
River Guadalete enters the sea. On the northwestern extrem- 
ity of the island stood a pharos, or light-house, called Ccepionis 
Turris, or " Caepio's Tower," the navigation here being render- 
ed difficult by sand-banks and sunken rocks. In this island 
many place the Tartessus of antiquity, supposed to have been 
the same with the Tarshish of Scripture, and the island itself 
has been called by some Tartessus, while others make it the 
poetic Erythea, connected with the legend of Geryon. We 
have already referred to the opinion of those who make Turde- 
tania to have been the ancient Tartessis. Mannert's view is 
not much unlike this, since he makes Tartessus, or the city it- 


self, to have been Hispalis, the modern Seville ; so that the 
country around, occupied by the Turdetani, would then be call- 
ed Tartessis, or the region of Tartessus. 

OBS. 1. The opinion, which makes the island at the mouth of the Bsetis to 
have been Tartessus, or, at least, to have contained the city of that name, i* 
alluded to by Strabo, as previously quoted (iii., p. 148). Others of the ancient 
geographers, as, for example, Eratosthenes (ap. Strab., I. c.), sought to identify 
Tartessus with the city of Carteia, within the straits, near Calpe, which place 
Appian calls Carpessus, and regards as the ancient Tartessus. (Bell. Hisp., c. 
2, 63.) This same opinion is advocated by Dionysius Perieg., v. 336, seqq. 
According to this view, the country around Calpe and Carteia will be Tartes- 
gis, and here, also, we are to place the poetic Erythea. The whole matter, how- 
ever, must be left in uncertainty. 

2. It may not be out of place here to say a few words relative to the Tarshish 
of Scripture. This place is particularly mentioned in connection with the com- 
merce of the Hebrews and Phoenicians. In Gfkcsis, x., 4, the name occurs 
among the sons of Javan, who are supposed to have peopled the southern parts 
of Europe. (Compare Ps. Ixxii., 10 ; Isaiah, Ixvi., 19.) In other passages it is 
mentioned as sending to Tyre silver, iron, tin, and lead (Ezekiel, xxvii., 12; 
Jerem., x., 9) ; and from Isaiah, xxiii., 10, some have inferred that it was sub- 
ject to the Phoenicians. The prophet Jonah, attempting to avoid his mission 
to Nineveh, fled from Joppa in a ship bound to Tarshish. (Jonah, i., 3 ; iv., 2.) 
In several passages of the Bible "ships of Tarshish" are spoken of, especially 
in connection with Tyre. From a comparison, therefore, of the above passages, 
the majority of critics have concluded that Tarshish must be sought in the 
western parts of the Mediterranean, or even outside the straits, and it has been 
generally identified with the Phoenician emporium of Tartessus in Spain, wher- 
ever the particular site of this last may have been. They who are in favor, 
moreover, of an Oriental derivation for the name Tartessus, find one in the Phoe- 
nician term Tarshish, which in the Aramaean pronunciation would be Tarlhesh, 
and would yield, of course, a striking resemblance to the Greek 

1. On an estuary immediately below the island formed by 
the mouths of the Bsetis, or, according to some maps, on the 
lower arm of the Bsetis itself, stood Asta Regia, a Roman col- 
ony. Although some distance inland, it was still an important 
commercial place, and one of the most considerable cities of 
the province. According to Ptolemy, the territory of the Tur- 
detani reached up to Asta, along this part of the coast, and 
they were accustomed to hold in this city their national assem- 
blies. There is at the present day, near Xeres de la Frontrera, 
a height still called Mesa de Asta, where Roman ruins exist. 
2. GadeSj called by the Greeks Tddetpa, is now Cadiz. This 
place lay on the west end of a small island, separated anciently 
from the main-land by a channel about six hundred feet wide, 
and at this end stood the famous Temple of Hercules. Modern 


Cadiz now stands on the extremity of a low, narrow tongue of 
land, and is surrounded on three sides by water. The bay be- 
tween Gades and the main land was called Sinus Tartessius, 
and the shore facing the island, Littus Corense. Gades was 
founded by the Phoenicians many centuries before the Chris- 
tian era, but there is no historical evidence as to the time of 
the settlement. Its Phoenician name was Gadir, meaning " an 
inclosed place," or, according to others, " a limit," from its hav- 
ing been thought at the time that here were the western limits 
of the world. The island on which it stood was in early times 
covered with wild olive-trees, and hence received from the 
Greeks the name of Cotinousa (Korivovaa), from Korivog, " a 
wild olive-tree." It was also called TdSeipa and Gades, like the 
city itself, and is now the isle of Leon. The tongue of land on 
which the modern city is built projects from this island. Ga- 
des was a famous commercial place from the earliest times, 
and under the Romans, also, it became, from its commerce, one 
of the richest provincial towns in the empire. It received from 
Julius Caesar the title and rights of a Roman colony, and from 
Augustus the honorary appellation of Augusta Julia Gaditana. 
[n the immediate vicinity of the larger island lay a smaller one, 
remarkable for its fertility and rich pastures, called Erythea, 
which the ancient fabulists made the scene of the legend of 
Geryon and his oxen. Some of the later writers called it 
Aphrodisias. The inhabitants themselves gave it the name 
of Junonis Insula. The harbor of Menestheus, which is men- 
tioned by the ancient geographers in connection with this part 
of the coast, was on the main-land opposite to Gades, and at 
the mouth of what is now the River Guadalete. Here also 
was the oracle of Menestheus, The harbor is now Puerto de 
St. Maria. Bochart makes the name of Meveodeug M\JLT]V, or 
Menesthei Portus, to have arisen by corruption from the Phoe- 
nician Min-Asda or Esda, "the harbor of Asda," or Asta. 

Leaving this part of the coast, and moving downward, we 
come to Junonis Promontorium, now Cape Trafalgar. By 
Juno is here supposed to be meant the Phoenician goddess As- 
tarte. Next follows Bcesippo, now Porto Barbate, where Ro- 
man ruins still exist ; and then Belon, on a river of the same 
name. From this harbor passage was taken for Tingis, on 
the opposite coast of Africa, now Tangier. The salting of fish 


was carried on extensively at Belon. The remains of this 
place are found at the present day three Spanish miles west of 
Tarifa, at a spot called Balonia. Further on was Mellaria, 
another place where the salting of fish was carried on, now 
Torre de la Penna, where the same business is still pursued. 
Sertorius had a naval battle with Cotta off this place. 

We now come to the extreme southern point of Spain, and 
begin a new enumeration of the places on the remaining portion 
of the coast of Baetica, with, 1. Traducta, the modern Tarifa. 
This place owed its origin to the Romans, who transported hith- 
er (whence the name of the settlement) the inhabitants of Ze- 
las, a town in Africa, near Tingis, and, adding some colonists of 
their own to the number, gave the place^the name of Julia Tra- 
ducta, or Joza (this last term being the corresponding Punic 
one for Traducta). 2. Portus Albus, or the White Haven, now 
Algesiras. The promontory of Calpe follows next, the mod- 
ern Gibraltar, on the ancient and present names of which we 
have already made some remarks. Calpe and Abyla (the lat- 
ter lying opposite, in Africa) were called by the ancients the 
Pillars of Hercules, and the strait between them was termed 
Fretum Gaditanum or Herculeum, now the Straits of Gibral- 
tar. The ancients fabled that Hercules separated with his 
hands the mountains of Calpe and Abyla, and that the sea, 
rushing in upon the Mediterranean, then a small lake, formed 
the present body of waters there ; that the hero, moreover, ei- 
ther erected columns on these two mountains, or else that the 
mountains themselves were regarded as monuments of his prog- 
ress westward, and beyond which no mortal could pass. The 
Straits of Gibraltar are about twelve leagues in extent from 
Cape Spartel to Ceuta point, on the African coast, and from 
Cape Trafalgar to Europa point, on the coast of Spain. Their 
width at the western extremity is about eight leagues, but at 
the eastern extremity it does not exceed five. 

3. Carteia, to the northwest of Calpe, at the head of a gulf 
setting in between Portus Albus and Calpe. The ruins of this 
place exist, according to Gosselin, under the name of Rocadillo. 
Mariana erroneously seeks to identify Carteia with the modern 
Tarifa. The place was of Phoenician origin, but fabled to have 
been built by Hercules, and hence called also Heraclea, accord- 
ing to some. Bochart makes the Phoenician name to have been 


at first Melcartheia, " City of Hercules" (thus agreeing with 
the Greek tradition), shortened afterward to Carteia. This 
place was one of great trade, and was by many of the ancients 
regarded as the Tartessus of the Phoenician navigators. The 
error appears to have arisen from confounding the name of Car- 
pessus with Tartessus, Carteia having been also called Carpes- 
sus, probably from the Phoenician carphesa, " a shell," because 
shells of a very large size were found here, as Strabo informs 
us. 4. Suelj northeast of Carteia, another Phoenician settle- 
ment, now Fuenglrola. Bochart derives the name from the 
Phoenician sual, "a fox," in allusion, probably, to the large 
number of these animals in its vicinity. 5. Malaca, above 
Suel, at the mouth of a river called also Malaca. This place 
is now Malaga, the principal sea-port in the province of Gran- 
ada. The modern name of the river is the Guadalmedina, a 
mere brook in summer, but a considerable stream in winter. 
Malaca was a place of great antiquity, and claims to have beon 
founded by the Phoenicians eight or nine centuries before our 
era; and the name is sought to be deduced from the Phoenician 
malcha, " royal," to intimate the estimation in which they held 
the place. But of this high antiquity there is no evidence, 
and Humboldt says that Malaca is a pure Basque word, sig- 
nifying " the side of a mountain." Malaca was the great sta- 
ple-place for the sale of all commodities from the interior, as 
well as of foreign imports. The Romans made it a municipium 
and confederate city. 

6. M&noba or Man&ca r vrhioh some make to have been the 
same with Malaca, though without good reason. It is now 
Velez-Malaga, on the River Velez. 7. Saxctdnum, famed for 
its salted fish, is now Motril. Probably the same place with 
Sexti Fir mum Julium. 8. Abdera, a Phoenician settlement, 
now Adra. 9. Murgis, now Almeria ; according to some, the 
eastern limit of Bsetica, though this is more correctly to be 
fixed at Baria, now Varea, some distance above, on the coast. 
The Charidemum Promontorium^ between Murgis and Baria 
is now Cape Gata. 

2. Cities in the Interior. 

1. Cities between the Anas and Batis. 
L Ilipa or Ilipula, northeast of Onoba, on the River Urius, 


or Tinto. It is now Niebla. 2. Italica, east of Ilipa, on the 
Bsetis. A municipium founded by Seipio, in order to settle 
therein his veteran soldiers. It was the birth-place of the em- 
perors Trajan and Hadrian. The ruins still exist at Sevilla la 
Vieja. 3. Ilipa, or Ilipula, called, for distinction' sake from the 
one just mentioned, Ilipula Magna, on the Baetis, northeast of 
Italica, and just below the junction of the Singilis. Here Seipio 
obtained a victory over the Lusitani. It is now Pennaflor. 
4. Corduba, higher up on the Bsetis, now Cordova. It was the 
capital of Baetica, and a place of great trade, the river being 
navigable for boats up to this point. According to Strabo, the 
first Roman colony sent into Spain was established here by 
Marcellus, A.U.C. 600. The place itself, however, was of 
Phoenician origin, having been founded under the name of Kar- 
tabah. Both the Senecas and also the poet Lucan were born 
here. It was also the seat of a Conventus, to which the great- 
er part of the Turduli, on the north and south of the river, be- 
longed. Finally, the place had the honor of receiving a patri- 
cian colony, a later Marcellus having transferred hither a num- 
ber of poor but noble Romans, and having divided among them 
the property of the richer Pompeians. Hence the place was 
also called Colonia Patricia Cordubensis. 

5. Mirobriga, north of Corduba, on the other side of Mons 
Marianus, and in the district of Bseturia, a mountainous coun- 
try, abounding in strong positions. Mirobriga is now Capilla. 
6. Sisdpo VetuSj to the southeast of the preceding ; and Sis- 
dpo Nova, to the northeast. Both these places were remark- 
able for their rich silver and cinnabar mines. They are now 
Almadan and Guadalcanal. In the Itinerarium Antonini, 
the latter is called Sisalone, an evident corruption of its true 
name. 7. Illiturgis, or Iliturgi, to the northeast of Corduba, 
now Andujar del Vejo. This was a large and important place 
during the first and second Punic wars. It was destroyed by 
the younger Africanus, but rebuilt, 197 B.C., under the name 
of Forum Julium. 8. Castulo, also to the northeast of Cordu- 
ba, now Caslona, on the Gaudalimar, a municipium, with the 
Jus Latii, large of size, and situate in a very romantic country, 
near the silver mines of the Saltus Castulonensis. It was also 
called Castulo Parnassia, from the resemblance which the 
double-peaked mountain on which it lay, and the spring in its 


vicinity, bore to Mount Parnassus and the Castalian spring in 
Greece, and hence Silius Italicus makes the inhabitants to 
have been of Phocian origin ; a poetic fable, of course. Some 
geographers, who assign narrower limits to Baetica on the east, 
make the boundary line pass a little distance to the west of 
Castulo, and consequently assign Castulo to the province of 
Tarraconensis. 9. Tugia, or, according to Ptolemy, Tula, to 
the southeast of Castulo. Its ruins still exist near Toya. In 
the vicinity of this place was the Saltus Tugiensis, now Si- 
erra de Cazorla, where the Baetis rose. 

2. Cities between the B/ztis and the Coast. 

(a) Between the B&tis and the Singilis,from West to East. 

1. Nebrissa.) situate, according to Strabo, on one of the la- 
gunes of the Bsetis, near its mouth. Called, also, Nebrissa Ve- 
neria, and now Lebrija. 2. Hispalis, on the Baetis, 500 sta- 
dia from the sea, and reached by large vessels. It was, next 
to Corduba and Gades, the most distinguished city of Turde- 
tania : it was also a Roman colony, and the seat of a Conven- 
tus, and was likewise a place of great trade. Some modern 
writers, as, for example, Bochart and Mannert, make it to have 
been the ancient Tartessus, the Tarshish of Scripture. It is 
now Seville. 3. Basilippo, a little to the northeast of the pre- 
ceding, now El Biso. 4. Astigi, called, also, Augusta Firma, on 
the River Singilis, the seat of a Conventus, and one of the most 
important cities of the province. It is now Ecija. 5. Singi- 
li, or Singilis, on the river of the same name, the remains of 
which are found at Castillon. 6. Munda, to the southwest, 
not far from Malaca, famed for the overthrow of the Cartha- 
ginians in the second Punic war, and also for the victory gain- 
ed here by Caesar, after a desperate battle, over the son of Pom- 
pey. It is now Monda. 7. Arunda, to the northwest, now 
Rondo,, where inscriptions are found. 8. Urso, or Urson, the 
last refuge of the partisans of Pompey. It had the cognomen 
of Genua Urbanorum, and is now Osuna. 

(b) Between the Singilis and the Batis.from West to East. 

1. Carbula, on the Baetis, at the junction of the Singilis, 
near the present Guadalcazar. 2. Ulia, to the southeast, a 
municipium ; called, also, Julia, and probably the same with the 



Fidentia of Hirtius. The remains are now found at Monte 
Ulia. 3. Illiberis, or Illiberi Liberini, to the southeast, now 
Granada. Hardouin and D'Anville, however, make Granada 
to have been of Moorish origin, and find traces of the name 
of Illiberi in the neighboring mountains of Sierra $ Elvira. 
4. Acci, to the east, called also Colonia Accitana Julia Gemel- 
la. It had the Jus Italicum, and its site was in the vicinity of 
Guadix el Viejo. 5. Bastia, called, also, Mentesa Bastia, to 
the northeast, the chief city of the Bastitani in this quarter. 
The ruins are found near La Guardia. 6. Urgaon, or Urcao, 
with the cognomen of Alba, to the northwest. It was a mu- 
nicipium, and is now Arjona, as inscriptions show. 



I. THE province of Tarraconensis derived its name, as al- 
ready remarked, from the city of Tarraco, now Tarragona, its 
capital ; and it was by far the largest of the three provinces 
into which Hispania was divided by the Romans. 

II. Tarraconensis, as we have already shown, comprehended 
all the north of Spain, together with the south as far as a line 
drawn from Baria, now Varea, below Carthago Nova, and con- 
tinued upward, in an oblique direction, to a point on the Du- 
rius, in the vicinity of Complutica. 

III. The climate and character of this large region was, of 
course, different in different quarters. That part which lay 
along the Mediterranean was very warm and fruitful. The 
northern parts, however, were unproductive, and had a raw 
and cold climate. A large portion of the surface in this 
quarter was covered with mountains and forests, while the 
plains were in general poorly watered, and suffered also from 
the cold. The winters here were very severe, and the snow 
fell to a great depth. 

1. Tribes of the Western and Northern Coasts, from West to East. 

I. Callalci (KoAAafcol), called also, by the Latin writers, Cal- 
Iceci, and, at a later period, Gallceci. These formed one of the 
most widely extended of the Spanish tribes. They occupied 
the whole western coast, from the Durius upward, except the 

HlSPANlA. 51 

northwestern corner, where the Artabri, a Celtic race, had fix- 
ed their seats, and possessed also the northern coast, as far as 
the River Melsus, the western limit of the Astures. In the in- 
terior of the country they followed the course of the Durius as 
far as the eastern boundary in this quarter of modern Portugal. 
They occupied, therefore, what are now the Portuguese prov- 
inces of Entre Duero e Minho and Tras os Monies, almost all 
Gallicia, a portion of Asturias, and the westernmost part of 

This large tribe was divided by the Romans into two main 
branches, named respectively after their capital cities, the Cal- 
Idici Bracdres or Bracarii, and the Callaici Lucernes. The 
former of these were on the west side, between the Durius and 
Minius ; the latter, partly on the west, between the Minius 
and the Ulla, but principally along the northern coast. Ac- 
cording to Pliny, the Bracares numbered among them 175,000 
freemen, and the Lucenses about 166,000. 

II. Celtce. These were situate in the northwestern corner 
of the territory of the Callaici. They were generally called by 
the common name of Artabri, but there were, in fact, four 
small tribes, the Prcesamarci, Nerii, Tamarici, and Artabri, 
or Artotrebce. They were a branch of the Celtae on the Anas, 
and their wandering hither has already been alluded to (p. 
16, ix.). 

III. Astures ('Aarovpoi and "AorvpEc;), between the Callaici on 
the west, the Cantabri on the north, the Vaccsei on the south, 
and the Celtiberi on the east. The dividing point between 
their territory and that of the Callaici Lucenses, on the coast, 
was formed by the mouth of the small river Melsus, now the 
Narcea, which stream fell into the sea a little to the west of 
the Arce Sestiance. Their country, therefore, comprehended 
the greater part of modern Asturias, together with a consid- 
erable portion of the kingdom of Leon. According to Pliny, 
the Astures numbered twenty-two communities or tribes, and 
240,000 free persons. In language and habits they showed a 
common origin with the Callaici and Lusitani. 

IV. Cantabri, to the east of the Astures, to the west of the 
Autrigones, and to the north of the Vaccsei and some Celtibe- 
rian tribes. They occupied what corresponds now to the west- 
ern portion of La Montana, and the northern half of Palencia 


and Toro. They were the most ferocious and warlike people of 
Spain, and long resisted the Roman power. Their final reduc- 
tion was effected by Agrippa, in the reign of Augustus, after 
they had withstood the arms of Rome for more than two hun- 
dred years. The Oceanus Cantabricus, which derived its name 
from them, as it washed their coasts, is now the Bay of Biscay. 

V. Caristi, or, as Pliny calls them, Carieti, to the east of 
the Cantabri. Their territory was very limited in extent. 
Pliny joins to them the Vennenses, and gives the two combin- 
ed only five cities. Their territory corresponded to a part of 
modern Biscay. 

VI. Varduli, still farther to the east, and extending inland 
from the coast to the Iberus. They occupied what is now the 
eastern half of Biscay, and Alava, and the westernmost part 
of Navarra. 

VII. Vascones, southeast of the Varduli, in the modern Na- 
varra. Mela makes no separate mention of them, but includes 
the Vascones and Varduli under the name of the latter. 

2. Tribes in the Interior, from West to East. 

I. Vacccei (OvatcKaloi), to the east of the Callai'ci, and south- 
east of the Astures. Their eastern limit was the River Piso- 
raca, now Pisuerga, near which stood Palantia, now Palen- 
cia, their greatest and most important city. Toward the south 
they reached beyond the Durius, as far as the Carpetani. 
Their territory answered, therefore, to the greater part of Val- 
ladolid, Leon, Palencia, and Toro. This tribe was a very 
numerous one, and were the mildest and most cultivated of the 
Iberian communities. They paid great attention to agricul- 
ture. Ptolemy assigns them twenty cities, and Pliny names 

II. Carpetani, one of the most important of the Iberian 
tribes, and occupying the very centre of the Peninsula. Their 
territory comprehended what is now the southern part of Val- 
ladolid, the old Castilian provinces of Avila and Segovia, the 
largest portion of Ghiadalaxara, and a part of the province of 
Toledo. Their land was productive, and the inhabitants, like 
the Vaccaei, were a numerous and active race. According to 
some of the ancient writers, they were able to bring into the 
field against Hannibal more than 100,000 men. 


III. Oretani, to the east of Lusitania and Baetica, especially 
the latter ; to the north of Baetica and the country of the Basti- 
tani; to the south of the Carpetani, and to the west of the 
Celtiberi. They occupied, therefore, what is now the eastern 
part of Granada, La Mancha, and the western part of Murcia. 
Strabo makes them extend to the lower coast, in which there 
is, after all, nothing contradictory, since they were mingled 
more or less with the neighboring Bastitani, from whom, in 
fact, they differed merely in name. It appears better, how- 
ever, to follow the arrangement of Ptolemy and Pliny. 

IV. Celtiberi) the most numerous and wide-spread race in 
all Spain. They were, as we have already remarked, a mixed 
people, being composed of Celtae and Iberians. Taken in their 
widest extent, the Celtiberi comprehended six tribes, namely, 
the Berdnes or Verones, Arevaci, Pelendones, Lusones, Belli, 
and Ditthi or Titthi. The former three lay to the north , while 
the last three dwelt toward the south, along the range of Idu- 
beda, as far as that of Orospeda, and they alone were some- 
times, in a narrower sense, named Celtiberi. The Celtiberi 
were distinguished from the neighboring Iberians by a differ- 
ence of language, a much ruder mode of life, by the great num- 
ber of mountain strong-holds scattered over their country, by 
the fashion of their arms (for example, the large Celtic shield, 
while the Iberi had merely a small round one), and their whole 
mode of carrying on war. They relied more on open valor and 
less on stratagem than the Iberian tribes, and their wedge-like 
form of battle proved often formidable to the Romans them- 
selves. Serving for hire, they were often employed as Roman 
auxiliaries, a means of increasing both their wealth and power, 
so that, soon after the second Punic war, they exercised a pre- 
ponderating influence among the other Spanish communities. 
All their neighbors lived in some degree of dependence upon 
them, and this is the reason why, in many passages of ancient 
writers, the Vaccaei and Oretani are also numbered among the 
Celtiberi. They did not pay much attention to agriculture. 
Their country answered to what is now the greatest part of 
New Castile, a portion of Old Castile, and some part of Ar- 

V. Jacetani, between the Vascones and Ilergetes. Their 
territory extended from near Caesar- Augusta, now Saragassa, 


in a northeastern direction as far as the Pyrenees, so that they 
occupied a part of the northeastern quarter of Arrag-on. 

VI. Ilergetes, to the southeast, below the Cerretani, and oc- 
cupying what now corresponds to a large portion of Arragon, 
on the left bank of the Ebro. Some of the ancient writers 
reckoned as part of them the smaller communities of the Bar- 
gusii, Bergistani, Vescitani, Suessitani, and Surdaones. 

VII. Cerretani,) north and northeast of the Ilergetes, and 
stretching far into the valleys of the Pyrenees ; occupying, 
therefore, what is now the northernmost part of Catalonia. 
They were a pure Iberian race, and were divided into the Ju- 
liani and Augustani. 

VIII. Lacetani, below the Cerretaj^i, and occupying a part 
of modern Catalonia. 

3. Tribes along the Southern Coast from West to East. 

I. Contestant, next above the Bastetani, in what is now the 
eastern part of Murcia, and the western part of Valencia. 

II. Edetani, between the Celtiberi and Ilercaones, and reach- 
ing up to the Iberus. They dwelt, therefore, in what is now 
the eastern and northern part of Valencia, and the southern 
part of Arragon, below the right bank of the Ebro. Their 
chief cities were Valencia, Saguntum, and Ceesar- Augusta. 

III. Ilercaones, between the Edetani and the coast, and ex- 
tending as far as the Iberus. Their territory is now the north- 
eastern part of Valencia, and a small portion of southeastern 

IV. Cosetani, between the Iberus and Rubricatus, and below 
the Ilergetes and Lacetani. They dwelt in what is now the 
southern part of Catalonia. 

V. Laletani, above the Rubricatus, and having the Ause- 
tani to the north. They dwelt in what is now nearly the cen- 
tral part of Catalonia. 

VI. Ausetani, north of the Laletani, also in part of Catalo- 
nia, particularly that around Vich and Gerona. 

VII. Indig&tes, northeast of the Ausetani. They dwelt in 
what is now the northeastern part of Catalonia, and also in 
the Pyrenees, on the borders of Gallia. 



1. Cities belonging' to the Tribes along the Western and 

Northern Coasts. 
Cities of the Callaid Bracarii. 

1. Bracara Augusta, capital of the Callai'ci Bracarii, and 
the seat of a Conventus^ now Braga ; destroyed by Theodoric, 
king of the Visigoths. 2. Gale, called at a later period Portus 
Cale, to the south, at the mouth of the Durius, now Oporto. 
From Portus Cale came by corruption the modern name Por- 
tugal. 3. Aquce Flavian, northeast of Bracara Augusta, now 
ChaveSj on the Tamego. 4. Roboretum, to the east, the site 
of which is marked by Mount Roveredo. 5. Venlatia, to the 
east of the preceding, now Vinhaes. 6. Forum Limicorum^ 
northwest of Bracara. Its site is indicated by ruins on Mount 
Viso, near the town of Ginzo. 7. Tyde or Tudcs, to the 
north, on the Minius, now Tuy. Pliny makes it belong to 
the Conventus of Bracara, although north of the Minius, and 
although the Bracarii extended merely up to, and not beyond 
that river. 

Cities of the Callaid Lucenses. 

1. Lucus Augusti, capital of the Callai'ci Lucenses, and the 
seat of a Conventus, now Lugo. It stood near the head wa- 
ters of the Minius. 2. Brigantium, to the northwest, on the 
coast, with a lofty pharos, now Corunna. 3. Ardobrlca, near 
the preceding, now Ferrol. The Brigantinus vel Magnus 
Portus, in this quarter, seems to be the same with the Bay of 
Corunna and Ferrol. 4. Iria Flavia, to the southwest, now 
El Padron. 5. Glandomirum or Grandimirum^ to the north- 
west, at the mouth of the Tamaris (called by Ptolemy the 
Tamara), now Muros, at the mouth of the Tambre. 6. Two 
cities occupied by Grecian settlers are also mentioned as ex- 
isting in the territory of the Lucenses, namely, "E/U^vef and 
'A/tyUo^w. They are supposed to have been situated near 
Aquce Cilence or Cilenorum^ north of Tyde. 

Cities of the Astures. 

1. Asturica, called, also, Augusta, the chief city of the Astu- 
res, and the seat of a Conventus. It is now Astqrga. Pliny 


calls it " urbs magnifica." It was destroyed by the Visigoths. 
2. Forum Gigurrorum, to the west of the preceding, the chief 
town of the Gigurri, and now Cigarossa. Harduin, following 
a false reading in Ptolemy, gives the name of the place as Fo- 
rum Egurrorum, and the error appears also on the maps of 
D'Anville and others. 3. Palantia, to the southeast of Astu- 
rica, on the River Astiira, and not to be confounded with Pal- 
lantia, the city of the Vaccaei. Its ruins are near the modern 
Villamoros. 4. Bergidium Flavium, to the northwest of As- 
turica, now La Vega, on the Coa, in western Leon. 5. In- 
teramnium Flavium, to the southeast of Bergidium, now Pon- 
ferrada, on the River Sil. 6. Nemetobrlga, to the southwest, 
near the junction of the Sil with the Minlw, now Mendaya. 
7. Legio Septima Gemina, to the northeast of Asturica, now 
Leon. The place was originally called Brigsecium, and was 
the chief city of the Brigaecini. From the time of Augustus, 
however, two legions were posted here, in order to keep the 
northern tribes in subjection. These two legions appear in 
process of time to have been united into one, whence the name 
Legio Septima gemlna. The place, for brevity's sake, was 
called Legio, whence the modern appellation. 8. Lance, or 
Lancia, to the southeast of Legio. It was the strongest place 
of the still free Astures, until the Romans burned down the 
walls and destroyed the city. The greater part of the towns 
in these regions had wooden ramparts. 9. Lucus Asturum, 
called, also, Ovetum, to the north, toward the coast, now 
Oviedo. 10. Noega, on the coast, to the northeast of the pre- 
ceding, near an estuary which formed the boundary between 
the Astures and Cantabri. It lay in what is now the territory 
of Gijon. 11. Zoelce, not far from the ocean, famed for its flax. 

Cities of the Cantabri. 

1. Juliobriga, near the sources of the Iberus, now Retortillo. 
2. Uxembarca, to the northeast, now Osma. 3. Vellica, or 
Eelgica, to the west of the preceding, near the modern Villel- 
ba. 4. Concana, to the west, now Santillana, or Onis. 

5. Vereasueca, on the coast, now Puerto de S. Martin. 

6. Blendium, to the east of the preceding, now Santander. 

7. Portus Victoria, now Santonna. 8. Strabo remarks that 
many of the Greek writers make various settlements of Greeks 


to have been made on the northern and northwestern coasts of 
Spain. Opsikellas, for instance, a follower of the mythic An- 
tenor, is said to have founded, among the Cantabri, a city 
named Opsikella. No mention of this name, however, occurs 
elsewhere, and no trace of such a city is any where found. 

Cities oftJie Autrigones, Caristii, and Varduli. 

1. Flaviobrlga, the chief city of the Autrigones, situate on 
the coast. Its previous name was Amanum Portus, which it 
changed to Flaviobriga on becoming a Roman colony. Florez 
makes it answer to the modern Portugalete, but Gosselin to 
St. Vicente de la Barquera. Mannert is in favor of Santan- 
der. 2. Virovesca, in the interior, on a branch of the Iberus, 
southwest of Flaviobriga. Its site appears to be near the 
modern Briviesca. 3. Deobrlga, or Doubriga, northeast of 
Virovesca, now Brinnos. 4. Bella, the only city of the Caris- 
tii deserving of mention, on a branch of the Iberus coming in 
from the northeast, and south of Flaviobriga. In the Itinerary 
it is called Beleia; and is now Belchite. 5. Alba, now Alvan- 
na, belonging to the Conventus of Clunia, among the Arevaci. 
6. Menosca, on the coast, now Sumaya. 7. Morosgi, also on 
the coast, now St. Sebastian. These last three are cities of 
the Varduli. 

Cities of the Vascones. 

1. Calagurris, on the Iberus, a large and beautiful city, and 
the capital of the Vascones. It was celebrated in the war with 
Sertorius, and was besieged by Pompey. It was also the na- 
tive city of Quintilian. Now Calahorra. Pliny distinguishes 
between the Calagurritani Nassici and Fibularenses. The for- 
mer of these two places appears to be the Calagorina of Ptole- 
my, the latter the modern Calahorra. 2. Graccurris, to the 
southwest. Its earlier name was Ilurcis, which it changed to 
Graccurris when Sempronius Gracchus, after defeating the 
Celtiberi, settled some new inhabitants in the place. It lay 
near the modern Corella. 3. Cascantum, to the northeast, 
near the Iberus. It was a municipium, and is now Cascante. 
4. Jacca, northeast of the preceding, and -now Jaca. 5. Pom- 
pelo, to the northwest, now Pampelona. It belonged to the 
Conventus of Caesar -Augusta, or Saragossa. According to 


Strabo, this city was founded by Pompey (nopnsXuv &g av 
IIojUTrTyJorro/Uf), a remark, however, which is, in all probability, 
erroneous. 6. Summum Pyrenceum, northeast of Pampelo, 
among the Pyrenees, now Sumport. There was another 
place of the same name among the Indigetes, where the tro- 
phies of Pompey were erected. 7. (Easo, on the coast, at the 
northern extremity of the Pyrenees, where the River Magra- 
da, now Urumea, runs into the sea. It was the same, proba- 
bly, with the Olarso of Pliny, and it lay near the modern 
Oyarzun or Oyar^o, in the territory of Irun and Fontarabia. 

2. Cities of the Tribes in the Interior. 

Cities of the Vaccad and fyrpetani. 

Among the Vaccsei we find, 1. Pallantia, now Palencia, a 
large and celebrated city, often besieged by the Romans. It 
must not be confounded with Palantia among the Astures, on 
the River Astura. Strabo assigns Pallantia to the Arevaci, on 
whose confines it lay. 2. Lacobrlga, north of the preceding, on 
the River Pisoraca, now the Pisuerga. It was the northern- 
most city of the Vaccsei, and answers to the modern Lobera. 

3. Cauca, some distance below Pallantia. It contained 20,000 
inhabitants, who were nearly all perfidiously murdered by the 
Romans after the place had surrendered. The site answers to 
the modern Coca. The Emperor Theodosius was born here. 

4. Pintia, southwest of Pallantia, near the River Durius. It 
is now Valladolid. 5. Albucella, southwest of Pallantia, and 
between Pintia and Amallobriga. According to Polybius, it 
was the largest city of the Vaccaei, and was taken by Hanni- 
bal. It is named by this writer Arbucala. Now Villa Fasila. 
6. Amallobriga, on the Durius, in the southwestern corner of 
the land, now Medina del Rioseco. 

Among the Carpetani we find, 1. Toletum, the capital city, 
now Toledo. It was famed for its steel articles. Between it 
and Hippo, to the southeast, the Romans were defeated by the 
Celtiberi. 2. JEbura, or Libora, to the southwest, called on 
coins J&pora and Apora, now Cuerva. 3. Contrebia, a 
strongly fortified city, well known in ancient history, but the 
site of which is altogether uncertain. It was probably de- 
stroyed in war, and seems to have answered to the modern 
Santaver, which would make it to have been to the northeast 


of Toletum, and on the borders of the Celtiberi. 4. Consa- 
brum, to the south of Toletum, a municipium, now Consue- 
gra. 5. Vicus Cuminarius, northeast of Toletum, near the 
Tagus, and celebrated for its cumin, whence the name of 
the place. It is now S. Cruz de la Zarza, and is still famed 
for the same product. 6. Complutum, to the north of the pre- 
ceding, now Alcala de Henarez. 7. Mantua, to the south- 
west of the preceding, now Mondejar : erroneously regarded 
by some as corresponding to the modern Madrid. 8. Caraca, 
laid down on some ancient maps as a city above Complutum, 
on the Tagonius. This, however, is an error, the country in 
this quarter being occupied by the Chardcitant, who had no 
cities, but dwelt in caves, as we are informed by Plutarch in 
his life of Sertorius. 

Cities of the Oretani. 

1. Oretum, on the Anas, called sometimes Oretum Ger- 
manorum ; the northern portion of the Oretani being, according 
to Pliny, also named Germani. It was the chief city of the 
race. Stephanas calls it Orisia. Its site is marked by a spot 
named De Oreto, where there are ruins, and remains of a Ro- 
man bridge. 2. Laminium, to the east, near the sources of 
the Anas. Its site is in the vicinity of Fuenllana, between 
Montiel and Alcaraz. 3. Libisosia, to the east of the preced- 
ing, called, also, Forum Augusti and Colonia Libisosanorum. 
It was a Latin colony, and possessed the Jus Italicum. Now 
Lesuza, in New Castile. 4. Murus, to the northwest, now 
Mortales. 6. Althcea, called, also, Carteia, north of the pre- 
ceding. It was the chief city of a tribe named Olcades, and 
was taken by Hannibal, who transported the whole tribe, along 
with other Iberians, to Africa, prior to his invasion of Italy, as 
he feared lest they might occasion disturbances in Spain dur- 
ing his absence. Their country was subsequently possessed 
by the Oretani. The site answers probably to Orgaz, in New 

Cities of the Celtiberi. 

1. Segobriga, nearly due west from the mouth of the Iberus, 
and southwest of Caesar -August a. It was the capital city, 
and the site is to be found near the modern Priego. Strabo 


informs us that Sertorius for a long time carried on his war- 
fare in the region lying between this place and Bilbilis. Ac- 
cording to Pliny, excellent lapis specularis was obtained in the 
vicinity, deep pits having been dug for that purpose, traces of 
which are said still to remain. 2. Ergavtca, to the south- 
west, a Latin colony, and a large and powerful place. It lay 
where the Ghiardiela now flows into the Tagus, and the ruins 
are still extensive. 3. Bilbllis, northeast of Segobriga, on the 
River Bilbilis, now the Xalon, the waters of which were fa- 
mous for their property of hardening iron. The place was 
celebrated for its horses, arms, iron, and gold. It was also the 
native city of the poet Martial. It is now Baubola. 4. Tu- 
rtdsoj some distance to the south of Igrgavica, on a branch of 
the Sucro. The waters here were also famed for hardening 
iron. Now Tarrazona. 

Among the Arevaci we find, 1. Numantia, a city celebrated 
for its long resistance to the Roman power. It was situate on 
the River Durius, at no great distance from its source, and ap- 
pears to have been the capital of the Arevaci, though Pliny 
makes it a town of the Pelendones. Numantia was situate on 
a steep hill of moderate size, and, according to Florus, possessed 
no walls, but was surrounded on three sides by very thick woods, 
and could only be approached on one side, which was defended 
by ditches and palisades. Its position has been a subject of 
considerable dispute ; but it appears most probable that it was 
situate near the modern town of Soria, at a place called Pu- 
ente de Don Garray. Numantia is memorable in history for 
the war which it carried on against the Romans for the space 
of fourteen years. Strabo states that the war lasted twenty 
years, but he appears to include in this period the war carried 
on by Viriathus. After the Numantines had defeated several 
Roman commanders, the Romans appointed Scipio Africanus, 
the younger, consul, B.C. 134, for the express purpose of the 
conquest of this city. He invested the place, and after having 
in vain endeavored to take it by storm, he turned the siege into 
a blockade, and obtained possession of the place (B.C. 133) at 
the end of a year and three months from the time of his first at- 
tack. The Numantines displayed the greatest courage and he- 
roism during the whole of the siege, and when their provisions 
had entirely failed, they set fire to the city and perished amid 


the flames. The population capable of bearing arms amount- 
ed to only 8000. 2. Uxama, to the southwest of the preceding, 
famous for its horses, now Osma. 3. Clunia, to the north- 
west of Uxama, a colonial city, and the seat of a Conventus. 
It was situate near the modern village of Corunna del Conde, 
and first grew into importance after the reduction of the Can- 
tabri. 4. Segontia or Saguntia, to the southeast of the pre- 
ceding, near the modern Siguenza. 

Among the Berones or Verones we find, 1. Tritium Metal- 
lum, now Tricio. 2. Varia, to the northeast, the Verela of the 
Itinerary, now Varea. Here was a crossing-place or ford 
over the Iberus, and up to this point the river was navigable. 
3. Contrebia, called, also, Leucas, on the Iberus, not far from 
Varia, and corresponding to the Cantabria of the Middle Ages. 
Its site is now marked by ruins between Lograno and Piana. 

Among the Pelendones we find, 1. Termes, the same, prob- 
ably, with the Termantia of Appian. It was a place of great 
celebrity during the war with Sertorius. The site is indicated 
at the present day by a spot called Ermita de nuestra Sen- 
nora de Tiermes. 2. Voluce, now Velacha. 3. Augustobriga, 
now Aldea el Mnro, near Soria. 

Among the Lusones we find merely Lutia, said to have 
been 300 stadia from Numantia, and mentioned by Appian. 
Its site is unknown. Among the Belli, who are also called 
Belitani, we have Belea or Beleia, probably the modern Bel- 
chite. No cities of the Titthi are mentioned. 

Cities of the Hergctes. 

1. Her da, on a height on the River Sicoris, now the Segre. 
It was a colonial and municipal city, and is now Lerida. The 
place was a strong one, and is mentioned in the account given 
of Caesar's movements against Afranius and Petreius, the 
lieutenants of Pompey. 2. Osca, to the northwest of the pre- 
ceding, now Huesca. This was the place where Sertorius 
caused the children of the noblest parents among the different 
nations of Spain to be educated in Greek and Roman learning, 
and where they were, in reality, kept as so many hostages. 
It was a large and strong city. 3. Athanagia, the capital of 
the Ilergetes, and in the vicinity of Ilerda, now probably Ag- 
ramaut. It was taken by Scipio. 4. Celsa, on the River 


Iberus, to the southwest. There was here a stone bridge over 
the stream. It is now Xelsa. 5. Gallicum, to the southwest 
of Osca, on the River Gallicus, not far from its junction with 
the Iberus. Now Zunra, on the Gallego. 6. Forum Gallo- 
rum, to the north of the preceding, and also on the Gallicus. 
Now Gurrea. 

3. Cities of the Tribes on the Southern and Eastern Coasts. 

Cities of the Contestant 

1. Ilorci, the same, probably, with the Eliocroca of the Itin- 
erary, now Lorca, on the River Sangonera, a tributary of 
the Segura, the ancient Tader. 2. Carthago Nova^ to the 
east of the preceding, on the coast, ani now Cartagena. It is 
said to have been built by Hasdrubal Barcas, who succeeded 
Hamilcar Barcas, the father of Hannibal, in the government 
of Spain, and who intended it for the metropolis of the Cartha- 
ginian possessions in this country. The situation of the place 
was very favorable for commerce, since it lay almost in the 
middle of the southern coast of Spain, which had hardly any 
good harbors besides this along its whole extent. It lay at the 
head of a bay which formed a safe and spacious harbor. The 
city was, moreover, strongly fortified, and twenty stadia in cir- 
cuit. In its neighborhood were rich silver mines, and valuable 
fisheries were carried on along its coasts. Here, also, were great 
salting establishments. It was also the great outlet for the 
trade of the interior. Scipio Africanus took the place during 
the second Punic war, and, on falling into the hands of the Ro- 
mans, it became a colony under the title of Cofonia Victrix 
Julia Nova Carthago. The governor of the province of Tar- 
raconensis spent the winter either in this city or in Tarraco. 
This city was sometimes also called Carthago Spartaria, from 
the spartum, or Spanish broom, which grew so abundantly in 
its vicinity, and from which a whole tract of country here, one 
hundred miles in length and thirty in breadth, was called Spar- 
tarius Campus. Strictly speaking, however, the spartum was 
not confined to this portion of the country merely, but was 
found also on the mountains farther inland. The Greek name 
for the city was Kap%7)6&v f] via, and it was also sometimes 
called Kaivri Tr6Xi$, or the " New City." The name, however, 
is, in fact, a double pleonasm, since Kap^d^v and Carthago 


are both corruptions from the Punic Karth-hadtha, meaning 
itself "the new city," in reference to Old Tyre. The place 
was all but destroyed by the Goths. The Scombraria Insula, 
off the mouth of the harbor, received its name from the scom- 
bri, or mackerel, that were caught here, and from which the 
garum, or pickle, was made, for which Carthago Nova was so 
famous. It is now La Islota, or " little island." 

We then come to, 3. Alone or Alonce, at the mouth of the 
Tader or Segura, and now, probably, Torre de Salinas. The 
place appears to have been of Grecian origin, and to have de- 
rived its name, as Mannert thinks, from salt-works in its 
neighborhood (6 <Uf, " salt"). 4. Ilicis, north of the preced- 
ing, now Elche. It was a colonial city, and a place of con- 
siderable trade, giving name to the Sinus Ilicitanus, a wide 
bay in this quarter, now the Bay of Alicante. The name of 
the place is also written Illici and Illice. Near this city Ha- 
milcar is supposed to have founded the settlement called Acra 
Leuce, on the coast, and which is probably the same with Livy's 
Castrum Album. 5. Lucentum, to the northeast, now Alicante. 
This was also a colonial city. 6, Dianium, or Artemisiwn, 
to the northeast, above the Dianium Promontorium. This was 
a strong place, situate on a height, and was made by Serto- 
rius the station for his fleet. It was celebrated, also, for its 
temple of Diana. The place is now Denia. 7. Lauron, to the 
northwest, on the coast, now Laury, and anciently famed for 
its wine. It was taken by Sertorius under the very eyes of 
Pompey, and laid in ashes. Near this place, also, Cneius Pom- 
peius, the elder son of Pompey, was slain. 8. Aspis, inland, 
northwest of Ilicis, and now Aspe. 9. Setdbis or Scetabis, to 
the northeast of the preceding, and near Lauron, called, also, 
on coins, Scetabi Augustanorum. It was a municipal city, and 
famed for its flax and fine manufactures. Some assign the 
place to the Edetani. It is now lativa. 

Cities of the Edetani. 

1. SucrOj on the river of the same name, near its mouth. It 
is often mentioned by historical writers, and is now, according 
to Ukert, Cullera. It was destroyed already in Pliny's time, 
who speaks of it as " quondam oppidum." 2. Valentia, north 
of the preceding, now Valencia. It was founded by the con- 


sul Brutus, who settled here some of the soldiers of Viriathus. 
The city was destroyed by Pompey, but soon after repeopled. 
Mela speaks of it subsequently as an important place. It was 
the capital of the Edetani, and situate on the River Turia, now 
the Guadalaviar, or Rio Turia. 3. Saguntum, called, also, 
Saguntus, and, by the Greek writers, Sayovvrov, Zdicvvdog, and 
Zdicavda. It lay a short distance above Valentia, on a height, 
about 1000 paces from the sea, according to the common ac- 
count. Polybius, however, says seven stadia, and Pliny 3000 
paces. This place is said to have been founded by a colony 
from the island of Zacynthus (now Zante), together with some 
Rutulians from Ardea in Italy, whence it also obtained the ap- 
pellation of Grata and Ausonia. It lay on the River Pallan- 
tias, now the Palancia, in a fruitful country, and became very 
wealthy by both inland and foreign commerce. Saguntum 
was a firm and steadfast ally of the Romans, and hence was 
besieged and taken by Hannibal. The siege lasted eight 
months, and, being an infraction of the treaty between the 
Carthaginians and Romans, led at once to the second Punic 
war. Hannibal's object was to prevent the Romans retaining 
so important a place of arms, and so powerful an ally in a coun- 
try from which he was about to depart on his march for Italy. 
The desperate valor of the citizens, however, who chose to per- 
ish with all their effects rather than fall into the enemy's hands, 
deprived the conqueror of a great part of his anticipated spoils. 
Still, the booty which he saved from this wreck enabled him, 
by his acts of liberality, to secure the affections of his army, 
and provide, at the same time, for the execution of his design 
against Italy. The ruins of Saguntum still remain at Mur- 
viedro, a corruption of Muri Veteres. 

4. Edeta, the "Httyra of Ptolemy, called, also, Liria, west of 
Saguntum, and now Lyria. 5. Segobriga, on the Pallantias, 
to the northwest of Saguntum, and now Segorbe. Not to be 
confounded with Segobriga, the city of the Celtiberi, further 
inland, to the northwest. 5. Etobema or Etobesa, to the north- 
west of the preceding, and now Oropesa. It was probably the 
same with the Honosca, of Livy. 7. Ccesar- Augusta, to the 
north, on the Iberus, and at the confluence of the Gallego (the 
ancient Gallicus) and the Huerva. Its original name was Sal- 
duba or Saldyva, which it changed for Csesar- Augusta when 

Hi SPAN I A. 65 

the Emperor Augustus colonized it with the veterans of the 
fourth, sixth, and tenth legions. It was a very flourishing city 
under the Romans, and gave name to one of the seven Conven- 
tus of Hispania Tarraconensis. The Goths took it, under their 
king Euric, about 470, and the Arabians in 712. The latter 
people corrupted the name into Saracosta, whence its present 
name Saragossa or Zaragoza. The ancient name Ccesar-Au- 
gusta is itself a shortened form of Ccesarea Augusta. 

Cities of the, Ilercaones and Cosetani. 

Among the Ilercaones we find, 1. Dertosa, on the left bank 
of the Iberus, about thirteen English miles from the mouth, 
and now Tortosa. It was a Roman municipium, and the cap- 
ital of the Ilercaones, and is probably the same with the Julia 
Ilercavonia Dertosa, called, also, Colonia Julia Augusta on 
coins. Pliny calls the inhabitants " celeberrimos civium Ro- 
manorum." Tortosa became a flourishing city, also, under the 
Moors, owing to its favorable situation for trade, being placed 
on a navigable river, and not far from the harbors of Fangas 
and Alfaques, which last still retains its Moorish name, the 
expression Al fakk meaning "a jaw," and "a harbor in the 
sea." 2. Adeba, on the right bank of the Iberus, nearer its 
mouth than the preceding, now Amposta. 3. Ibera, a short 
distance below the preceding, and situate on the coast, below 
the mouth of the Iberus. Livy speaks of it as existing in the 
time of the second Punic war, and describes it as the most im- 
portant place in this quarter. Its site is uncertain. Coins 
have been dug up near the spot where it is commonly supposed 
to have stood, bearing the inscription Ilercavonia on one side, 
and, on the other, Hibera Julia. This place is confounded by 
some with Dertosa. 4. Tria Capita, called in the Itinerary 

Traja Capita, above the mouth of the Iberus, and on the right 
bank of the stream, northeast of Dertosa. Its site is unknown. 

5. Carthago Vetus, not far, as Mannert thinks, from Ilerda, 

the modern Lerida. Its site can not be precisely determined, 

but it probably answers to Carta . Vieja. 

Among the Cosetani, the only city worth mentioning is their 

capital Tarrdco, the modern Tarragona, one of the earliest 

Phoenician settlements in Spain, and a place of great trade. 

During the second Punic war it became a Roman colony, and 



had, from its favorable position, been even before this a place 
of arms for the Romans, from their first entrance into Spain. 
Under Augustus it became the capital of Hispania Citerior or 
Tarraconensis, and obtained, also, the additional appellation of 
Augusta. Its harbor was greatly enlarged by Antoninus Pius. 
Tarraco was also the seat of one of the seven Conventus of 
Hispania Citerior. It was taken by Euric, king of the Goths, 
in 467, and levelled with the earth. Recovering from this blow, 
it was again taken by the Arabs in 710, and completely de- 
stroyed, and it remained desolate until 1038, when it was re- 
built by Bernardo, archbishop of Toledo. Tarragona has many 
interesting Roman remains, and among them those of a splen- 
did aqueduct, which once supplied the city with water, brought 
from a distance of sixteen miles, and* affords proof of the im- 
portance attached to the place by the Romans. About three 
miles east of the city there is a very fine mausoleum, which the 
vulgar call " El Sepulcro de los Scipiones" (the tomb of the 
Scipios), from a belief that Cneius and Publius Scipio are bur- 
ied under it. 

Cities of the Laletani, Ausetani, and Tndigetes. 

Among the Laleta?u we find, 1. Barcmo, now Barcelona, the 
capital of the tribe, situate on the coast, between the River 
BcetulOj now Besos, to the east, and the Rubricatus, now L lob- 
re gat, to the west. It was a place of great trade, and was, prob- 
ably, one of the colonies formed by the Greeks on the eastern 
coast of the peninsula. Be this, however, as it may, a town 
appears to have been built here by Hamilcar Barcas or Barci- 
no, about 235 B.C., who gave to it the name of his family. 
When the Carthaginians were expelled from Spain in 206 B.C., 
Barcino fell into the hands of the Romans, who made it a col- 
ony, with the additional name of Faventia. On coins and in 
inscriptions it is called Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta. In 
A.D. 411, the Gothic king Artaulphus made his triumphal en- 
trance into it. In 718 it fell into the hands of the Mohammed- 
ans, who kept it until 801. 2. Bcetulo, northeast of the preced- 
ing, on the coast, now Badalona. 3. Iluro, northeast of Bsetulo, 
also on the coast, now Mataro. 4. Prcetorium, northwest of 
Iluro. Large remains of this place still exist near La Roca. 
5. Secerra, to the northeast of the preceding, now probably 
St. Pere de Sercada. 


Among the Ausetani we find, 1. Ausa, the chief city, on 
the River Alba, the modern Ter. This place now answers 
to Vique. 2. Gerunda, situate on a mountain, near the Alba, 
and to the northeast of Ausa, now Gerona. 3. Blanda, on the 
coast, above Praetorium, the modern Blanes. 

Among the Indigetes we find, 1. Emporice or Emporium, a 
municipium and colony, planted by Julius Caesar after his vic- 
tory at Munda. It was originally a settlement of Phocaeans 
from Massilia, and is now Ampurias. It lay, according to 
Mela, on the River Clodianus, now the Mug a, or Llobregat 
Menor, and was the usual landing-place for vessels that had 
doubled the Promontorium PyrenaBum. The settlement was 
originally made on a small island, which was afterward called 
" the Old City," and was subsequently extended to the coast 
of the main-land. 2. Rhoda or Rhodes, above Emporiae, and 
a colony of Rhodians, according to some, but, according to oth- 
ers, of Massilians. It is now Rosas. 3. Portus Veneris, at the 
northeastern extremity of Spain, and near the Promontorium 
Pyrenaeum, now Port de Vendre. According to Ptolemy, there 
was a temple of Venus on the promontory itself. Some made 
this promontory mark, also, the limit between Hispania and 
Gallia, while others fixed that limit at the Summum Pyrenceum 
of the Itinerary, where stood the " Trophies of Pompey," rd 

1. Islands in the Mediterranean. 

I. Baledres, called, also, Gymnesice, and now Majorca and 
Minorca. Both the ancient names are from the Greek, name- 
ly, BaA/Uapeif (for which we have, also, 'BaXeapiSes, Bahepiat, 
&c.) and ~Fv\Lvr\ai(Li vrjaot. 

II. The word Baleares is from the Greek /taAAw, " to throw," 
the original inhabitants having been very expert in the use of 
the sling, to which they were trained in their infancy, and their 
dexterity as slingers, while serving in the Carthaginian and 
Roman armies, is often noticed by ancient authors. The name 
Gymnesice has a more general reference to the same skill, on the 
part of these islanders, in the use of missiles. 

III. Strabo calls the present Majorca and Minorca by the 


name of GymnesicB^ while he applies the term Pityusce to two 
smaller islands nearer the coast of Spain; and he gives the 
name of Baleares to the whole group. The Pityusse, however, 
are more correctly kept distinct. 

IV. The name Pttyuscc (Hirvovaai) is also of Greek origin, 
meaning " Pine Islands" (from mrvg, " a pine-tree"), and has 
reference to the thick growth of pine-trees with which the two 
islands, but especially the larger one, abounded. The two 
Pityusse were called by the Greeks, respectively, Ebusus and 
Ophiusa (snake island), which last the Romans translated into 

V. The small island Capraria (goat island), to the south of 
Majorca, is the modern Cabrera. + 

VI. The Phoenicians, it appears, were the first settlers of 
the Balearic islands, which, however, had a race of original in- 
habitants. The Carthaginians, under Hanno, having made 
themselves masters of the whole group, proceeded to form new 
settlements, and founded the town of Mago, now Mahon, and 
Jamno, now Ciudadela, in the smaller one. These islands 
furnished them with considerable bodies of troops in their wars 
against Sicily and Rome, and a large force of their slingers ac- 
companied Hannibal in his passage across the Alps. 

VII. When the Carthaginians were driven from Spain, the 
islanders obtained their freedom, which they made use of to ap- 
ply themselves to piracy, till they were subdued by the Roman 
consul Q,. Metellus, who founded the cities of Palma and Pol- 
lentia in Majorca, and took the surname of Balearicus. They 
continued attached to the Roman republic as part of Hispania 
Citerior, and subsequently to the empire, and belonged to the 
Conventus of Carthago Nova. 

VIII. From the reign of Constantino the Great till that of 
Theodosius they had their own government. When Spain, 
however, fell into the hands of the Vandals and Huns, a body 
passed over to these islands, which became an easy conquest, 
and afterward, with that peninsula, were subdued by the 
Moors. We will now speak of the Baleares and Pityusse more 
in detail. 

1. Balearis Major. 
The name Majorca comes from the Latin Major (Insula), 


" the Larger" (island). Both Majorca and Minorca produced 
anciently wheat, wine, rosin, timber, &c., and mules of large 
size. The rabbits, however, did great injury to the crops here, 
as in Spain. 

In Majorca we find the following cities : 1. Palma, founded 
by Metellus, now Palma, on the south side, lying on a spacious 
bay. 2. Pollentia, also founded by Metellus, on the northern 
side, now Pollenza. 3. Ctnium, now probably Sineu, although 
some are in favor of Calalonga. 4. Cunici, now Alcudia. 
5. Bocchorum. Site unknown. The place was in ruins as 
early as the time of Pliny. 

2. Balearis Minor. 

The name Minorca comes from the Latin Minor (Insula), 
" the Smaller" (island). In this island we find, 1. Jamno or 
Jamna, now Ciudadela. The ancient name, which is some- 
times, also, written Jammona, has reference, according to 
Bochart, to the western situation of the place as compared 
with that of the parent country, being derived from the Phoe- 
nician Jamma, " the West." 2. Sanisera. It appears to have 
been situate near the middle of the island, and to answer to the 
modern Alajor. 3. Mago, or Mag-onis Portus, now Port Ma- 
hon. The place derived its name, as already remarked, from 
its founder, the Carthaginian Mago. 

3. Pityusfe Insulte. 

These islands, as already remarked, were two in number, 
Ebusus and Ophiusa, and received their names from the nu- 
merous pine-trees that grew upon them. Ebusus is now Iviga 
or Ivyza. It was celebrated for its figs, which are still held in 
high repute. It contained, also, as it still does, very good pas- 
tures. Its capital was Ebusus or Ebusium, which has now the 
same modern name as the island. Bochart derives the name 
from the Phoenician lebuso or Ibuso, answering to the Latin 
" exsiccatce" i. e., exsiccatae ficus, "dried figs," in allusion to 
the fruit for which the island was anciently so famous. 

The island of Ophiusa ('O^ovcra), or " Snake Island," re- 
ceived its name, as already remarked, from the Greeks, in 
whose language o$if means " a snake." The modern name 
is Las Columbretas, or Montcolibre. 


2. Islands in the Atlantic. 

1. Cotinusa, already mentioned. Another name for the isl- 
and on which Gades was situated. 2. Landobris, off the coast 
of Lusitania, and to the northwest of the Promontorium Olisi- 
ponense. Marcianus calls it Lanucris. It is now Berlinguas. 
3. CiccE) Annies, and Corticata, three small islands just above 
the mouth of the Minius, now respectively Cies, Ons, and Sal- 

G A L L I A. 


I. THE term Gallia was employed by the Romans in a double 
sense : 1. As indicating Gaul proper, or Gaul beyond the Alps, 
called Gallia simply, and also Gallia Ulterior and Gallia 
Transalpina ; and, 2. Gaul this side of the Alps, with refer- 
ence to Rome, called Gallia Cisalpina, and forming subse- 
quently the northern part of Italy. 

II. The consideration of Gallia Cisalpina belongs to the ge- 
ography of Italy. We will now proceed to that of Gaul prop- 
er, or Gallia Transalpina. 

III. Gaul proper, or Transalpine Gaul, comprised modern 
France, the Netherlands, the countries along the west bank of 
the Rhine, and the greatest part of Switzerland. 

IV. It was bounded on the south by the Mediterranean and 
Hispania ; on the east by the Rhine, and a line drawn from 
the sources of that river to the small river Varus, now the Var ; 
or, in more general language, by the Rhine and the Alps ; on 
the north by the Oceanus Britannicus or English Channel, 
and the Lower Rhine, and on the west by the Atlantic. 

OBS. In speaking of the Alps as forming part of the eastern boundary, it 
must be borne in mind that the precise line of separation in this quarter, be- 
tween Gallia and Italia, was different at different times, according to the 
progress of the Roman arms. Thus, for example, it differed, while the princi- 
pality of Cottius existed, from what became the dividing line after the posses- 
sions of that Alpine chieftain formed part of the Roman empire. Pliny even 
after this assigns the Centrones, Caturiges, and Vagienni to Italy, and so, too, 
does Ptolemy, but they belong correctly to Gaul. The River Varus became 
the limit in the time of Augustus, and remained so thereafter. 

2. NAMES. 

I. WE find the first mention of Gaul among the Greek writ- 
ers, who name the country KeArt/c?/, Celtica ; but the term was 
at first applied by them, in a very extended sense, to the whole 
of western and northwestern Europe. 


II. From the time of Timaeus the name Ta/Urm, Galatia, 
came into use, and at a later period the Greek writers are found 
employing also the term FaA/Ua (Gallia), borrowed from the 

III. The Romans, on the other hand, gave the name of Gal- 
lia to the whole country between the Rhine and Pyrenees ; and 
afterward, in order to designate the division into provinces, they 
employed the plural form Galilee. In order, moreover, to dis- 
tinguish between Gaul proper and Upper Italy, in the latter of 
which countries Gallic tribes were also settled, they called the 
former Gallia Ulterior or Transalpine!,, as already remarked, 
and the latter Gallia Citerior or Cisalpina. 

IV. Another name employed by the-Romans was Gallia Co- 
mala. This was given to Gaul proper, with the exception of 
Gallia Narbonensis, in the south, and had reference to the cus- 
tom prevalent among the inhabitants of wearing the hair long, 
as a badge of valor. 

V. We find, also, two other appellations in use, namely, 
Gallia togata and Gallia braccata. The former of these was 
given to Gallia Cisalpina, or, as Mannert thinks, to that part 
of it which lay south of the Po, called otherwise Gallia Cis- 
padana, and had reference to the adoption of the Roman dress 
and customs on the part of the inhabitants, while the name of 
Gallia braccata was given to the province of Narbonensis, in 
allusion to the bracccc worn by the inhabitants ; not that brae- 
cce were not also worn by the other Gauls, but because the 
Romans saw them for the first time worn in this quarter. 

OBS. 1. To designate Gallia, Transalpine,, as distinguished from Cisalpina, the 
Greek writers use the expressions # vnep TWV 'Ahireuv K^TCKJJ : TJ iinepuhireios 
KeArt/c? : // tfw KefoiKT}, &c., while they call Gallia Cisalpina r) TUV Kara rqv 
'\.Takiav KeArwv x^ } P a ' Ke^TtK// 37 vrdf "ATnreuv : i) KUTCJ Ta^aria. At a later 
period we find Ptolemy employing the term Kc/lroyaAarm for Gaul proper, or 
beyond the Alps. This last-mentioned name derives elucidation from the re- 
mark of Diodorus Siculus(v.,32), that the inhabitants of the land to the north 
of Massilia, and between the Pyrenees and the Alps, were called Cello, (KeA- 
roi) ; those, however, farther north, extending to the ocean and the Scythians, 
x ^ere called Galata, (Ta^urat). 

2. The Romans were well acquainted with the Cisalpine Gauls in the course 
of the long wars which commenced with the attack upon Rome, and terminated 
in the subjugation of Gallia Cisalpina. They were aware of the identity of 
these Gauls with the Kf "kroi of the Massilians. Caesar, moreover, in dividing 
the inhabitants of Gaul without the province, and as yet unconquered by the 
Romans, into three nations, and appropriating to one of them the name of Gal- 

'GALLIA. 73 

li, identifies this particular nation with the previously-known Gauls or Celti in 
Cisalpine Gaul and in the province. When he says, however, that the Romans 
termed them Galli, and they themselves Celta, his statement would probably 
have been more correct had he reported that by the Greeks they were termed 
Celti (Ke/lroi), and by the Romans Galli. It does not appear clear that the 
Gauls ever recognized the name of Celta as a national appellation. It proba- 
bly grew into general use among the Greeks from some particular tribe at first 
so named. This may be collected from Strabo. (Prichard, Researches, vol. iii., 
p. 61, seg.) 

3. The name Galli is evidently Gael Latinized. In like manner, the Greek 
Taharai may be traced to the same root. Etymologists derive this last from 
Galltachd, " the land of the Gauls," but Celtic derivations begin to be looked upon 
with an eye of suspicion, since of the language of the people of Gaul we have 
now, in the opinion of the best scholars, few undoubted specimens ; and al- 
though there are strong grounds for believing that it was a kindred tongue with 
the dialects of the British isles, yet it is evidently unsafe to have recourse, in 
such a case as the present, to the modern Gaelic or any of its branches. The 
meaning of the name Gael, therefore, must be left uncertain, although many re- 
gard it as a contracted form of Gadhel or Gaidheal, and think that it denotes 
"strangers," or "foes." A summary of all the learning on this subject may 
be found in Diefenbach's Ccltica, vol. ii., p. 6, seqq. 

4. The earlier history of the Celtic people is a subject of great interest, but 
of difficult investigation. Were they aborigines of Gaul or of Germany 1 Ac- 
cording to all the testimony of history, or, rather, of ancient tradition collected 
by the writers of the Roman empire, the migrations of the Gauls were always 
from west to east ; the Celtic nations in Germany, as well as in Italy and in 
the East, were supposed to have been colonies from Gaul, and the Celtae have 
been considered, therefore, by many, to have been the immemorial inhabitants 
of western Europe. But this opinion is altogether untenable. The remains of 
the Celtic language prove them to have been a branch of the Indo-European 
stock, and to have come, therefore, from the East ; and as we find so many 
parts of Germany overspread by them in early times, whence they were after- 
ward expelled by German tribes, a strong suspicion forces itself upon our minds 
that a part of the Celtic population may have always remained to the eastward 
of the Rhine, which perhaps received accessions from tribes of the same race 
returning in a later age from Gaul. (Prichard, Researches, vol. iii., p. 50, seq.) 

5. It is impossible to determine with certainty whether the west of Europe 
was wholly uninhabited at the era when the Celtae first occupied it. It is prob- 
able, however, that, as they preceded the Teutonic tribes, they must have come 
into contact with nations of the Finnish stock. This would especially have 
been the case on the shores of the Baltic, where they would have met with 
the Jotuns or Finns, whom the Teutonic people afterward found in possession 
of Scandinavia. (Prichard, I. c. Compare remarks on page 2 of this work.) 


I. The primitive inhabitants of Gallia were probably, as al- 
ready remarked, of Finnish origin, and these were reduced to 
subjection by the Celtse on the great immigration of the latter 
race from the East. 

II. At the period of Caesar's invasion we find the Celtic race 


separated into three great divisions, the Celtce, in the centre of 
the country, the Belgce, to the north, and the Aquitam, to the 

III. The tribes whom Caesar calls the Celtce, and who ap- 
pear to have been, in fact, the main Gallic race, or, as we may 
term them, the Gauls proper, occupied at this time nearly all 
the midland, western, and southern parts of the country, ex- 
tending in one direction from the Gobceum Promontorium, now 
Cape St. Make, in Bretagne, to the mountains of Switzerland 
and Savoy, and perhaps to the frontiers of the Tyrol, and, in^ 
another direction, from the banks of the Garumna, or Garonne} 
to those of the Sequana and Matrona, or Seine and Marne. \ 

IV. The northeastern parts of the country, from the Sequana, 
and Matrona to the Channel and the Rhine, were occupied by 
the Belgcc, a race, probably, of mixed Celtic and Germanic 
blood, and the immediate vicinity of the Rhine was occupied 
by some tribes of purer and more immediate German origin. 
Prichard thinks, that in Caesar's time, some of the most warlike 
tribes in the Belgic confederation were of the number of emi- 
grants from Germany, who had lately taken their place among 
the inhabitants of Belgica, and had, perhaps, assumed the name 
of Belgse. The great mass of the nation, however, were un- 
doubtedly Gauls. 

V. The southwestern corner of the country was occupied by 
the Aquitani, whose territory extended from the Garonne to 
the Pyrenees ; and probably some Ligurian tribes were inter- 
mingled with the Celtse on the shores of the Mediterranean. 
Some Greek settlements also occurred along that coast, and 
Greek blood, though in a minute proportion, has mingled in 
that of the modern inhabitants of Languedoc and Provence. 

VI. Previously to Caesar's conquest, the Romans had formed 
a praetorian province in the southern part of the country, on 
the coast of the Mediterranean. More particular mention of 
this, however, will be made under the succeeding section. 

VII. The subjugation of Gaul by the Romans produced an 
intermixture, though probably not a great one, of Romans with 
the natives ; but it was not until the overthrow of the vast 
fabric of the Roman empire, and the settlement of the northern 
barbaric nations within its limits, that the population of Gaul 
underwent any important modification. But, however little 


the population might have been affected, the habits of the Celts 
had undergone material changes under the Roman dominion ; 
and the modern French language shows how extensive and how 
permanent has been the influence of the Latin tongue. 

VIII. At the breaking up of the Roman empire, three of the 
invading tribes possessed themselves of Gaul, namely, the Visi- 
goths, south and west of the Loire ; the Burgundians, in the 
southeast, extending from the Sadne and the Rhone to the Jura 
and the Alps ; and the Franks, in the north and east. A branch 
of the Celtic nation, moreover, migrating from the British isles, 
and differing in dialect and language from their kindred tribes 
in Gaul, settled in the extreme west, and have transmitted to 
the present age their peculiarity of language, and the name of 
the island (Bretagne or Britain) from which they came. 

IX. Politically, the ascendency of the Franks extinguished 
the independence of their co-invaders ; but the tribes which 
succumbed to their yoke remained in the settlements they had 
acquired, and have influenced more or less the characteristics 
of their descendants. But, notwithstanding these admixtures, 
the Celtae may still be regarded as the main stock of the French 
people, and it has been considered that the national characters 
of the ancient and the modern race bear no inconsiderable re- 
semblance to each other. 

X. As the predominance of the Celtic race may be inferred 
from that of their adopted language in the greater part of 
France, so the local predominance of other tribes is indicated 
by that of their peculiar tongue. The Breton, an adulterated 
form of the language imported by the British settlers, is still 
the language of the rural districts and of the poorer classes in 
Bretagne, and is subdivided into four dialects : the Basque is 
yet found at the foot of the Pyrenees, and may be considered 
as the representative of the ancient dialect of the Aquitani : 
the Lampourdan, one of its principal dialects, is spoken in the 
Pays de Labour and in Basse Navarre. In Alsace the Ger- 
man language is predominant ; a circumstance which may be 
ascribed to that province's having been more completely occu- 
pied by those tribes which overthrew the Roman empire, and 
which have preserved their own language, and also to the long 
incorporation of Alsace with Germany, and its comparatively 
late annexation to the rest of France. 



I. IMMIGRATION of the great Celtic race from the East, con- 
sisting of the priestly and military classes. They find the 
country occupied by Finnish nations, whom they reduce to 
vassalage, and hence arises a lower caste, deprived of all civil 
rights, and looked upon as mere vassals or serfs. 

II. The wants of an increasing population lead the Celtic 
tribes settled in Gallia to send out two vast emigrating bodies, 
during the reign of%ie elder Tarquin at Rome, about B.C. 600. 
One of these enters Italy, the northern part of which was sub- 
dued and peopled by them, while the other moves eastward 
into Germany and what is now Hungary. 

III. Greek colonies settle on the Mediterranean coast of 
Gaul. The earliest and most important of these was MaaoaM a 
or Massilia (now Marseilles), founded by the people of Phocsea, 
itself a Greek colony of Asia Minor, B.C. 600, and augmented 
by the emigration of the main body of the Phocaeans, when 
they sought refuge, B.C. 546, from the pressure of the Persian 

FV. The power or influence of Massilia extends over the 
neighboring districts, and several colonies are founded on the 
coasts of Gaul, Italy, Spain, or Corsica, such as Agatha, now 
Agde ; Antipolis, now Antibes ; Nicsea, now Nice, &c. 

V. At the commencement of the second Punic war, Hanni- 
bal marches through Gaul, in his route from Spain into Italy ; 
and Scipio, the Roman consul, who had conveyed his army by 
sea to Massilia, in order to intercept him, sends a small body 
of cavalry up the banks of the Rhodanus or Rhone, to recon- 
noitre, and these have a smart skirmish with a body of Hanni- 
bal's Numidians. Hannibal, however, marches onward into 
Italy, to which country Scipio also returns, sending his army 
forward under his brother Cnaeus into Spain. 

VI. After the close of the Punic wars the Romans gradually 
extend their power in GauL Fulvius Flaccus, and his successor 
Sextius Calvinus, conquer the Salyes, Vocontii, and some other 
tribes. The coast of the Mediterranean is now secured by the 
foundation of the Roman colony of Aquae Sextiae, now Aix, B.C. 
122, and that portion of Transalpine Gaul which the Romans 
had subdued is shortly after formed into a praetorian province 


(B.C. 118), of which Narbo Martius, now Narbonne, colonized 
the following year (B.C. 117), becomes the capital. Massilia, 
nominally in alliance with, but really in subjection to Rome, 
lies within this province. 

VII. In the migratory invasion of the Cimbri, Teutones, 
and Ambrones, the Roman province in Gaul is for several 
years the seat of war. The Roman armies are repeatedly 
defeated. In one dreadful battle (B.C. 104) they are said to 
have lost 80,000 men. The province is, however, rescued from 
the invaders by the great victory obtained b^ Marius (B.C. 101) 
over the Teutones and Ambrones near Aquae Sextiae. The 
Cimbri have meantime marched into Italy. 

VIII. The conquests of Caesar reduced nearly the whole 
country between the Rhine, the Alps, the Mediterranean, the 
Pyrenees, and the Ocean, into subjection to Rome. The Aqui- 
tani, and the tribes inhabiting the Alps,, are not subdued till 
afterward ; the former are conquered by Messala, but some of 
the Alpine tribes retain their independence till the time of Nero. 

IX. Under Augustus, Gaul is divided into four provinces, of 
which, together with other subdivisions afterward made, men- 
tion will be found under the succeeding section. 

X. In the decline of the Roman power, Gaul is ravaged by 
the Franks, the Burgundians, and the Lygians (who had been 
all driven out by Probus, A.D. 277) ; by the Bagauds, a body 
of peasants, themselves Gauls, driven into rebellion (A.D. 284, 
285) by the weight of their oppressions, and the distress con- 
sequent on the ravages of the barbarians, as well as the civil 
dissensions of the empire ; again by the Franks and the Alle- 
manni, who are repulsed by the emperors Julian (A.D. 355 to 
361) and Valentinian (A.D. 365 to 375), and by the piratical 
Saxons who ravage the coasts. The Roman power, however, 
still suffices to keep these barbarians from settling in Gaul, 
though it can not abate the pressure on the distant frontier, and 
the decaying strength of the empire only protracts, but can not 
avert, the final catastrophe. 

XI. The Franks (i. e., the Freemen), a confederacy of Ger- 
man nations, are found in the fourth century settled on the 
right bank of the Rhine, from the junction of the River Mayn 
to the sea, and in the latter part of this same century, and 
during a considerable portion of the next, appear to have been 


in alliance with the empire. These Franks preserve their in- 
dependence even while confederated, and each tribe has its king. 
Like the Saxon chieftains, who professed all to derive their lin- 
eage from Woden, the Prankish princes claimed a common an- 
cestor Meroveus (Meerwig, "warrior of the sea"), from whom 
they bore the common title of Merovingians. The era of Me- 
roveus is not ascertainable. 

XII. Upon the downfall of the Roman empire, Gaul becomes 
a prey to the barbarous nations by which the empire is dis- 
membered. There* is no revival of national independence as 
in Britain. The nationality of the Gauls had been lost when 
the extension of the rights of Roman citizenship to all the na- 
tives of the provinces by Caracalla, A.D. 212, merged the dis- 
tinction previously maintained between the conquerors of the 
world and their subjects ; and the national religion, Druidism, 
had sunk beneath the edicts of the emperors and the growing 
influence of Christianity. 

XIII. On the last day of the year 406 the Rhine is crossed 
by a host of barbarians, who never repass that frontier stream. 
They consist of Vandals, Alans, Suevians, Burgundians, and 
other nations. The Vandals, who first reach the bank, are de- 
feated by the Franks, who defend, as the allies of the empire, 
the approach to the frontier ; but, on the arrival of the Alans, 
the Franks in their turn are overcome, and the passage is ef- 
fected. The devastation of Gaul by this horde of invaders is 
terrible ; the inhabitants of many towns are slaughtered or car- 
Tied into captivity, the sanctity of the churches is violated, and 
the open country is laid waste. Armorica (the present Bre- 
tagne), into which the settlement of the British soldiers who 
had followed Maximus the usurper into Gaul, had infused a 
military spirit, assumes and establishes its independence, but 
the rest of Gaul becomes a prey. 

XIV. The Suevians, the Alans, and the Vandals cross the 
Pyrenees into Spain. The Burgundians settle, with the sanc- 
tion of the Roman government, in the east of Gaul, on both 
sides of the Jura range, and on the west bank of the Rhine, 
from the Lake of Geneva to the confluence of the Rhine and 
the Moselle. The Visigoths, moreover, who had been long rav- 
aging both the eastern and western empires, are induced, just 
before the settlement of the Burgundians (A.D. 412 to 414), to 


accept the cession of that part of Gaul which lies to the south 
and west of the Loire. Toulouse becomes their capital. Both 
Burgundians and Visigoths take the name of Romans, and pro- 
fess subjection, which is, however, merely nominal, to the em- 
peror of the west. The lands in the district ceded to them are 
divided between the original possessors and the new comers, 
who give up their unsettled migratory course of life on receiv* 
ing a permanent interest in the soil. 

XV. Hostilities are before long renewed between the troops 
of the empire and these new-settled nations ; but their settle- 
ment opportunely supplies Gaul with the means of defence 
against a fresh invasion. 

XVI. In A.D. 451, Attila, king of the Huns, with an im- 
mense host of barbarians, passes the Rhine at or near the con- 
fluence of the Neckar, destroys Divodurum or Mediomatrici, 
now Metz, and Aduatuca or Tungri, now Tongres, and lays 
siege to Genabum or Aureliani, now Orleans. Aetius, the 
Roman general, supported by the Visigoths and the Burgun- 
dians, and numbering in his ranks Franks, Saxons, Alans, and 
other barbarians, advances against Attila, and obliges him to 
raise the siege and retire toward the frontier. At Durocata- 
launum or Catalauni, now Chalons-sur-Marne, a battle is 
fought, in which victory is doubtful, but which is attended 
with a dreadful slaughter of his forces, and induces Attila to 
evacuate Gaul. 

XVII. During these events the Franks have attracted little 
notice : their subdivision into tribes has weakened their power ; 
and perhaps their fidelity to the empire restrains them from 
pressing it with their attacks. They retain their possessions 
on the right bank of the Rhine, but have obtained by conces- 
sion or conquest some settlements on the left bank, or along the 
banks of the Sc/ielde and the Meuse. In the invasion of Attila, 
some of their tribes march under the banners of Aetius, while 
others attach themselves to the invading host. 

XVIII. It is not until the reign of Clovis, who commences 
his career as king of the Salyans, one of the Frank ish tribes 
settled at Tournay, about A.D. 481, that the Franks assume 
a commanding position. The empire of the west has now fall- 
en, and Italy is under the government of the Ostrogoths ; but 
a relic of the empire remains in Gaul, and the territory in 


which the patricians ^Egidius and his son Syagrius uphold the 
name of Rome is between the possessions of the Visigoths and 
Burgundians and the settlements of the Franks. This territo- 
ry is among the early conquests of Clovis (A.D. 486). He then 
defeats the people of Tongres, and (in A.D. 496) subdues a 
portion of the Allemanns, who have made an inroad into Gaul. 
The conquered people recognize Clovis as their king ; his op- 
portune conversion to Christianity advances his popularity and 
his power in Gaul, as well as his profession of the faith in 
what was deemed an orthodox form, while all the other princes, 
who share among them the once extensive territories of the em- 
pire, are the supporters of Arianism or some other form of doc- 
trine that is looked upon as heretical. 

XIX. The sway of Clovis extends frdm the banks of the Low- 
er Rhine, the cradle of his power, to the Loire, the Rhone, and 
the Ocean, for Armorica had submitted to him. He now de- 
termines, under the pretext of uprooting Arianism, a plea cal- 
culated to secure him numerous supporters beyond his own con- 
fines, to attack Alaric II., king of the Visigoths, whom he de- 
feats and slays at Vougle, in Poitou. The Burgundians, hop- 
ing to share in the spoils of the conquered nation, support Clo- 
vis, but the Ostrogoths of Italy support the Visigoths, and pre- 
vent their entire subjection. A large part of their territory, in- 
cluding Bourdeaux and Toulouse, and extending, perhaps, to 
the foot of the Pyrenees, falls into the hands of Clovis ; but the 
Visigoths preserve the coast of the Mediterranean, together 
with Spain, which they have conquered. The Ostrogoths have 
Provence, and their king Theodoric holds the sovereignty of 
the Visigoths, also, as guardian of their king, his grandson 
Amalric. The assassination of the various Frankish kings by 
Clovis renders him undisputed head of the tribes of his own na- 
tion, and his sovereignty extends over Gaul, with the exception 
of the parts retained by the Ostrogoths, Visigoths, and Bur- 
gundians. Clovis may be considered the real founder of the 
French monarchy. He dies A.D. 511. 


I. AUGUSTUS, holding an assembly of the states of Gaul, B.C. 
27, made a new division of the country, in which he paid more 
attention to equality in the extent of provinces than to any 
distinction of the several tribes that inhabited them. 


II. This arrangement divided Gaul into four provinces : 
1. Narbonensis ; 2. Lugdunensis ; 3. Belgica ; 4. Aquitania. 

III. The province of Aquitania comprised not only the old 
territory of the Aquitani, in the southwest, reaching up to the 
Garumna or Garonne, but also all that portion of Celtic Gaul, 
or the old territory of the Celtse, comprehended between the 
Garumna and the Ligeris or Loire. 

IV. The province of Belgica comprised not only the old ter- 
ritory of the Belgse, but also all that portion of Celtic Gaul 
that lay to the east of the Arar or Saone, and the range of 
Mons Vogesus or Vosge, and extended to the Rhine. 

V. The province of Lugdunensis comprised all that remain- 
ed of Celtic Gaul, which had thus lost one half of its former 
extent. Its capital was Lugdunum, now Lyons, which gave 
name to it. 

VI. The province of Narbonensis was the same with what 
had been before the Roman province, in the south. Its new 
name was derived from the city of Narbo, its capital, now Nar- 

VII. Not long afterward the province of Belgica was dis- 
membered by two provinces being formed out of the districts 
along the Rhine, to which the names of Germania Prima and 
Germania Secunda, or the First and Second Germany, were 
given ; and at a subsequent period the number of provinces 
reached, by successive dismemberments of the larger provinces, 
its maximum of seventeen. 

VIII. These seventeen divisions were as follows : the prov- 
ince of Narbonensis comprised five ; Aquitania, three ; Lug- 
dunensis, four ; and Belgica, five. 

IX. The five subdivisions of Narbonensis were called, re- 
spectively, 1. Narbonensis Prima; 2. Narbonensis Secunda; 
3. Alpes Maritimce ; 4. Viennensis ; 5. Alpes Graice et Pen- 
nines. The limits of these five provinces were as follows : 

Narbonensis Prima comprehended all that portion of the old 
Roman province which lay between the Rhone and the Pyre- 
nees, and answered, therefore, to the modern Languedoc and 
Roussillon. Its capital was Narbo, now Narbonne. Langue- 
doc now corresponds to the departments of the Haute Loire, 
Ardeche, Lozere, Gard, Herault, Aude, Tarn, and Haute Ga- 
ronne ; and Roussillon to the department of the Pyrenees Ori- 



entales. At the beginning of the fifth century, when this part 
of Gaul was under the sway of the Visigoths, the province of 
Narbonensis Prima changed its name to Septimania, and then 
took in, also, the adjacent part of Aquitania Secunda, lying 
along the Garonne ; and its capital was now no longer Narbo, 
but Tolosa, the modern Toulouse. This name of Septimania, 
however, before it became a general term for the whole prov- 
ince, indicated merely the territory around the city of Biterrae 
or Bacterra, now Beziers, where the soldiers of the seventh le- 
gion (Sept imam) had been settled as a military colony. Sido- 
nius Apollinaris, and the chroniclers of the time, make frequent 
mention of the province of Septimania. 

Narbonensis Secunda corresponded to the modern Provence, 
with the exception of an eastern portion lying among the Alps, 
and excepting, also, the cities along the Rhone, together with 
Masdilia, now Marseilles. Its capital was Aquae Sextiac, now 
Aix. Provence now corresponds to the departments of the 
Bouches du Rhone, Far, and Basses Alpes. 

Alpes Maritimce comprehended the Alps on the eastern side 
of Provence, and in the territory of Nice, together with the 
easternmost portion of Dauphine. According to the earlier di- 
vision, the eastern part of this province belonged to Italy. Its 
capital was Ebrodunum, now Embrun. The eastern part of 
Dauphine now answers to that of the departments of Isere and 
Haules Alpes. 

Viennensis comprehended the western part of Savoy, all 
Dauphine (except the easternmost portion, which belonged to 
the Alpes Maritimas), and the territories of Avenio, now Avi- 
gnon, Arelate, now Aries, and Massilia, now Marseilles. Its 
capital was Vienna, now Vienne. Dauphine now answers to 
the departments of the Hautes Alpes, Isere, and Drome. 

Alpes Graice et Pennince comprehended the modern Valais, 
and the western part of Savoy. Its capital was Civitas Cen- 
tronum, now Montiers. 

X. The three subdivisions of Aquitania were called, respect- 
ively, 1. Novem Populana ; 2. Aquitania Prima ; 3. Aquita- 
nia Secunda. The limits of these three provinces were as 
follows : 

Novem Populana comprehended what had previously been 
Aquitania in the stricter sense of the term, that is, Aquitania 


before the enlargement of the province by Augustus, or the 
country in the southwest between the Pyrenees and Garonne. 
Who the nine tribes or communities were that gave name to 
this subdivision is not clearly known. Its capital was Civitas 
Ausciorum, now Auch. 

Aquitania Prima comprehended the eastern half of that por- 
tion of Gallia Celtica which Augustus had added to Aquitania 
proper. It corresponded, therefore, to what used to be Berrt, 
Bourbonnois, Auvergne, Rouergue, Querci, and Limousin,, or 
the present departments of Cher, Indre, Allier, Cantal, Puy 
de Dome, Tarn et Garonne, Correze, and Haute Vienne. Its 
capital was Civitas Biturigum, now Bourges. 

Aquitania Secunda comprehended that part of Guyenne that 
lay to the north of the Garonne, and also Angoumois, Poitou, 
Saintonge, and part of Bordelois, or a portion of the present 
departments of Lot, Tarn et Garonne, and Gironde, together 
with those of Vendee, Deux Sevres, Vienne, and Charente In- 
ferieure. Its capital was Civitas Burdigalensium or Burdi- 
gala, now Bourdeaux. 

XI. The four subdivisions of Lugdunensis were called, re- 
spectively, 1. Lugdunensis Prima ; 2. Lugdunensis Secunda ; 
3. Lugdunensis Tertia ; 4. Lugdunensis Quarta, or Senonia. 
The limits of these four provinces were as follows : 

Lugdunensis Prima comprehended the modern Lyonnais, 
Bourgogne, Nivernois, and a part of Champagne, or the pres- 
ent departments of the Rhone, Loire, Yonne, Cote d? Or, Saone 
et Loire, Ain, Nievre, and Haute Marne. Its capital was Lug- 
dunum, now Lyons. 

Lugdunensis Secunda comprehended modern Normandie, or 
the present departments of Seine Infer ieure, Eure, Calvados, 
Manche, and Orne. Its capital was Rotomagus, now Rouen. 

Lugdunensis Tertia comprehended modern Touraine, Le 
Maine, L'Anjou, and all Bretagne, or the present departments 
of Indre et Loire, Sarthe, Mayenne, Loire Inferieure, Morbi- 
han, Finisterre, Cotes du Nord, and He et Vilaine. Its capi- 
tal was Civitas Turonum, now Tours. 

Lugdunensis Quarta, or Senonia, which last name is de- 
rived from that of the Senones, comprehended nearly all Cham- 
pagne south of the Marne (the ancient Matrona), the south- 
ern part of the Isle, de France, Chartrain, Perche, and Orle- 


annais, or a part of the present departments of Marne, Seine 
et Marne, and Oise, together with those of Eure et Loire, 
Loiret, Loir et Cher, Yonne, &c. Its capital was Civitas Se- 
nonum, now Sens. 

XII. The five subdivisions of Belgica were called, respective- 
ly, 1. Belgica Prima ; 2. Belgica Secunda; 3. Germania Pri- 
ma, or Superior ; 4. Germania Secunda, or Inferior ; 5. Max- 
ima Sequanorum. The limits of these five provinces were as 
follows : 

Belgica Prima comprehended the modern duchy of Treves, 
a part of Luxembourg, and Lorraine. At the present day Lor- 
raine answers to the departments of the Meuse, Moselle, 
Meurthe, and Vosges. Its capital Mias Civitas Treviroram, 
now Treves. 

Belgica Secunda comprehended the northern part of Cham- 
pagne, the northern half of the Isle de France, Picardie, Ar- 
tois, French Hainault, and the territory of Tournay, or the 
present departments of Ardennes, Seine et Oise, north of the 
Seine, Oise, Somme, Pas de Calais, &c. Its capital was 
Civitas Remorum, now Rheims. 

Germania Prima comprehended all the country along the 
left bank of the Rhine, from the range of Mount Vocetius, 
an eastern arm of Jura, on the northern confines of the Helvetii, 
down to the confluence of the Obringa with the Rhine, near 
the modern Bingen. The French departments of the Haut 
Rhin and Bas Rhin correspond to a part of this, the remainder 
lying at present out of France. Its capital was Civitas Ma- 
gontiacensium or Magontiacum, now Mainz or Mayence. 

Germania Secunda comprehended all the country along the 
left bank of the Rhine, from the mouth of the Obringa to the 
Vahalis in length, and from the Rhine to the territory of the 
Nervii in breadth. It answered, therefore, to a part of the 
Netherlands, and to a portion, also, of the Prussian possessions 
west of the Rhine. Its capital was Colonia Agrippina or 
Agrippinensis, now Cologne. The land of the Batavi, at this 
period, did not any longer belong to Gaul, but was possessed 
by the Franks and Frisii. 

Maxima Sequdnorum comprehended all the country which 
Augustus had taken from Gallia Celtica on the east side of the 
Arar or Sadne, and had added to Belgica. It answered, therefore, 


to Franche Comte, the western half of Switzerland, and south- 
ern Alsace, or to the present departments of Haute Sadne, 
Doubs, Jura, &c. Its capital was Civitas Vesontiensium or 
Besontium, now Besangon. 

OBS. 1. This arrangement of provinces is taken from the Notitia Provincia- 
rum Gallia, which, in all probability, dates from the time of Dioclesian and Con- 
stantine. The division, however, must have existed at a much earlier period, 
since we find allusions long before this to the existence of numerous provinces 
in Gaul. 

2. Of the seventeen provinces enumerated above, the two Germanys, the two 
Belgicas, and Viennensis, had consular governors ; the others had presides at 
their head. (Notit. dig. Imp., c. 48.) 


THE principal mountain chains of Gallia are six in number, 
namely : 

1. Monies Pyrencei. 4. Mons Jura. 

2. Alpes. 5. Mons Vogesus. 

3. Mons Cebenna. 6. Mons (et Silva) Arduenna. 

I. The Monies Pyrencei have already been described in the 
account given of ancient Hispania. The whole range, as be- 
fore remarked, is about two hundred and ninety-four miles in 

II. Alpes, called by the Greek writers at "AAneic;, and by us 
the Alps, is the name of a large mountain system separating 
Gallia, Helvetia, and Germania from Italia. The appellation 
is supposed to come from a Celtic word Alb or Alp, signify- 
ing " lofty," in allusion to the superior elevation of the chain. 
The Alps extend from the Sinus Flanaticus, or Gulf of Car- 
nero, at the top of the Gulf of Venice, and the sources of the 
River Colapis, now the Kulpe, to Vada Sabatia, now Savona, 
on the Gulf of Genoa. The whole extent, which is in a cres- 
cent form, is nearly six hundred British miles. It is very dif- 
ficult to obtain any precise measure of the breadth of the chain. 
If we take the direct distance from Bellinzona, on the Italian 
side, to Altorf, on the Swiss side, which certainly does not 
comprehend the whole breadth of the Alpine mass, we find this 
to be about fifty miles of direct distance. From Aosta to Fri- 
bourg, across the Valley of the Rhone, the direct distance is 
about seventy miles ; but this measurement comprehends the 
breadth of the main chain, and the offset which runs from St. 
Gothard to the Jura, with the intervening valley. East of the 


Orisons the range increases considerably in breadth ; from the 
Wurm See to a point a little north of Verona is a direct dis- 
tance of one hundred and fifty miles. As the Alps belong more 
naturally to the geography of Italy, a more particular account 
of them will be given in the description of that country. 

III. Mons Gehenna, commencing in the country of the Volcse 
Tectosages, in the south of Gaul. This chain ran in a north- 
eastern direction along the borders of Narbonensis, communi- 
cated by a side chain with the mountains of the Arverni to the 
northwest, and, continuing still its northeastern direction y final- 
ly connected itself with the range of Jura among the Sequani 
and HelvetiL A northern arm also connected it with Mount 
Vogesus. The modern name is the Gevennes. These mount- 
ains are spoken of by both Greek and Latin writers. The 
more ordinary form of the name is Cevenna ; Pliny, however, 
uses Gebenna ; and some editors of Caesar give the preference 
to Cevenna. The root of the name is supposed to exist in the 
Cymric cefn, " a mountain ridge." Strabo calls the range TO 
Keppevov opo$, while Ptolemy uses the plural form TO Keupeva 
opij. Caesar crossed these mountains in his contest with the 
Arverni and their confederates, under Vercingetorix. The 
presumed difficulty of the passage had encouraged the Arverni, 
who deemed themselves covered from attack by these mount- 
ains as by a wall. The passage was made early in the year, 
and Csesar had to open a road through snow six feet deep. The 
fastnesses of these mountains afforded refuge to the Huguenots 
in the religious wars of France. 

IV. Mons Jura, extending from the Rhodanus, or Rhone, to 
Augusta Rauracorum, now Aug-st, on the Rhine, separated 
Helvetia from the territory of the Sequani. The range retains 
its ancient name, which is said to come from the Celtic Jou- 
rag, " the domain of God, or Jupiter." 

V. Mons Vogesus, or, according to some MSS. of Ceesar r 
Vosegus, now Vosges (in German Vogesen or Wasgan), a 
chain of mountains commencing in the territory of the Lin- 
gones, and separating the Leuoi from the Sequani, and the 
Mediomatrioi from the Rauraci, Triboci, and Nemetes. They 
belong to Belgic Gaul, and for a great part of their course run 
nearly parallel with the Upper Rhine. Csesar places in these 
mountains the sources of the Mosu, or Meuse. 


VI. Mons (et Silva) Ar duenna, & mountainous, or, rather, 
hilly and woody region in Gallia Belgica, reaching, according 
to Caesar, from the Rhine and the territories of the Treveri to 
those of the Nervii. The heights in this tract were anciently 
covered with an immense forest, though Strabo says that the 
trees were not very lofty. The modern name for the chain is 
the Ardennes, though the region is more commonly called the 
Forest of Ardennes. The forest is much reduced in extent at 
the present day, but still it renders the department which bears 
its name one of the best wooded in France. The name is said 
to come from the Celtic Arden, " a forest." If such be the 
meaning of the term, it will account for the fact that the Ro- 
man goddess of forests, Diana, appears sometimes with the ep- 
ithet Ar duenna ; and Montfaucon shows that a superstitious 
belief in this goddess existed in the Ardennes till the thirteenth 


THE principal promontories of Gallia were ten in number, 
namely, five along the western and northwestern coast, and 
five along the southern coast, as follows : 

1. On the Western and Northwestern Coast. 

I. Curianum Promontorium, on the coast of Aquitania, in 
a western direction from Burdigala, and near the town of Boii, 
the modern Buch. It is now Cape Feret, in Guienne, or the 
department of the Gironde, below which the Bay of Arcachon 
runs into the land. 

II. Santonum Promontorium, at the mouth of the Garum- 
na, and just below the island of Uliarus, or Oleron. It is now 
Pointe d*Arvert. Gosselin, however, is in favor of Pointe de 

III. Pictonum Promontorium, to the north of the island of 
Uliarus. According to D'Anville, it is the modern Pointe de 
VAiguillon, at the mouth of the Sevre Niortoise. Gosselin, 
however, makes it Pointe de Boisvinet. 

IV. GobcBum Promontorium, in the territory of the Osismii, 
and near Brivates Portus, or Brest. It is now Cape St. Make 
in Bretagne, department of Finisterre. 

V. Itium Promontorium, near the Portus Itius, on the Fre- 


turn Gallicum. It is now Cape Grisnez, between Boulogne 
and Calais. 

2. On the Southern Coast. 

I. Aphrodisium Promontorium, called, also, Pyrenaum Prom- 
ontorium, and Pyrena Promontorium, the termination of the 
Pyrenees, on the Mediterranean coast. It is now Cape Creux. 
Strabo calls it TO rrjg HvprjvTjs "Aicpov. It derived the name 
Aphrodisium from the circumstance of there being upon it a 
temple of Venus Pyrencea, or 'A0poc5m/ Tlvpiyvaia. This prom- 
ontory has already been mentioned in the account of ancient 
Hispania (p. 25). 

II. Setium Promontorium, to the nprtheast of Agatha, the 
modern Agde. It is now Cape Cette. Strabo speaks of an isl- 
and near this promontory named Blascon, which is evidently 
the modern Brescon. 

III. Mesua Collis, described by Mela as almost entirely sur- 
rounded by the sea, and only connected with the continent by 
a narrow causeway or neck of land. It has been confounded 
by some with the Setium Promontorium, but must be looked 
for farther east, where the modern Mese, though now inland, 
recalls apparently the ancient name. 

IV. Zao Promontorium, described by Pliny as lying to 
the east of Massilia. According to Ukert, it is now Bee 
de Sormion. Others, however, are in favor of Cape de la 

V. Citharistes Promontorium^ placed by Avienus to the 
west of Massilia, but by Ptolemy between Taurentum and 
Olbia. It is now probably Cape de VAigle. 


THE chief rivers of Gallia are eight in number, and may be 
divided into three classes, namely, 1. Those falling into the 
Sinus AquitanicuS) or the large bay between the mouth of the 
Garumna and the confines of Spain, and which is now regard- 
ed as part of the Bay of Biscay ', though once accustomed to 
be called the Gulf of Gascony, and the Bay of France. 
2. Those falling into the Oceanus Britannicus, Fretum Gal- 
licum, and Oceanicus Germanicus. 3. Those falling into the 
Sinus Gallicus. 


1. Rivers falling- into the Sinus Aquitanicus. 

I. Aturis (6 "Arovpis), called by Lucan Aturus, and by Ti- 
bullus Atur, and now the Adour, rose in the Pyrenees, in the 
territory of the Bigerrones, flowed through the territory of the 
Tarbelli, and fell into the sea at Lapurdum, now Bayonne. 
The length of this river is about one hundred and ninety-four 
miles. The root of the name has been sought by some in the 
Cymric dur, " water." 

II. Garumna (6 Tapovvds), called, also, Garunna, now the 
Garonne, rose in the Pyrenees, in the territory of the Con- 
venfB, flowed through the country of the Volcce Tectosages, 
Tolosates, Nitiobrlges, Vasates, Civisci, and Biturlges, passed 
by Burdigala, or Bourdeaux, and fell into the sea at Noviore- 
gum, below the Santonum Promontorium, and now Roy an. 
Opposite Novioregum lay the island of Antros, now probably 
Corduan. There was a popular belief that this island rose 
and fell with the tide, being merely suspended, as it were, 
upon the waters. Mela describes the Garumna as shallow, 
and not well fitted for navigation, except when its waters 
were increased by the winter rains, or the melting of the snow 
in the spring. Near its mouth, however, it acquired considera- 
ble volume from the sea- water and the tides. The Garonne 
is now navigable to Toulouse, the ancient Tolosa, whence the 
Canal of Languedoc is cut to the Mediterranean. Its length 
is about three hundred and sixty miles. Among the tributa- 
ries of the Garumna the three following may be named as the 
principal ones : 1. The Tarnis, now the Tarn, rising in 
Mons Cebenna, among the Gabdli, in what is now the depart- 
ment of Lozere, and falling into the Garumna about twenty- 
two miles above Agennum, the modern Agen. It was re- 
markable for the clearness of its waters, and its sands were 
auriferous. 2. The Oltis, now the Lot, rising among the Ga- 
bali, and falling into the Garumna in the territory of the Ni- 
tiobriges. It receives, in the early part of its course, a tribu- 
tary of its own, namely, the Triobris, now the Truyere. 
3. The Duranius, now the Dordogne, rising among the Ar- 
verni, and falling into the Garumna below Burdigala. After 
the junction of the Dordogne, the united rivers now bear the 
name of the Gironde. 


III. Liger (6 AeiyTjp), now the Loire, rose in Mons Gehenna, 
among the Helvii, in what is now the department of Ardeche. 
For about the first half of its course it flowed in a northern di- 
rection, and then, turning to the west, fell into the sea, between 
the Pictones and Namnetes. The whole course of the Loire is 
estimated at six hundred and seventy miles, of which five hun- 
dred and twelve are navigable. Among the tributaries of the 
Liger may be named the following: 1. The Elaver, now the 
Allier, rising in Mons Cebenna, and falling into the Liger near 
Noviodunum, the modern Nevers. By the later writers it was 
called Elaris and Elauris. 2. The Carts, now the Cher, rising 
among the Bituriges Cubi, and falling into the Liger on the 
southern side, near Ccesarodunum, or yours. 3. The Vigenna, 
now the Vienne, rising among the Lemovices, and falling into 
the Liger a little below the junction of the Caris. 4. The 
Meduana, now the Mayenne, coming in from the north, and 
falling into the Liger near Andecavi, now Angers, which lay on 
its banks a short distance above the junction. 

2. Rivers falling into the Oceanus Britannicus, Fretum Gal- 

licum, and Oceanus Germanicus. 

I. Sequdna (6 'ErjKodva^), now the Seine, rose in the terri- 
tory of the Lingones, flowed through the country of the Se- 
nones, Parisii, Eburones, and Velocasses, and fell into the sea 
between the Caletes and Lexovii. The entire course of the 
Seine is estimated at five hundred miles, for nearly three hun- 
dred and fifty of which it is navigable. By ^Ethicus, a writer 
of the fourth century, this river is called the Geon or Geobonna. 
Among the tributaries of the Sequana may be mentioned the 
following : 1. The Autura or Audura, now the Eure, coming in 
from the south, and falling into the Sequana at Uggadis, now 
Pont de VArche, between Rouen and Evreux. 2. The Icau- 
na, now the Yonne, also coming in from the south, and falling 
into the Sequana at Conddte, the modern Montereaufault. 

3. The Matrona, now the Marne, rising in the territory of the 
Lingones, and falling into the Sequana at Carentonium, now 
Charenton, a little above Lutetia, or Paris. 4. The Isdra, 
called, also, Msia and (Esia, now the Oise, which receives the 
Axona, now Aisne, and falls into the Sequana a short distance 
below Lutetia. 


II. Scaldis (called by Ptolemy 6 Ta6ov6a$), now the Schelde, 
as the Germans call it, or the E scant, as it is termed in French. 
Its more usual English name is Scheldt. This river rose in 
the territory of the Veromandui, and fell into the Fretum Gal- 
licum, where the Oceanus Germanicus commences, between 
the Nervii and Caninefates. The total length of this river is 
estimated at about two hundred and ten miles. 

III. Mosa (6 Motraf), now the Meuse, or, as the Dutch call 
it, the Maas, rose among the Lingones, in a part of the chain 
of Mons Vogesus, received the Sabis, now Sambre, at Namur- 
cum, now Namur, and, not far from its mouth, the Vahalis, 
now Waal, the left or southern arm of the Rhine, and then fell 
into the sea at no great distance below the mouth of the Rhine. 
The mouth of the Mosa was called Helium Ostium, now Bri- 
hel and Helfoet. Ptolemy, however, calls this the western 
mouth of the Rhine, TO dvafunbv 'Pqvov Trorapov aro/za. 

IV. Rhenus, now the Rhine. A description of this stream 
will be found under the head of Germania, to which country it 
naturally belongs. 

3. Rivers falling 1 into the Sinus Gallicus and Mediterranean. 

I. Rhoddnus (6 Todavd^), now the Rhone, rose in the Lepon- 
tine Alps, not far from the sources of the Rhine, flowed through 
the land of the Nantuates, Seduni, Allobroges, Helvii, Sega- 
launi, and Vocontii, and fell into the Sinus Gallicus, or Gulf 
of Lyons. It was, and still is, a large and rapid river, and, in 
the earlier part of its course, passed through the Lacus Le- 
manus, or Lake of Geneva. Its whole course is about four 
hundred miles. In Strabo's time it was navigable some dis- 
tance up ; but its mouths are now so full of rocks, brought down 
from the mountains by its impetuous current, that no ship can 
enter them. The upward navigation in smaller vessels can 
only, on account of the rapid current, be performed by draught 
or steam. The Rhone at present enters the Mediterranean by 
four mouths. The number in former days is differently given 
by different writers, varying from two to seven. The discrep- 
ancy arose, probably, from the changes constantly made by the 
rapid current of the stream, so that a small number of mouths 
might be in a short time increased, and again a large number 
rapidly diminished. Pliny speaks of three mouths, namely, 1. 


Os Hispaniense, on the side toward Spain ; 2. Os Metapinum, or 
more probably Metlnum, taking its name from the island of Me- 
Una, now Tines ; 3. Os Massalioticum, the largest of the three. 
As far as any certainty can be arrived at, the first of these an- 
swers to the Grau d? Orgon, while the second is subdivided now 
into three openings, le Grand Grau, le Grau St. Anne, and le 
Grau de Sauzette. The term Grau, written, also, Gras, is cor- 
rupted, in all probability, from the Latin ad Gradus, the later 
appellation for the bay formed by the eastern mouth of the 
stream. In the war with the Cimbri, the mouth of the Rhone 
being choked up with mud and sand, it was dangerous, if not 
impracticable, for vessels of burden to enter. Marius, there- 
fore, set his army to work at it, and having caused a cut to be 
made capable of receiving large ships, he turned a great part 
of the river into it, thus drawing it, says Plutarch, to a part 
of the coast where the opening into the sea was easy and se- 
cure. This cut was called Fossa Mariana, or, in the plural 
form, Fossce Mariana. Traces of this canal still remain, and 
the name Fossa is still preserved in that of the village of Foz, 
which stands on the spot where the canal entered the sea. 

Among the tributaries of the Rhone may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing : 1. The Arar orArdris (*Apap, 6), now the Saone, rose in 
Mons Vogesus, and fell into the Rhone at Lugdunum, now Lyons. 
Caesar speaks of it as a remarkably smooth running river, and 
hence some derive the name from the Cymric arav, "mild," 
" gentle." Ammianus Marcellinus, who flourished toward the 
close of the fourth century, first calls the Arar by the name of 
Saucona, speaking of the latter as a common appellation on 
the part of the inhabitants in that quarter, " Ararim quern 
Sauconam appellant" (xv., 11). Gregory of Tours, at a later 
period, styles it Saugona. From this the transition to the 
modern name is an easy one. 2. The Dubis (Aoitf^), now 
Doubs, rose in the Jura range, flowed by Vesontio or Beson- 
tium, now Besangon, and fell into the Arar. Some of the MSS. 
of Caesar give the ancient name of this river as Adduabis, Al- 
duabis, &c., but these are mere corruptions. 3. The Isara, 
called, also, the Isar (6 *loap), now Isfre, rose in the Alpes 
Graiae, and fell into the Rhodanus above Valentia, now Va- 
lence. 4. The Druentia, now Durance, rose at the foot of the 
Cottian Alps, and fell into the Rhodanus a short distance be- 


low Avenio, now Avignon. 5. The Vardo, flowing to the north 
of Nemausus, or Nismes, and falling into the Rhodanus near 
Ugernum, now Beaucaire. 

II. Varus, now the Var, rose in the Alpes Maritimce, in 
Mom Gema, now Camelione, and fell into the Mediterranean 
to the west of Nicaea, or Nice. It formed the boundary, at one 
period, between Gallia and Italia in this quarter. 


I. AT the period when they first became known in history, 
the Gauls were by no means destitute of the arts of life and of 
social and national culture. The Celti, known to the Massil- 
ians, practiced hospitality and held public assemblies, in which 
they cultivated music, including bardic poetry. The states of 
Armorica (Normandy and Eretagne) were existing in the time 
of Pytheas, who termed the inhabitants honorable or respecta- 
ble people. The Veneti, forming part of these states, were 
skillful in ship-building and in maritime affairs before the in- 
tercourse between them and the Romans began. Gaul seems 
to have had a sort of feudal constitution, in which the influ- 
ence of clanship and alliances between kindred tribes was a 
very prominent feature, and this system appears to have been 
established previously to the earliest historical accounts of the 
Gauls, namely, before the invasion of Italy by the Bituriges 
and their confederated clans. 

II. No two nations were ever more contrasted in their social 
and political institutions than the Gauls and Germans. Among 
the latter, all the members of the community were freemen 
and warriors, wore the arms of freemen, and took their place 
in battle and in the deliberative assemblies of the people. The 
case was widely different among the Gauls. Caesar informs 
us that throughout all Gaul there were two dignified orders ; 
these were the sacerdotal order, or Druids, and the military 
caste. " These alone," says Caesar, " are held in any respect; 
the common people are regarded nearly in the light of slaves, 
and undertake nothing of themselves, nor are they admitted to 
councils. Many, oppressed by debts, or by the exaction of ex- 
cessive tributes, or the injuries of the powerful, surrender them- 
selves into slavery under the nobles, who exercise over them 
the right of masters. The Druids manage all the affairs of re- 


ligion, public and private sacrifices, and are the interpreters of 
all divine things. They are held in great respect as the in- 
structors of youth. It is their business to settle all disputes, 
private and public. In controversies respecting boundaries, or 
succession to property, and in criminal accusations, they are 
judges and appoint punishments. If any person, in either a 
private or public capacity, refuses to submit to their decision, 
they interdict him from sacrifices. This is the most severe 
punishment. The interdicted are regarded as impious and 
abominable, and they are outlawed, and avoided by all. One 
chief Druid presides over the rest, and on his death a successor 
is appointed by election. The Druids, at a certain time of the 
year, hold a sitting in a consecrated njace within the territory 
of the Carnutes, which is considered the centre of Gaul. To 
this assembly a final appeal is made in all controversies." 

III. Strabo gives a somewhat different account of the digni- 
fied orders among the Gauls. He says that there are three 
classes of men held in great esteem among them, the Bards, 
the Ouates (Vates), and the Druids : the Bards, he adds, are 
singers and poets ; the Ouates perform sacred rites and study 
the doctrine of nature ; and the Druids, in addition to natural 
philosophy (fyvoLoXoyia), devote themselves also to the study of 
ethics. It seems that these three classes, mentioned by Strabo, 
come under the Druidical order of Caesar, otherwise two are 
omitted by that writer. Ammianus Marcellinus mentions the 
same three orders of Strabo under the names of Bardi, Euha- 
ges, and Druidce. The Bards are mentioned also by Festus : 
" Bardus Gallice cantor appellatur, qui virorum fortium laudes 
canit" The same description and epithet were given to them 
by Posidonius in a passage preserved by Athenaeus, and cited 
from the latter writer by Casaubon in his commentary on Strabo. 

IV. We learn from Strabo that women sometimes took part 
in the performances of the Druids, and that in an island near 
the mouth of the Loire, ceremonies were performed similar to 
those of Ceres and Proserpina. Vopiscus declares, from the 
testimony of contemporary writers, that British Druidesses 
predicted the death of Dioclesian. He also relates that Aure- 
lian consulted Gaulish Druidesses. In the life of Numerian, 
he says, that Dioclesian first conceived the hopes of his future 
greatness from the prediction of a Gaulish Druidess. 


V. The several states of Gaul were aristoeratical republics. 
In these it was customary to elect a prince or chief governor 
annually, and a general was likewise appointed by the multi- 
tude to take the command in war. Strabo says that they had 
one peculiar custom in their assemblies. If any person pres- 
ent made a noise and disturbed the speaker, an officer was sent 
to him with a drawn sword, who at first, by threats, endeavor- 
ed to enforce silence, and if not obeyed, cut off a part of the 
cloak of the offender, of sufficiently large size to render what 
remained completely useless. 

VI. Boldness, levity, and fickleness, a want of firmness and 
self-command, are by the ancient writers universally ascribed 
to the Gauls as their prominent characteristics. Strabo de- 
scribes them in rather a favorable point of view. He says 
that " the Gauls in general are irascible, and always ready to 
fight, but otherwise honest and good natured. When irritated, 
they speedily hasten in crowds to arms, and that openly and 
without circumspection, so that they are easily circumvented 
and defeated by stratagem, for at all times and places it is easy 
to provoke them to engage in quarrels, to which they bring no 
other resources than violence and boldness. They are like- 
wise easily persuaded to a good purpose, and are ready for in- 
struction and intellectual culture. They are all naturally fond 
of war ; they fight better on horseback than on foot ; the fur- 
ther they live toward the north and the ocean, the more war- 
like they are. The Belgse are said to be the most valiant of 
all. Among the Belgse, the Bellovaci are the bravest, and 
next to them the Suessiones." 

VII. All the ancient writers ascribe to the Gauls the great- 
est degree of unchastity and impurity in their manners. Dk>- 
dorus Siculus, Athenseus, and other writers have preserved ac- 
counts of them, which indicate that they lived in a way which 
betokened an almost total absence of modesty or shame. 

VIII. The Gauls practiced agriculture, and were not unskill- 
ful in tillage, otherwise their country would not have support- 
ed so great a multitude of inhabitants as it is said to have main- 
tained. Strabo states that most of the Gauls were accustomed 
to sleep upon the ground, and they sat on couches when they 
took their meals. Their food was chiefly of milk and flesh of 
various kinds, especially of swine, either fresh or salted. Their 


hogs, which were kept in the fields, were of remarkable height, 
strength, and swiftness, and as dangerous to those who ap- 
proached them without heed as wolves. The Gauls built their 
houses of planks and hurdles, and of a round form, with large 
roofs. So numerous were their herds of oxen and swine, that 
not only Rome, but the rest of Italy, was supplied from them 
with salt provisions. 

IX. To the open and impetuous disposition of the Gauls be- 
longed, according to the ancient writers, much of folly and boast- 
ful arrogance, and a remarkable fondness for ornament and dis- 
play. They wore bracelets around their arms and wrists, and 
those who were in office had robes dyed, and embroidered with 
gold. In consequence of this levity of disposition, they were 
intolerably arrogant when conquerors, and when defeated they 
became dismayed. They had the barbarous and strange habit, 
common to many northern nations, of carrying, when they re- 
turned from battle, the heads of their enemies suspended from 
their horses' necks, and of hanging them up against the gates 
of their towns, or of preserving them at home in chests. 

X. The dress and personal habits of the Gauls were so re- 
markable as to afford epithets for national distinctions. Gallia 
Braccata and Gallia Togata are terms that have been already 
explained by us. The epithet Comata also had reference to 
the custom of the Gauls in leaving the hair uncut. Like the 
long-haired princes of the race of Meroveus, the warriors of an- 
cient Gaul were celebrated for their long, flowing locks of flax- 
en or yellow hair, which they kept tied in tufts behind their 
heads. The Gallic sagum, or cloak, was parti-colored and em- 
broidered. Not only the women, but the men, ornamented 
their necks and arms with a profusion of golden chains, rings, 
and bracelets. The whole nation are said to have been re- 
markable for personal cleanliness. 

XL The arms of the Gauls were commonly battle-axes and 
swords. But the gasum, or heavy javelin, was their most re- 
markable weapon. The chariots, armed with scythes, used by 
the Britons in battle, were not peculiar to them ; some of the 
Gauls had a similar custom of fighting, as Strabo informs us. 
Niebuhr's account of the appearance of a Gallic army is an ex- 
tremely graphic one. " Every wealthy Gaul adorned himself 
with gold: even when he appeared in battle he wore golden 


chains upon his arms and golden rings around his neck. Their 
mantles, checkered, and displaying all the colors of the rainbow, 
are still the picturesque costume of their kindred race the High- 
landers, who have laid aside the braccce of the ancient Gauls. 
Their great bodies, long, shaggy yellow hair, and uncouth fea- 
tures, made their appearance frightful ; their figures, their sav- 
age courage, their immense numbers, the deafening noise of 
the numerous horns and trumpets in their armies, and the ter- 
rible devastation which followed their victories, paralyzed with 
terror the nations whom they invaded." 

XII. From the accounts of all the ancient writers, carefully 
compared together, the Gauls appear to have been a remarka- 
bly tall, large-bodied, fair, blue-eyed, yellow-haired people. As, 
however, the Germans are no longer a light-haired race, so the 
descendants of the Gauls have lost the yellow hair of their fore- 
fathers. Although there is a great intermixture of northern 
German races in the present population of France, the Visi- 
goths and Burgundians having settled in the south, and the Al- 
lemanni, Franks, and Northmen in the northern parts, all of 
whom had a complexion at least equally fair with that of the 
ancient Gauls, yet the modern are far from being a very fair 
people. Black hair is, in the middle provinces of France, more 
frequent than very light. In Paris it has been observed that a 
chestnut color is the most frequent hue of the hair. This ap- 
pears from the average number of those admitted in some hos- 
pitals. Neither are the French so huge and almost gigantic in 
their stature as were the ancient Gauls. We must infer, there- 
fore, that the physical character of the race has varied mate- 
rially within fifteen centuries. 

XIII. Although so much has been written on the religion of 
the Gauls, the extent of our real information on this subject is 
extremely limited. The Greeks and Romans fancied that they 
recognized the objects of their own worship in the gods adored 
by all other nations; and when Caesar therefore informs us 
that the Gauls rendered divine honors to five of the Roman di- 
vinities, we are to understand by the assertion that the five 
principal objects of adoration among the Celtic people bore 
some resemblance in their attributes, and in the ceremonial of 
the worship paid to them, to the Roman gods with whom 
Caesar identified them. These five divinities were Mercury,, 



Apollo, Mars, Jupiter, and Minerva. Mercury, as Caesar de- 
clares, was the principal object of religious worship, and to him 
the most numerous images were erected. It seems that the 
Gauls were idolaters, and that their principal god was, like 
Mercury, the inventor of arts, the conductor and guardian in 
journeys, and the patron of gain and profit in merchandise. 
Such, we are told, were the attributes of the Gaulish Mercury. 
Apollo, or the Gaulish deity taken for Apollo by the Romans, 
was a protector against diseases ; Minerva was the promoter 
of arts; Jupiter, the ruler of the heavenly firmament; Mars, 
the god of war. It is probable that Taranis was the Celtic 
god whom the Romans identified with Jupiter, because tar an 
is the Cymric word for thunder. ^ 

XIV. Of all the pagan nations, the Gauls appear to have had 
the most sanguinary rites. They may well be compared in 
this respect with the Ashantees, Dahomehs, and other nations 
of Western Africa. Caesar says that, in threatening diseases, 
and the imminent dangers of war, they made no scruple to sac- 
rifice men, or engage themselves by a vow to such sacrifices. 
In these they made use of the ministry of the Druids ; for it 
was a prevalent opinion among them that nothing but the life 
of a man could atone for the life of a man, insomuch that they 
had established even public sacrifices of that kind. Some pre- 
pared huge colossal figures of osier twigs, into which they put 
men alive, and, setting fire to them, consumed those within in 
the flames. They preferred for victims such as had been convict- 
ed of theft, robbery, or other crimes, believing them the most 
acceptable to the gods ; but, when real criminals were want- 
ing, the innocent were often made to suffer. Strabo says that 
there were also other immolations of human beings ; some they 
shot with arrows or hung upon crosses, and a colossus being 
made of rushes fastened with wood, sheep and beasts of every 
kind, and men also, were burned together therein. 

XV. The funeral rites of the Gauls were connected with their 
notions respecting the state of the dead. They believed in a 
future state, and the transmigration of souls. Their funer- 
als were, as Caesar informs us, magnificent and sumptuous 
according to their means. They brought to the funeral pile all 
the objects to which the deceased had been most attached, even 
his favorite animals ; and a little before the age of Csesar it had 


been the custom to burn with the dead even slaves and depend- 
ents who were known to have been objects of his affection. It 
is added by another writer that these immolations were some- 
times voluntary, and that friends and relations cast themselves 
upon the funeral pile willingly, in order to live in a future 
world with the deceased. (Prichard, Researches, vol. iii., p. 
174, seqq.) 


I. STRABO declares that Gallia Narbonensis produced the same 
fruits of the earth as Italy. " To the northward of Mons Ce- 
benna," he adds, " olives and figs are wanting, but the soil is 
fertile in other productions, though it hardly brings grapes to 
full maturity." 

II. Every other produce, according to the same authority, 
abounded throughout Gaul, which bore much corn, millet, &c., 
and supported herds of all kinds. There was no waste land, 
except some tracts occupied by forests and morasses, and even 
these were not desert, but contained inhabitants, whose num- 
ber was greater than their civilization. 

III. Rome consumed a large quantity of the hams and sau- 
sages of Gaul, which were of an excellent quality. The orig- 
inal breed of swine, which existed in Celtic times, is still found 
in Normandy, especially in the valley of Auge. 

IV. Some of the rivers of Gaul contained in their sands pel- 
lets of gold. The Ruteni, whose country corresponds to the 
modern Rovergne, worked mines of silver. Iron appears to 
have been the metal best known. The Gauls had invented a 
combination of copper and tin, which had the appearance of 
silver, and they made out of this various ornaments for their 
vehicles and harness. They were also skilled in the manufac- 
ture of glass-ware. 



(A.) NAMES. 

I. THIS division of Gallia was, as we have already remarked, 
called at first Provincia Romana, from the first part of which 
name was subsequently derived the modern appellation of 


Provence. (For an account of the origin of this province, con- 
sult * vi., p. 76.) 

II. It was also called Gallia Narbonensis, from its capital 
Narbo, the modern Nar bonne. The corresponding Greek 
names for Narbonensis are Nap6o>vmf and NapfiwvT/ffm. 

III. It was also termed Gallia Braccata, from the braccce 
worn by the inhabitants. These braccce were a kind of trow- 
sers or pantaloons, and were worn by all the Gauls ; but the 
Romans, having seen them for the first time in this quarter, 
thought that they were peculiar to this section of the country, 
and therefore named this part of Gaul after them. 

OBS. Bracca were not peculiar to the Gauls, but were common to all the na- 
tions which encircled the Greek and Roman population, extending from the In- 
dian to the Atlantic Ocean. Hence Aristagoraf, king of Miletus, in his inter- 
view with Cleomenes, king of Sparta, described the attire of a large portion of 
them in these terms : " They carry bows and a short spear, and go to battle in 
trowsers, and with hats upon their heads." (Herod., v., 49.) Hence, also, the 
phrase " Braccati militis arcus," signifying that those who wore trowsers were 
in general armed with the bow. (Property iii., 3, 17.) In particular, we are 
informed of the use of trowsers or pantaloons among the following nations. 1. 
The Medes and Persians ; 2. The Parthians and Armenians ; 3. The Phrygians ; 
<L The Sacs ; 5. The Sarmatae ; 6. The Dacians and Getae ; 7. The Teutones ; 
8. The Franks ; 9. The Belgae ; 10. The Britons ; 11. The Gauls. The Gallic 
term " brakes," which Diodorus Siculus has preserved in speaking of the Gauls 
(XptivTai uva^vpiai, uf KKELVOL (3puKag Trpogayopevovai, lv., 30), also remains in the 
Scottish " breeks," and the English " breeches." Corresponding terms are used 
in all the northern languages (compare Hire, Glossar. Suio-Goth., s. v. Brackor). 
Also the Cossack and Persian trowsers of the present day differ in no material 
respect from those which were worn anciently in the same countries. Trow- 
sers were principally woollen, but Agathias states (Hist., ii., 5) that in Europe 
they were also made of linen and of leather ; probably the Asiatics made them 
of cotton and of silk. Sometimes they were striped, ornamented with a woof 
of various colors, or embroidered. They gradually came into use at Rome un- 
der the emperors. 


GALLIA NARBONENSIS was bounded on the south by the Med- 
iterranean, on the east by the Alps, on the west by Aquitania, 
and on the north by the Rhodanus in the western part of its 
course. Pliny gives its length as two hundred and seventy 
Roman miles, and its breadth as two hundred and forty-eight 
of the same. Ptolemy compares its shape to that of a paral- 

GALLIA. 101 


Larger Communities. 

THE larger communities were seven in number, and may be 
subdivided into two classes, namely, 1. Tribes dwelling on the 
west side of the Rhodanus, and, 2. Tribes dwelling on the eas1> 
ern side of the same stream. 

1. Tribes dwelling on the west side of the Rhodanus. 

I. Bebryces (Eedpviceg), called, also, Sardones (Sapdove^), a 
mountaineer race, occupying a part of the Pyrenees, and ex- 
tending thence along the shore as far as Narbo, the modern 
Narbonne. They were called Bebryces prior to Roman times, 
and Sardones afterward. They were of Iberian descent. Their 
territory corresponded to the modern department of Pyrenees 
Orientates, and the southern part of the department of Aude. 

II. Volcce (Ovohicai and BoA/ccu), subdivided into the Volcce 
Tectosages and the Volcce. Arecomici. The territory of the 
former answered to the departments of Arriege, Haute Ga- 
ronne, Tarn, and the southwestern part of the department of 
Aveiron, and that of the latter to the departments of Herault, 
Gard, and the southeastern part of the department of Aveiron 
and that of Lozere. The Volcse were a large and powerful 
tribe of Celtic origin, and comprehended under the two main 
divisions just mentioned many minor communities, of whom 
the jEtacini appear to have been the most important. 

III. Helvii ('E/lofot), a tribe also of Celtic origin, to the 
north of the Arecomici, and occupying what is now the depart- 
ment of Ardeche. They are also called Elm. 

2. Tribes dwelling on the east side of the Khoddnus. 

I. Allobroges (AAA66poyef and AAAodpirye^-), between the 
Rhodanus and Isara, in what is now the northern part of the 
department of Drome, the departments of Isere and Mont 
Blanc, and the western portion of the department of Leman. 
They were a large and powerful tribe of Celtic origin. Their 
chief city was Vienna, now Vienne, and their farthest city to 
the north was Geneva, which still retains its name. 

II. Cavares or Cavari (Kavape?), between the Rhodanus, the 
Druentia, and the Isara, in what is now the department of 
Vaucluse, and the western portion of the department of Drome ; 


they dwelt, therefore, around what are now Avignon, Carpen- 
tras, Orange, and Montelimart. 

HI. Vocontii or Vocuntii (OvoKovnot), a powerful tribe, in 
alliance with the Romans, and therefore enjoying their own 
laws. They occupied what is now the largest portion of the 
western division of the departments of the Hautes and Basses 

IV. Salyes (SaAi;^), called, also, Salluvii, Salici, or Sally i. 
Their territory corresponded to what is now the departments 
of the Rhone and Var. They were a large and savage tribe, 
of Lygian or Ligurian origin. 

Smaller Tribes. 


Besides the larger tribes just mentioned, we find the follow- 
ing smaller ones, partly surrounded by the larger communities, 
and partly belonging to the same, namely, 1. Nantuates, in 
the northernmost part of the province, just below the Lacus 
Lemanus, or Lake of Geneva. Csesar speaks of this tribe in 
connection with the Veragri and Seduni, who lay to the east 
and southeast of them, and he makes the territories of the three 
extend from the confines of the Allobroges, and the Lacus Le- 
manus, and Rhodanus, as far as the Alps. The object of the 
Roman commander was to open a secure route for traders over 
the Alps in this quarter, and one on which they would not be 
subject to heavy imposts, and he appears to have succeeded in 
this. The chief city of the Veragri was Octodurus, now Mar- 
tigni or Martinach ; and that of the Seduni was Civitas 
Sedunorum, now Sion. 2. Centrones, to the south of the 
Nantuates, among the Graian Alps. Their territory answered 
to the modern Tarantaise. 3. Caturlges, to the south of the 
preceding, among the Cottian Alps. 4. Tricorii, to the west 
of the preceding. 5. Vulgientes, Memini, and Albi&ci, to the 
south of the preceding. 6. Suelteri and Commoni, toward the 
coast. 7. Oxybii, to the northeast of the preceding, between 
Forum Julii, now Frejus, and Antipolis, now Antibes. 


1. Cities between the Pyrenees and the Rhodanus. 
I. THESE may be divided into two classes, namely, 1. Cities 
on the coast, and, 2. Cities in the interior of the country. 

GALLIA. 103 

II. They will comprise the cities of the Bebryccs, Volcce 
Tectdsages, Volcce Arecomici, and Helvii. 

1. Cities on the Coast. 

In the territory of the Bebryces we find, 1. Illiberis or Eli- 
berrij on the River Illiberis, and where Hannibal pitched his 
camp after crossing the Pyrenees. It was at first a place of 
some importance, but subsequently declined, until Constantine 
the Great re-established it, and called it Helena, in honor of 
his mother. Here the Emperor Constans was overtaken and 
slain by the cavalry of the usurper Magnentius. It is now 
Elne, on the River Tech. 2. Ruscmo (fj 'PavffKfvdw), to the 
north of the preceding, on the River Ruscino. The city is now 
La Tour de Roussillon, and the river is now the Tet. 

In the territory of the Volcce Tectosages we find, 1. Narbo 
Martins (?) Na|o6wi>), now Narbonne, on the little river Atax 
or Adax, now the Aude, in the northeastern angle of the Lacus 
Rubresus, now L'E'tang de Sigean. It was an old city, and 
the capital of the province, to which it gave name. Even be- 
fore the arrival of the Romans in Gaul, Narbo was an import- 
ant commercial place, and hence the first colony planted by 
Rome in this country was established here (B.C. 116). The 
new settlement was called Colonia Atacinorum, from the 
Atacini, a tribe of the Tectosages, who dwelt in this quarter, 
and with whom the Roman settlers became intermingled. 
This name was subsequently changed to Colonia Atacinorum 
Decurtianorumque, the additional part, Decumanornm, having 
been derived from the Legio Decumana, or tenth legion, the 
remains of which were settled here by Julius Caesar, whence 
also the city of Narbo received the appellation of Martins. 
The traces of a large canal are still shown here, which the Ro- 
mans cut in order to connect the lake into which the Atax flowed 
with the sea. The main road from Italy to Spain ran through 
this place. Cicero calls Narbo " Specula Populi Romani ac 
propugnaculum" and Strabo designates it as being in his time 
the emporium of all Gaul. It fell into the hands of the Visi- 
goths, A.D. 462, and was shortly afterward made the capital 
of their kingdom. In 720 it was taken by the Saracens, and 
in 759 by Pepin-le-bref. 

2. Bceterrcz Septimanorum, to the northeast, now Bezieres. 


It was situate on the left bank of the Obris, now Orbe. The 
epithet Scptimanorum was derived from the soldiers of the 
seventh legion, who were settled here as a colony. 

In the territory of the Volccc Arecomici we find, 1. Agatha 
or Agathe ('Ayd07?), now Agde. It was a settlement of the 
Massilians, as Strabo informs us, and situate at the mouth of 
the River Arauris, now the Herault. 2. Mesua, now Mese, 
called Mansa by Avienus. 3. Ledus, now Lattes. 

2. Cities in the Interior. 

In the territory of the Volccc Tectosagcs we find, 1. Tolosa 
Tectosagum (ToAoiaa), now Toulouse. This was a very old 
city, and famed for its size and wealth before the arrival of the 
Romans in Gaul, and contained a temple held in great venera- 
tion by all who dwelt around the place, and remarkable for its 
riches, arising from pious offerings. The gold obtained by 
Brennus from the plunder of Delphi is said also to have been 
deposited here. Servilius Csepio, the Roman commander, on 
the capture of the city, seized upon the treasures of the tem- 
ple for his own use ; but the misfortunes which subsequently 
befell him, and which were ascribed to this act of sacrilege, 
gave rise to the proverb " Aurum Tolosanum" The Romans 
made this place a colony, and under their dominion it became 
celebrated as a seat of the sciences. 2. Carcdso or Carcasum, 
now Carcassone, on the Atax. 3. Usuerva or Hosuerva, near 
Narbo, now Aubere. 

In the territory of the Volccc Arecomici we find, 1. Nemau- 
sus, now Nismes, a place of great antiquity. It lay on the Ro- 
man military road from Italy to Spain, on the southernmost 
slope of Mons Cebenna, and was distant one hundred stadia 
from the Rhodanus, and seven hundred and twenty from Nar- 
bo. Strabo makes it the capital of the Arecomici, and states 
that, though inferior to Narbo in the number of strangers and 
others resorting to it for the purposes of trade, it was superior 
in the number of its citizens. The town exercised authority 
over twenty-four populous villages, and enjoyed the Jus Latii, 
by virtue of which those elected to the sedileship or quaestor- 
ship in Nemausus acquired the rights of Roman citizens. 
Nemausus was fortified with walls and gates by the Emperor 
Augustus, about fourteen years before the Christian era. It 

GALLIA. 105 

was the birth-place of Antoninus Pius. In the downfall of the 
Roman empire, Nemausus suffered much ; still, however, of all 
the towns in France, it preserves the most striking memorials 
of its ancient grandeur. It has been styled, in fact, " a second 
Rome." The two most remarkable remains are the ancient 
building known as "La Maison Carree" (the square house), 
though not square, as its name would imply, but a parallelo- 
gram, and the amphitheatre. The former of these buildings 
was a temple erected to M. Aurelius and L. Verus. The am- 
phitheatre is in better preservation than the Coliseum at Rome, 
and of greater extent than the amphitheatre of Verona. It has 
been computed to have been capable of holding 17,000 persons. 

2. Ug-ernum, to the southeast of Nemausus, now Beaucaire, 
on the Rhone. Strabo calls the place Ovyepvov. Here Avitus 
was raised to the empire, A.D. 456, by the assistance of the 
Visigoths. 3. Vindomagus, in the territory of the Adricomii, 
now Vigan. 4. Andusia, to the northeast of the preceding, 
now Anduze. 

In the territory of the Helvii we find, 1. Alba Augusta, the 
capital of the tribe, and more commonly called Alba Helvio- 
rum. Ptolemy, in mentioning it, corrupts the latter part of 
the name, and calls the Helvii by the appellation of Elicoci, 
and errs still further in placing the city on the east instead of 
the west side of the Rhone. It is now Alps or Aps, accord- 
ing to D'Anville. Some, however, are in favor of Viviers. 
2. Apollinarium, now Aubenas. 3. Batiana, northeast of 
Alba Augusta, now Bais. 

2. Cities between the Rhodanus and the Alps. 

I. These may also be divided into two classes, like those 
just enumerated, namely, 1. Cities on the coast, and, 2. Cities 
in the interior. 

II. They will comprise the cities of the Salyes, Cavares, 
Vocontii, Allobroges, and some of the smaller tribes. 

1. Cities on the Coast. 

In the territory of the Salyes, or between the Druentia and 
the sea, we find, 1. Tarasco, a small place called TroXtxviov by 
Strabo, and lying opposite to Nemausus, on the other side of 
the Rhodanus. It is now Tarascon. 2. Arelate, to the south 


of the preceding, situate on the Rhodanus, just where the river 
divided into two channels, and now Aries. It is first mention- 
ed by Caesar (B. C., i., 36 ; ii., 5), who built here twelve ships 
of war previous to the siege of Massilia. Strabo speaks of it 
as a place of no small trade in his time. Pomponius Mela, a 
writer somewhat later than Strabo, describes it as one of the 
richest cities of Gallia Narbonensis. Other authors make it a 
Roman colony ; and it was probably from the circumstance of 
some of the colonists belonging to the sixth legion that it got 
the name of Ar elate Sextanorum. The name is variously 
written. Arelate is most common, but we find also Arelas 
(especially in the poets), Arelatce ('Apekdrai, Strabo), and Are- 
latum ('ApeAarov, Ptolemy), and in later times Arelatus. 
This city appears to have suffered considerably from the Alle- 
manni during the decline of the Roman empire, but in the 
early part of the fourth century it rose to greatness and dis- 
tinction under the patronage of Constantine the Great. This 
prince appears to have built that part of Arelate which lay be- 
yond the Rhone, and which forms, in the present day, the sub- 
urb of Trinquetaille, in the island La Camargue. He also 
gave to Arelate the name of Constantina, which it continued 
to bear in the time of Honorius (a century later), who trans- 
ferred to it the seat of the praetorian prefect of Gallia, which 
had been previously fixed at Augusta Trevirorum, or Treves. 
The dignity of Arelate survived the fall of the western empire. 
It was the residence of a king of the Visigoths, and of a prefect 
under Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths. Under the Merovin- 
gian Franks it declined. 

In the vicinity of Arelate were the celebrated Campi Lapi- 
dei, called, also, Campi Lap idarii (TO Xidivov rredov), "the sto- 
ny fields," the poetic tradition respecting which made this re- 
gion the scene of the combat between Hercules and the two 
brothers Albion and Bergion, the giant sons of Neptune. The 
hero, when about crossing the Rhone with the oxen of Geryon, 
was opposed by these two giants, and, having exhausted his ar- 
rows in the conflict, prayed to Jove for aid, who thereupon sent 
him a shower of stones, with which he proved victorious. The 
plain was well known to the ancients, and is described very ac- 
curately by Strabo, except that he assigns it too small an ex- 
tent. It lies near the eastern bank of the east channel of the 

GALLIA. 107 

Rhone, between it and the E'tang- de Berre, and, according to 
modern accounts, contains from 140,000 to 170,000 English 
acres. It is composed entirely of shingle, or, in other wofds, is 
covered all over with rolled boulders and pebbles, the stones va- 
rying in size from that of a pea to that of a pumpkin ; and it 
is as free from any intermixture of soil as the shingle upon the 
sea-shore. Vegetation is poor and miserable, yet the district 
supplies winter pasturage to immense flocks of sheep. The 
modern name is the plain of La Crau. This whole region 
must at one time have been entirely submerged, and the stones 
must have been deposited by the Rhone and its tributaries, es- 
pecially the Durance, under circumstances very different from 
their present physical condition. 

On the route from Arelate to Massilia lay, 3. Maritima Adu- 
aticorum, now Miramas, according to Reichard and Mannert, 
while others are in favor of Martigues. It was also called 
Maritima Colonia and Anatiliorum Urbs, since it lay in the 
territory of the Anatilii. It was a place of considerable trade. 
4. Calcaria, now Calissane. 

We now come to, 5. Massilia^ called by the Greeks Maaaa- 
Am, and now Marseilles. This place was founded by the Pho- 
caeans of Asia Minor, and was perhaps the earliest, as it cer- 
tainly was the most important of their settlements in the west- 
ern part of the Mediterranean. Two colonies of Phocaeans 
successively established themselves in the place, the first about 
B.C. 600, while Phocaea was yet flourishing. The second colo- 
nization of Massilia took place about B.C. 544, on occasion of 
the Phocaeans quitting their native city to avoid the subjection 
with which they were threatened by the Persians. The Mas- 
silians were early involved in hostilities with the native tribes, 
Ligurian and Celtic, over whom they obtained several victories, 
and established new settlements along the coast, in order to re- 
tain them in subjection. The surrounding barbarians acquired 
from the new settlers some of the arts of civilized life : they 
learned to prune and train the vine, and to plant the olive. 
The Massilians had also to contend with the power of the Car- 
thaginians (the commercial rivals of the Greeks in western 
Europe), whom they defeated in a sea-fight of early but un- 
certain date. The Massilian Constitution was aristocratic; 
their laws and their religious rites were similar to those of the 


lonians of Asia. The governing body was a senate of six hun- 
dred persons, called Timuchi (rtjuov^ot), who were appointed 
for life. This senate had fifteen presidents (-Kpoear&TEs), who 
formed a sort of committee, by which the ordinary business of 
the government was managed. Of this committee three per- 
sons possessed the chief power. The Timuchi were chosen 
from among those who had children, and in whose family the 
right of citizenship had been possessed by three generations. 
The Massilians, like the Phocaeans, were a naval people, and 
planted several colonies on the coasts of Gaul, Spain, and It- 
aly. They early and steadily cultivated an alliance with the 
Romans, which alliance was gradually converted into subjec- 
tion. In the civil war of Pompey anj. Caesar, they embraced 
the party of the former, and closed their gates upon Caesar, un- 
der pretence of preserving neutrality (B.C. 49). After con- 
tending for some time against Caesar's lieutenants, Trebonius 
and Brutus, they surrendered to that commander himself on 
his return from his victory over the Pompeians in Spain. Cae- 
sar, however, did not reduce them to entire subjection, but left 
two legions in garrison, while he marched forward into Italy. 
The municipal government of Massilia remained unaltered, but 
its political independence was virtually overthrown. The at- 
tention of the Massilians was now more directed to literature 
and philosophy, of which, indeed, they were already diligent 
cultivators. They had spread through the south of Gaul the 
knowledge of the Greek written character, which Caesar found 
in use among the Helvetii, and now their city became to the 
west of Europe what Athens was to the east. The moderate 
charges and frugal habits of the citizens added to the advan- 
tages of the spot as a place of study, and the most illustrious 
of the Roman youth resorted thither. Cicero has recorded in 
the strongest language the praises of the Massilians ( Oral, pro 
L. Flacco, c. 26). Livy has put a high encomium upon them 
in the mouth of a Rhodian embassador (xxxvii., 54) ; and Tac- 
itus ( Agrtc., c. 4) has spoken in the same strain. For more 
than three centuries the history of Massilia presents no events 
of interest. In the troubles which followed the abdication of 
Dioclesian and Maximian, the latter (A.D. 310) attempted to 
resume the purple at Arelate, to the prejudice of the Emperor 
Constantino, his son-in-law ; but, being baffled in his attempt, 

GALLIA. 109 

he fled to Massilia, which he vainly attempted to defend. The 
city was taken by Constantine, and Maximian became his own 
executioner. In the reign of Honorius, Massilia repelled the 
attempt of the Visigothic king, Ataulphus, to take possession, 
but it afterward became the prey of the Burgundians, Visigoths, 
and Franks. It was taken from the Franks by Theodoric the 
Ostrogoth, king of Italy. Toward the middle of the sixth cen- 
tury, it was ceded with the rest of Provence by Vitiges the 
Ostrogoth to the Franks. 

Leaving Massilia, and following the line of the coast, we come 
next to, 6. Tauroentum, called, also, Tauroeis and Taurenti- 
um, the site of which is to be sought between Ceireste and 
Toulon. Ukert places it at Tarento. 7. Telo Martins, now 
Toulon. This place is noticed as a harbor in the " Itinerarium 
Maritimum" of Antoninus. It is noticed, also, by the anony- 
mous geographer of Ravenna, who calls it simply Telo ; and 
from the " Notitia Dignitatum per Gallias," which enumerates, 
among other officers, the " Procurator Baphii Telonensis Gal- 
liarum" (Overseer of the dye-house for the provinces of Gaul 
at Telo), it appears that the principal government dye-house in 
Gaul was here. A bishopric was established here in the fourth 
century, which continued till the Revolution : the bishop was 
a suffragan of the Archbishop of Arelate. In the Middle Ages, 
Telo Martius was repeatedly ruined by the Saracens, and as 
often recovered from the disaster. 8. Olbm, a Massilian colo- 
ny, now, according to D'Anville, Eoubes, not far from Hieres. 
Along this coast are three islands, called, respectively, Prote, 
Mese, and Hypcea^ or, by a general name, Stcechddes, of which 
mention will be made in speaking of the islands of Narbonen- 
sis. 9. Forum Julii, to the northeast of the preceding, now 
Frejus. This place is supposed to have been originally a col- 
ony of the Massilians, but the time of its foundation is un- 
known. It took its Roman name from Julius Caesar, who may 
possibly have commenced the excavation of the port, which was 
completed in the time of Augustus. This emperor established 
here the station of a fleet destined to protect the coast of Gaul. 
A Roman colony was also fixed here at the same time, and the 
town became wealthy and populous. It was the birth-place 
of the celebrated Agricola. 10. Aquce Sextice, now Aix, north- 
east of Massilia, and just above the River Ccenus, now the 


Arc. It owed its origin and name to the Romans ; for the pro- 
consul C. Sextius Calvinus, having defeated the Saluvii or 
Salyes, founded a colony here about 120 B.C., and gave it, on 
account of its medicinal springs, the name of Aquce Sextice, 
i. e., "the waters of Sextius." These springs have been dis- 
covered in modern days, but are now in small repute. 11. Ad 
Horrea, now Cannes. 12. Antipolis, now Antibes. This place 
was founded by the Massilians as a barrier against the incur- 
sions of the Salyes and Ligurians. Some accounts state that 
the Massilians took it from a tribe of the Ligurians. It was 
taken from under the jurisdiction of Massilia, in the time of 
Augustus, and placed in the rank of an Italic city ; and it ap- 
pears to have been a flourishing place^to which the tunny fish- 
ery may have contributed. The remains of a theatre and some 
other ancient buildings attest its former importance. During 
the Roman dominion there was an arsenal here, and the town 
was protected by fortifications, of which two strong towers yet 
remain. 13. Niccea (Nt'icom), lying to the east of the Varus or 
Var, now Nice. It was founded by the Massilians, and forti- 
fied by them to repress the neighboring tribes, and secure the 
navigation of the adjacent sea. It continued subject to the 
Massilians after the establishment of the Varus as the bounda- 
ry of Gaul and Italy. In the Middle Ages it was a strong 

2. Cities in the Interior of the Country. 

I. These may be subdivided into four classes, namely, 1. 
Cities between the left or southern arm of the Druentia and the 
places along the coast which have just been mentioned ; 2. Cit- 
ies between the right and left arms of the Druentia ; 3. Cities 
between the right arm of the Druentia and the River Isara ; 
4. Cities between the Isara and the Rhodanus. 

II. The first of these classes will comprehend cities belonging 
to the Oxybii, Suetri, Nerusi, and Vcdiantii ; the second, cit- 
ies belonging to the Albicsci, Avantici, and Bodiontici ; the 
third, cities belonging to the Memini, Vulgientes, Vocontii, 
Cavares, Segalauni, and Tricorii ; and the fourth, cities be- 
longing to the Allobroges, Tricastini, and Nantuates. 

First Class. 1. Alba Augusta, now Aups. Not to be con- 
founded with Alba Helviorum, also called Alba Augusta, which 


lay on the other side of the Rhone, in the territory of the Hel- 
vii. 2. Antece or Anteis, now Ampuls. 3. Salince, a city of 
the Suetri, taking its name from the salt springs in its neigh- 
borhood, now Castellane, in the Maritime Alps. 4. Vergunni, 
the name of a city and people among the Alps, now Vergons. 
5. Ectini, another Alpine city and people, now Estene. 6. 
Glannativa or Glamnateva, mentioned by the writers of the 
Middle Ages, now Glandeves. 

Second Class. 1. Griselum, in the angle between the two 
arms of the Druentia. There were medicinal springs in this 
quarter, and hence the place was also called Aquce Griselicce. 
An inscription, in which the words Nymphis Griselicis occur, 
was found at the baths of Greoulx, and therefore fixes the lo- 
cality. 2. Reii Apollinares, or simply Ren, to the northeast 
of the preceding, now Riez. It was a Roman colony. The 
earlier name was Albece or Albicece, and it was the capital of 
the Albioeci. 3. Sanitium or Civitas Saniciensium, to the 
northeast, now Senez. 4. Dinia or Civitas Dienensium, now 
Digne, to the northwest of Sanitium. 

Third Class. 1. Apia Julia, the capital of the Vulgientes, 
north of the Druentia, and east of Avenio. It is now Apt. It- 
was a Roman colony, as the latter part of the name indicates. 
2. Cabellio, the capital of the Cavares, to the west of the pre- 
ceding, and lying on the Druentia ; now Cavaillon, on the Du- 
rance. 3. Avenio, in the angle between the Rhodanus and 
Druentia, now Avignon. Some writers ascribe the origin of 
Avenio to a colony from Massilia ; according to another opin- 
ion, it was the original capital of the Cavares, from whom it 
was called Avenio Cavarum. It came into the hands of the 
Romans at an early period of their dominion in Gaul, and a 
Roman colony appears to have been established here. Upon 
the downfall of the Roman empire in the west of Europe, it 
was possessed by the Burgundians, and afforded to the king of 
that people a secure asylum from the power of Clovis, king of 
the Franks, who besieged it in vain. It subsequently became 
subject, perhaps for a short time, to the Visigoths, certainly to 
the Ostrogoths, Franks, and Saracens. The Saracens took it 
twice, but could not retain it. 4. Carpentoracte, to the north- 
east of Avenio, now Carpentras, on the River Auzon. It be- 
longed to the Cavares, and became a Roman colony under 


Julius Caesar. Valesius makes it identical with Ptolemy's 
Forum Neronis Meminorum, but this is rather Forcalquier. 
At Carpentoracte may still be seen the remains of a triumphal 
arch of Domitius Ahenobarbus, who defeated here the Allobro- 
ges and Arverni. 5. Arausio ('Apavcuwv), now Orange, north 
of Avenio. This was also a city of the Cavares. Mela and 
Pliny call it Arausio Secundanorum, from the soldiers of the 
second legion, who were settled there as colonists. On coins 
the full title is Colonia Arausio Secundanorum Cohortis 
XXXIII. Orange contains more Roman antiquities than most 
other towns in France, and may vie with the cities of Italy. 
The principal of these is a triumphal arch, called, by the in- 
habitants of the district, the Arch of Marius, but which is prob- 
ably of the age of Augustus. The Visigoths and Burgundians 
got possession of this place on the downfall of the Roman empire, 
and from them it passed to the Franks. In the Middle Ages it 
was the capital of a principality, which, after passing through 
different families, came to that of Nassau. The title of Prince 
of Orange is still retained by the royal family of Holland. 
6. VastOj now Vaison, to the northeast of Arausio, called by 
Pliny " Colonia et Caput Vocontiorum." It was the native 
place of Trogus Pompeius. 

7. Nosomagus, called, also, Augusta, now Nion, northwest 
of Vasio. 8. Mons Seleucus or Saleucus, to the east, the name 
of a mountain and city where Magnentius met with his sec- 
ond defeat from Constantius. Many remains of antiquity are 
still found here. The name of the spot, as given by Ukert, is 
La batie Mont Saleon. 9. Dea Vocontiorum, now Die, to 
the northwest. A Roman colony was settled here, with the 
title of Colonia Dea Augusta Vocontiorum. 10. Valentia, to 
the northwest, now Valence. It was situate on the Rhodanus, 
a short distance below the junction of the Isara with that stream. 
It was the capital of the Segalauni or Segovellauni, and is 
mentioned by Ptolemy as a colony. In the time of the later 
western emperors it was a place of considerable strength, and 
afforded a refuge to Constantino, who had assumed the purple 
in Britain, and was fruitlessly besieged here by Sarus the Goth, 
whom Stilicho had sent against him. Jovinus, another usurp- 
er, sought refuge here, but the town was taken by the Visigoths, 
who, under their king Ataulphus, had taken part against him. 

GALLIA. 113 

It was afterward subject to the Burgundians, and passed from 
them to the Franks. In the Middle Ages it formed part of 
the kingdom of Aries, and was the capital of Valentinois, a 
district of Dauphine. 

On the eastern side of the River Tricus or Tracus, now the 
Drac, which flowed into the Isara just below Gratianopolis, 
now Grenoble, dwelt the Tricorii. Among their cities, contin- 
uing our enumeration of those composing the third class, we 
may mention, 1. Gratianopolis. In the " Theodosian Table," 
and in the " Notitia Imperii," it is designated by the name of 
Cularo. Inscriptions, which have been dug up, speak of the 
fortifications and the edifices within the town, which were 
erected by the emperors Dioclesian and Maximian, from whose 
assumed designations of Jovius and Herculius two of the gates 
were named Porta Jovia and Porta Herculea. In the fourth 
century the name Gratianopolis was given to the town, in 
compliment to the Emperor Gratianus ; and this name grad- 
ually superseded the old one, Cularo, and was the origin of the 
modern one, Grenoble. In Cicero's time, Cularo was a frontier 
town of the Allobroges, to which tribe the Tricorii appear origin- 
ally to have belonged. 2. license Castrum, to the southeast of 
the preceding, the site of which, according to Durandi, is to be 
sought in the vicinity of either Oze (called in the Middle Ages 
Ossis) or in that of Huez. 3. Catorissium, to the northeast, 
now, according to Reichard, Petit Chat. 4. CatnngCB^ called, 
also, Caturigomagus or Catorimagus, to the southeast of the 
preceding, near the Druentia. It was the capital of the Catu- 
riges, and is now Charges. 5. Eburodunum or Ebrodunum, 
now Embmn, to the northeast of the preceding, on a mount- 
ain, the roots of which were washed by the Druentia. In the 
" Notitia Civit. Prov. Max. Sequan." it is called Castrum 
Ebredunense. This place obtained various privileges from the 
Roman emperors. 

Fourth Class. 1. Vienna, now Vienne, on the Rhodanus, 
and the capital of the Allobroges. This place was already in 
existence in the time of Caesar, who makes mention of it in 
his commentaries. Ptolemy writes the name Ovtsvva, which 
is also the orthography of Strabo, while in the Peutinger Ta- 
ble it is written Vigenna ; this last, however, is very probably 
a mistake. It was a Roman colony, and the rival of its neigh- 



bor Lugdunum, or Lyons. In the civil war at the close of 
Nero's reign, it embraced the party of Galba, from whom it re- 
ceiyed many honors. Tradition fixes Vienna as the place of 
Pilate's banishment after he had been displaced from his gov- 
ernment of Judaea, and a Roman structure, still standing, is 
popularly called his tomb. The people of this place appear to 
have been great admirers of the epigrams of Martial, which has 
been taken as an indication that literature was cultivated among 
them. Martial gives to Vienna the epithet " vitifera" (vine- 
bearing), and the vineyards on the Rhone, immediately oppo- 
site, still produce the Cote Rotie, one of the finest of the French 
red wines, while the hills around Vienne, on both sides of the 
river, are covered with vineyards, which produce abundance of 
good red wine. 2. Geneva, now Geneve, as the name is writ- 
ten in French, or Genf, according to the German orthography, 
while in English we still call it Geneva. It was situate at 
the southwestern extremity of the Lacus Lemanus, or Lake of 
Geneva, where the Rhodanus issued from it, and on the south- 
ern bank of the stream. The place is mentioned by Csesar, 
who speaks of it as the farthest city of the Allobroges in this 
quarter, and close to the confines of the Helvetii, with whose 
territory it was connected by a bridge across the Rhodanus. 
Modern Geneva occupies both banks of the stream, though the 
larger portion of the city is still on the southern side. It is 
somewhat surprising that, down to the time of the " Itinera- 
ries" and the " Theodosian Table," no one of the geographical 
writers subsequent to the time of Caesar makes any mention of 
the place. By the writers of the Middle Ages it is often allud- 
ed to, but under the name of Genana, Jenna, &c. 3. Tarnd- 
jaj called, also, Acaunum, now St. Maurice, on the Rhone. 
4. .Octodurus, now Marti gny or Martinach. 5. Centronum 
Civitas, called, in the Notitia, Darantasia, the capital of the 
Centrones, on the Isara, now Montiers, on the here. 

Islands belonging to Gallia Narbonensis, and lying in the 
Sinus Gallicus. 

I. Blascon (TJ B/UHTKWV), now Brescon, belonging to the Voi- 
ces ' Arecomici, and not far from Agatha, and the mouth of the 
Arauris, or Herault. 

II. Metina, lying anciently, according to Pliny, in the mouth 

GALLIA. 115 

of the Rhone, " in Rhodani ostio" As, however, he gives the 
river three mouths, and as the island is not any further men- 
tioned, its position can not be determined with certainty. Man- 
nert is in favor of identifying it with the small island of Jama- 
tan, which, along with two others, lies in front of the eastern 
mouth of the Rhone. 

III. Staechddes (at SroixdSes vr]aoi), now Isles d'Hieres, be- 
longing to the territory of the Salyes, and lying in a southeast 
direction from Telo Martius, or Toulon. The Greek name has 
reference to their being ranged on the same line, or in a row 
(from (TTOi^o^-, " a row"). They received this appellation from 
the Massilians, who colonized some of them. Strabo and Ptol- 
emy make the number to have been five, three large and two 
small, but give the names of only three, Prote, now Parque- 
rolles ; Mese or Pomponiana, now Portcros ; and Hyp&a, now 
du Levant or Titan. The two smaller ones Mannert thinks 
are the modern Ribandas and Bageaux. Mela comprehends 
under the name of Stoechades all the islands along the coast 
of Gaul from Liguria to Massilia. Ammianus Marcellinus 
places them near Nicaea and Antipolis. Dioscorides calls these 
islands Sr^afof , and Apollonius Rhodius, Aiyvarideg, from their 
being inhabited by Ligyans, who, as before remarked, are the 
same with the Salyes. Tacitus styles them Massiliensium 

IV. Planasia, called, also, Lerina, now St. Honorat, near 

V. Leron (77 A?/pwv), now St. Marguerite, also near Antipo- 
lis. All the islands in this quarter, including the Stoechades, 
&c., were held by the Massilians, who fortified them against 
the incursions of pirates. On the island of Leron they erected 
a temple to the hero Leron, after whom the island was named. 

(A.) NAMES. 

I. THE name Aquitania, as we have already seen, was ori- 
ginally applied to the southwestern corner of Gaul, from the 
Garumna to the Pyrenees, but was afterward, in the time of 
Augustus, extended to that portion of Celtic Gaul compre- 
hended between the Garumna and Ligeris. 

II. According to Pliny, the earlier name of Aquitania proper 


was Armorica,) a Celtic appellation, denoting a region border- 
ing on the sea, and derived from the Celtic words ar mor, " on 
the sea." 

OBS. Ukert thinks that Pliny is here in error, the term Armarica properly de- 
noting the tract of country along the Atlantic, between the mouth of the Ligeris 
and that of the Sequana. Mannert, on the other hand, defends the correctness 
of Pliny's remark. According to Mannert, the Gauls gave the name of Armor- 
ica to all the country on the coast of Gaul, as a general appellation ; and as the 
Romans before Caesar's time knew no other coast of Gaul but that of Aquita- 
nia, he supposes that they considered the term Armorica to apply in a special 
sense to this whole country, and he even thinks that the name Aquitania is 
nothing more than a Latin form of the word Armorica. 


I. THE original inhabitants of Aquitania proper are supposed 
to have been of Iberian origin, and distinct from the Celtic 
race. The names of places among the tribes of Aquitanian 
origin, therefore, are in the Iberian form, and not a single one 
of such places had a Celtic appellation. 

II. Still, however, we must not suppose that, even in Aqui- 
tania proper, there were not some tribes of Celtic origin, as the 
names of their towns denote. These were, however, compara- 
tively very few in number, and the most important one appears 
to have been that of the Bituriges Vibisci. 

III. Csesar did not go into Aquitania, but his lieutenant, the 
younger Crassus, made an incursion into it. The country, 
however, was not finally subjugated until the year 28 B.C., 
when Augustus sent Marcus Valerius Messala to conquer it. 
The poet Tibullus accompanied Messala in this expedition, 
which he has commemorated in his poems. 

IV. Under the reign of Honorius, the Visigoths, after rava- 
ging Italy, passed into Gaul, and took possession of Aquitania, 
which they kept until Clovis, king of the Franks, defeated 
them in a great battle near Poictiers, A.D. 507, and killed their 
king, Alaric II. Aquitania then became part of the monarchy 
of the Franks, but under the weak successors of Clovis it was 
detached from it again, and given as an appanage to Charibert, 
a younger son of Clotarius II. 

V. At a later period, Aquitania underwent another change 
in its southern limits. The Vascones, a Spanish people, find- 
ing themselves hard pressed by the Visigoths, crossed the Pyr- 

GALLIA. 117 

enees, and settled in the southern part of Aquitania, which 
from them took the name of Vasconia or Gascony, which it has 
retained ever since, while the more northern parts of the same 
province continued to be called Aquitaine, and afterward, by 
corruption, Guienne. 


THE tribes of Aquitania, in the extended sense of the name, 
may be divided into two great classes, namely, 1. Tribes be- 
tween the Pyrenees and Garumna, and, 2. Tribes between the 
Garumna and the Ligeris. 

1. Tribes between the Pyrenees and Garumna. 
(a) Larger Communities. 

I. Tarbelli (Tap6eAAof), on the Atlantic coast, extending from 
the Pyrenees to the territory of the Bituriges Vibisci, who dwelt 
around the mouth of the Garumna. They occupied what would 
now correspond to the departments of the Basses Pyrenees and 

II. Auscii (A.VGKLOI), between the Aturis and the Garumna. 
Their country would correspond now to portions of the present 
departments of Hautes Pyrenees, Gers, &c. Mela calls them 
the most renowned of the Aquitani, " Aquitanorum clarissimi 
sunt Auscii /" and Strabo calls their country a beautiful one ; 
Kahrj de Kal i\ rtiv AvaKiw. 

III. Bituriges Vibisci (Birovpiyes ol Ovi6tGKoi), called by Stra- 
bo 'IOOKOI, and by Pliny " Bituriges Liber i, cognomine Ubisci" 
a large and powerful people of Celtic origin, on both sides of 
the Garumna, near its mouth. They dwelt, therefore, in what 
would be now the country around Bourdeaux, in the depart- 
ment of Gironde. The Boii, whom Ausonius first mentions 
in this quarter, dwelt still nearer the mouth of the river, and 
the Vasates and Nitiobriges occupied small tracts of country 
along the left banks of the Rhodanus. These three last men- 
tioned tribes were also Celtic ones. 

(b) Smaller Communities. 

Of these the most worthy of mention were the following: 
1. Convene, on both sides of the Garumna, at the foot of the 
Pyrenees. They were a mixed race of deserters and robbers, 


and were finally settled by Pompey in the town of Lugdunum 
Convenarum, now St. Bertrand. 2. Bigerrones, between the 
Tarbelli and Convenae. 3. Elusates, to the northwest of the 
Auscii. Their chief city was Elusa, now Eauze, on the Ge- 
lize, in the department of Gers. 4. Cocossates, called by Pliny 
Cocossates Sexsignani, dwelling in what is now the neighbor- 
hood of Chalosse, between Dax and Mont de Marsan. 5. Ono- 
brisates, dwelling in the vicinity of the modern Nebousan, 
6. Tarusates, around what is now Tursan, in the department 
of Landes. 7. Vasates, called by Csesar Vacates, and the same, 
probably, with the Basabocades of Pliny. Their territory lay 
on the left bank of the Gammna, and corresponded to what 
used to be Bazadois. + 

2. Tribes between the Garumna and Ligeris. 

(a) Larger Communities. 

I. Pictones (liiicroveq), called by Ammiamis Marcellinus Pic- 
tavi, dwelling immediately south of the Ligeris, in the lower 
part of its course. Their territory answered to what is now 
the department of La Vendee, and the southern and western 
parts of the department of Loire inferieure, the department of 
Deux Sevres, and the southern part of the department of May- 
enne et Loire. In other words, their territory corresponded to 
what was formerly Poitou. 

II. Bituriges Cubi (Qirvpiyeg ol Kov6ot), dwelling to the 
northeast of the preceding, in what is now the departments of 
Vienne, Indre, and Cher. 

III. Santones (Zdvrovoi), to the north of the Garumna, near 
its mouth, now the departments of Charente inferieure and 
Charente superieure. 

IV. Lemovices (AepodiKeg), to the east of the Pictones and 
Santones, in what is now the department of Haute Vienne, 
formerly Limosin. 

V. Arverni ('Kpovepvoi), to the southeast of the preceding. 
They occupied what is now the department of Coneze, and 
also those of Haute Vienne, Creuze, and Puy de Dome. 

VI. Petrocorii (YlerpoKopioi), to the southwest of the Lemo- 
vices, in what used to be called Perigord, but is now the de- 
partment of Dordogne. 

GALLIA. 119 

VII. Cadurci (Kadovprcoi), to the southeast of the preceding, 
in what is now the department of Lot. 

VIII. Ruteni ('Povrrjvoi), to the southeast of the preceding, 
in what was formerly Rouergne, but what answers now to 
portions of the departments of Lot, Tarn, and Aveiron. 

(b) Smaller Communities. 

The most important of these were, 1. Nitiobriges, on both 
sides of the Garumna, but especially on the northern side. 
Their territory answered to what is now the eastern portion of 
the department of Lot et Garonne, and the southwestern portion 
of the department of Lot. 2. Gabali or Gabales (TaGakelg), to 
the east of the Ruteni. They were a mountaineer race, and 
principally occupied in working silver mines. Their country 
answered to portions of the departments of Aveiron, Lozere, and 
Cantal. 3. Velavi (OveAAaifot), called by Csesar Vellauni, to 
the northeast of the Gabali, and at one time under the domin- 
ion of the Arverni, as we are informed by Caesar and Strabo. 
They dwelt among the Cevennes (Mons Cebenna), in the mod- 
ern Velay. 


THESE may be divided in the same manner as the tribes, 
namely, 1. Cities between the Pyrenees and the Garumna, 
and, 2. Cities between the Garumna and the Ligeris. 

1. Cities between the Pyrenees and Garumna. 

Among the Tar belli we find, 1. Lapurdum, now Bayonne, 
in the Tractus Lapurdensis, now Labour. 2. Carasce, to' the 
southeast of the preceding, called by Csesar Garites, now Ga- 
ris. 3. Beneharnum, to the northeast of the preceding, now 
Lascar. 4. Aquce Tarbellicce or Augusts, on the coast, north- 
west of Lapurdum, now Dax. 5. Sibusates, to the northeast 
of Lapurdum, now Sobusse. 6. Atura, called, also, Vicus Ju- 
lii and Aturres, situate on the Aturis or Adour. It is now 
Aire. 7. Boii or Boates, in the territory of the Boii, now Tete 
de Buck. The resin furnished by the pines in this district ob- 
tained for the Boii the appellation of " Piceos Boios" 

Among the Biturig-es Vibisci we find, 1. Burdig-dla (Bovp- 
diyaha), now Bourdeaux, on the Garumna. It was an import- 


ant place in the time of Strabo, who mentions it as the chief 
trading place of the Bituriges. He describes the town as situ- 
ate AinvoOaXar-'Q rivi, which D'Anville interprets as meaning a 
place up to which the sea (or tide) flows. The importance of 
Burdigala is shown by the circumstance of its being made the 
capital of Aquitania Secunda. Ausonius, a Latin poet of the 
fourth century, himself a native of this place, has left a de- 
scription of it in his poem Clarce Urbes, or Ordo Nobilium 
Urbiu?n, and describes it as "renowned for wine, and streams, 
and the manners and talents of its inhabitants." Under the 
Romans, Burdigala was not the scene of any important his- 
torical event, except the assumption of the purple by Tacitus, 
in the reign of Gallienus, in the third century. It derives its 
reputation rather from the zeal with which literature was here 
cultivated. 2. Noviomagus, to the northwest of Burdigala, 
now Castillon, according to Mannert ; but, according to Rei- 
chard, Castelnau de Medoc. 3. Serio, to the southeast of Bur- 
digala, now Rions. 4. Varadetum, to the northeast of Burdi- 
gala, now Caraye. 

Among the Vasates we find Vasatce, now Bazas, the chief 
city of this tribe ; among the Elusates, the city of Elusa, called 
by Mela Elusabcrris, now Eauze, the capital of this commu- 
nity ; among the Auscii, the city of Climberris, or Augusta 
Ausciorum, now Audi, their capital ; among the Bigerrones, 
their chief city Turba, called in the Notitia Civitas Turba 
cum castro Bigorra, now Tarbes ; and Aqucc Onesiorum, with 
its baths, now Barreges ; among the Convenes, the city of 
Lugdunum Convenarum, now St. Bertrand, already mention- 
ed ; Crodunum, now Gourdan, on the upper Garumna ; Aqua; 
Convenarum. now Bagneres; and Aginnum, now Agen, on the 
right bank of the Garumna. 

2. Cities between the Garumna and Ligeris. 

Among the Pictones we find, 1. Limvnum, called, also, Pic- 
tavi, and now Poitiers. It was probably the capital of the 
tribe. In the Peutinger Table it is called Lemuno. Upon the 
downfall of the western empire this city repeatedly suffered. 
It was pillaged, A.D. 410, by the Vandals, and subsequently 
came into the hands of the Visigoths, who extended their do- 
minion over all the countries south and west of the Loire. In 

GALLIA. 121 

the subsequent invasion of the Visigothic kingdom by Clovis, 
the vicinity of Poitiers was distinguished by the first of the 
three great contests that have rendered it the most remarka- 
ble battle-field of France. Alaric, king of the Visigoths, was 
defeated and killed by Clovis at VougU, the same with Vouille, 
a village on the River Auzance, a few miles west of Poitiers. 
In A.D. 732, the Saracens were defeated here by Charles Mar- 
tel, and western Europe was thereby saved from the Moham- 
medan yoke ; and at a later period the memorable battle was 
fought here between the English and French. 2. Agesinates, 
the capital of a tribe of the same name, dwelling on the very 
coast. It is now Lusignan. 3. Rauranum, to the southwest 
of Limonum, now Raum. 4. Ratiatum, in the northwestern 
corner, at the mouth of the Ligeris, now Machecou. The pa- 
gus Ratiensis is Le pays de Retz. 

Among the Santones we have, 1. Mediolanum, afterward 
SantoneSj now Saint es. It was the capital of the tribe. 

2. Santonum Portus, now Tonnay-Charente, near Rochefort. 

3. Sesuvii, now Soubise. 4. Iculisma, now Angouleme. 
5. Tamnum, now Mortagne. 6. Novioregum, to the north- 
west of the preceding, now Royan. 

Among the Petrocorii we find, 1. Vesunna, afterward Pe- 
trocorii, now Perigueux. A tower, part of the remains of the 
ancient city, is still called Visonne, an evident modification of 
the ancient name, and the suburb in which it stands retains 
the designation of La Cite. This place passed from the hands 
of the Romans into those of the Visigoths, and subsequently 
of the Franks. 2. Bercorates, now Bergerac. 3. Diolindum, 
now La Linde. 

Among the Cadurci we find, 1. Divona, afterward Cadurci, 
and now Cahors. Ptolemy calls it AovTJwm, and in the Theo- 
dosian Table it is Bibona, but Ausonius is considered by D'An- 
ville to have given the true orthography, Divona, a word which, 
in the Celtic language, denoted a fountain sacred to the gods. 
On the downfall of the western empire it came successively into 
the hands of Goths and Franks, and was afterward subjected to 
the Counts of Toulouse, and then to its own bishop. There are 
some Roman remains here, the ruins of a theatre and aqueduct, 
and a monument to M. Lucterius, erected in the reign of Au- 
gustus. 2. Uxellodunum, to the north of the preceding, on 


the Duranius, now Pueche cFIssolu. 3. Varadetum, now Va- 

Among the Lemovices we find, 1. Augustoritum, afterward 
Lemovices (though Caesar already gives it this latter name), 
now Limoges, the chief city of the tribe. Under the Romans 
it was a place of considerable importance, and in the third 
century it became the seat of a bishopric. It stood at the con- 
vergence of several Roman roads. There was an amphithe- 
atre here, said to have been rebuilt by Trajan. In the fifth 
century this city came into the power of the Visigoths, and 
was successively pillaged or destroyed by the Franks (twice) 
and Northmen. 2. Cassinomagus, now Chabannois. 3. An- 
decamulum, to the northwest of Lemovices, now Rangon. 
4. Acitodunum, to the east of the preceding, now Ahun. 

Among the Bituriges Cubi we have, 1. Argantomagus, in 
the southwest angle of their territory, now Argenton. 2. Ale- 
rea, to the northeast of the preceding, now St. Vincent d?Ar- 
dentes, on the Andria, now Indre, one of the tributaries of the 
Loire. 3. Noviodunum, now Nouan. 4. Avaricum, afterward 
Bituriges, now Bourges, the capital of the tribe. In Caesar's 
time it was a place of importance, and a strong city, being sur- 
rounded on almost every side either by marshes, or by the wa- 
ters of the Avara or Eure. In the struggle against the Ro- 
mans, at the head of which was Vercingetorix, near the close 
of Caesar's proconsulship, the territory of the Bituriges became 
the seat of war. Agreeably to the defensive plans of the natives, 
upon the approach of Caesar's army, above twenty towns of the 
Bituriges were given to the flames, and in a general council it 
was debated whether Avaricum should be burned or defended. 
It was spared through the entreaties of the Bituriges, who be- 
sought the other Gauls not to compel them to destroy a city, 
almost the finest of all Gaul, and the bulwark and ornament 
of their state. Contrary to the opinion of Vercingetorix, a 
stand was made at Avaricum, and a suitable garrison was se- 
lected. But the Romans took the city after a siege of twen- 
ty-five days, and out of 40,000 persons who had been shut up 
in the place, scarcely eight hundred escaped to the camp of 
Vercingetorix. By what degrees Avaricum recovered from 
this dreadful blow is not known. Augustus made it the capi- 
tal of Aquitania. It was improved and fortified by the Ro- 

GALLIA. 123 

mans, was taken by the Visigoths, but fell into the hands of 
the Franks after the victory of Clovis at Vouille. 

Among the Arverni we find, 1. Augustonometum, now Cler- 
mont, on the River Elaver, now the Allier, and the capital of 
the tribe. It is not known whether this existed when Caesar 
invaded Gaul : it was certainly not the Gergovia, in attacking 
which he experienced his most considerable check. Strabo 
mentions it under the name of Ne/zwcrero^ . In the Middle Ages, 
the castle by which the town was defended was named Cla- 
rus Mons, and this name, which was at first restricted to the 
castle, was afterward extended to the whole town, whence the 
modern appellation. 2. Gergovia. The position of this place 
has given rise to great difference of opinion, and the difficulty 
has been increased by the circumstance of there being two 
places of this name, one among the Boii, and the other in the 
territory of the Arverni. The latter is supposed, by the best 
geographical writers, to have been Augustonometum, and D'An- 
ville places its site a few leagues to the southeast of Clermont, 
between Perignal, Jussat, and Le Crest. After the capture 
of Avaricum, Caesar laid siege to this place, but was compelled 
to raise it after a murderous attempt to storm the city. 3. Bri- 
vas, on the Elaver, to the southeast of Augustonometum, now 
Brioude. 4. Aquce Calidce, to the north of Augustonometum, 
also on the Elaver, now Vichy. 

In the country of the Gabali we find, 1. Anderitum, called, 
also, Civitas Gabalum, now Javoux, among the Cevennes / in 
the country of the Ruteni we have, 1. Segodunum, or Civitas 
Rutenorum, now Rhodez ; 2. Albiga, or Urbs Albigensis, now 


(A.) NAMES. 

I. THE name Lugdunensis is derived from that of Lugdu- 
num, now Lyons, its capital. 

II. This province was also called Gallia Celtica, from its in- 
habitants, the Celtce. 


THESE may be divided into two classes, namely, 1. Tribes 
between the Ligeris and sea-coast, and, 2. Tribes between the 
Ligeris, Rhodanus, Arar, and Sequana. 


1. Tribes between the Ligeris and Sea-coast. 
(a) Larger Communities. 

I. Veneti or Venetes (QVKVETOI), a large and powerful tribe, 
in a northwestern direction from the mouth of the Ligeris, and 
on the shores of the ocean. Their country answered to what 
is now the department of Morbihan, and was formerly a part 
of Bretagne. The Veneti possessed almost the only havens 
that offered a secure shelter along a considerable extent of 
coast, and this advantage, with their superior skill in maritime 
affairs, enabled them to acquire the sovereignty of the nations 
which frequented that part of the ocean, and to render them 
tributary. They used vessels of small draught of water, suit- 
ed to the shallows which they had to navigate, and which re- 
ceived but little damage when left aground by the receding 
tide, while their lofty stern and prow, and the general strength 
of their construction and equipment, enabled them to ride out 
the tempests to which they were exposed. In these vessels 
the Veneti carried on a trade with the British islands and with 
other parts. Their towns and strong-holds were situate on 
tongues of land running out into the sea, surrounded by banks 
and shallows, which, being covered by the flood-tide, admitted 
of no assault by a land force, and, being left dry by the ebb, 
kept off the attacks of a hostile navy. Confiding in the exten- 
sive confederation of which they were the head, in their nau- 
tical skill, and in the advantages of their situation, they ven- 
tured to bid defiance to Caesar (B.C. 56) ; but the extraordi- 
nary genius and resources of the Roman general overcame all 
obstacles, and enabled him to achieve the reduction of the Ve- 
neti and their supporters. 

II. Redones or Rhedones ('Proves), a tribe to the northeast 
of the Veneti, in what is now the department of Ille et Villaine. 

III. Namnetes or Namnetce (Napvrjrai), to the southeast of 
the Veneti, on the right bank of the Ligeris, near its mouth, 
in what is now a portion of the department of Loire inferieure. 

IV. Aulerci, divided into three branches, namely, the Au- 
lerci Cenomani, Aulerci Diablintes, and Aulerci Eburovices 
(AvXipiKot 'EdovpdiKoi). The last formed the most powerful di- 
vision, and occupied what is now the department of Eure. 

V. CarnuteSj Carnutce, or Carnuti (Kapvovrat), called by 

GALLIA. 125 

Plutarch, in his Life of Caesar, Kapvovrtvoi, between the Lige- 
ris and Sequana. They occupied what is now the northern 
portion of the department of Loir, the western portion of that 
ofLoiret, the whole department oiEure et Loir, and the north- 
western portion of the department of Seine et V Oise. 

VI. Armoricce Civitates, the name given in the time of Cse- 
sar to the maritime districts of Celtic Gaul, situated between 
the mouth of the Ligeris and that of the Sequana. The word 
is derived from the Celtic ar mor, which means " near the sea." 
It has been supposed that Armorica was a general appellation 
for the whole coast of Gaul, and that in Caesar's time the 
name became more restricted in its use. Be this as it may, 
we find in Caesar's time the Armoric states consisting of the 
Veneti, Osismii, Curiosolites, Redones, Caletes, &c., who form- 
ed a sort of confederacy. Their towns and fortresses were built 
along the coast, and they carried on a commercial intercourse 
with the opposite coast of Britain. The maritime districts 
comprehended under the name of Armoricanus Tractus nearly 
corresponded in extent to the modern French provinces of Brit- 
tany and Normandy. 

(b) Smaller Communities. 

Following first the line of the coast, up to the mouth of the 
Sequana, we come in succession to, 1. Coriosoplti or Coriso- 
plti, in what is now the southern portion of the department of 
Finisterre. 2. Osismii (^LG^LOL), north of the preceding, in the 
northern portion of the department of Finisterre. 3. Curioso- 
lites or Curiosolitce, to the east of the preceding, in the north- 
western portion of the department of Cotes du Nord. 4. Ve- 
neli (Qvsvehoi), called by Caesar Unelli. Their country ran out 
into the ocean, and answered to the department of La Manche. ^ 
The Abrincatui were subject to them. 5. Boiocasses or Baio- 
casses, and the Viducasses, facing one another, and on opposite 
sides of the River Ar genus, now the Arguenon. They occupied 
the western portion of the department of Calvados. 6. Lexo- 
vii or Lexobii, to the east of the preceding, and in the eastern 
portion of the department of Calvados. 

Proceeding next into the interior of the country, we come 
to, 1. Andecavi, or, as Caesar calls them, Andes, immediately 
north of the Ligeris, and to the east of the Namnetes, in what 


is now the department of Mayenne, around Angers. 2. Turo- 
neSj to the southeast of the preceding, on both sides of the Li- 
geris, in what was formerly Touraine, but is now the depart- 
ment of Indre et Loire. 3. Aureliani, to the northeast of the 
preceding, in what was formerly Orleannois, but answers now 
to the department of Loiret, and a portion of that of Cher. 
4. Boii, inhabiting the city and territory of Gergovia, erroneous- 
ly placed by Pliny between the Carnutes and Senones, but who 
lived in what is now a portion of the department of Loiret. 
Their city was called by the Romans Gergovia Boiorum, to 
distinguish it from Gergovia Arvernorum, which latter lay, as 
already remarked, southwest of Augustonometum. 5. Aulerci 
Diablintes, to the northeast of the Redones, around the modern 
Alengon, in what answers now to the northern portion of the de- 
partments of Mayenne and Sarthe, and the southern portion of 
that of Or-ne. 6. Essui, supposed by some to be the same 
with the Saii, to the northeast of the preceding, in the north- 
ern portion of the department of Orne, around Seez. 7. Au- 
lerci Cenomani, to the southeast of the preceding, in the de- 
partment of Sarthe, around Mans. 

2. Tribes between the Ligeris, Rhodanus, Arar, and Sequana. 
(a) Larger Communities. 

I. Segusiani (Seyovaiavoi), to the northwest of the Allobro- 
ges, in what was formerly Lyonnais, but answers now to the 
department of the Rhone, and the eastern portion of the depart- 
ment of Loir. 

II. JEdui (AMovot), to the north of the preceding, in what an- 
swers now to the greater portion of the department of Sadne 
et Loir, the department of Nievre, and the southern portion of 
that of Cote d?Or. The ^Edui were a powerful nation, and 
their sway originally extended over many of the adjacent tribes. 
When Caesar came into Gaul, however, he found that the ^Ed- 
ui, after having long contended with the Arverni and Sequani 
for the supremacy, had been overcome by them, the Arverni 
and Sequani having called in Ariovistus, a powerful king of the 
Germans, to their aid. The arrival of the Roman commander 
soon changed the aspect of affairs, and the ^Edui were restored 
by the Roman arms to the chief power in Gaul. They became, 
of course, valuable allies for Caesar in his Gallic conquests. 

GALLIA. 127 

Eventually, however, they embraced the party of Vercingeto- 
rix against Rome ; but, when the insurrection was quelled, 
they were still favorably treated from motives of policy, and on 
account of their former services. 

III. Lingones (Aiyyoveg), to the north of the ^Edui, in what 
answers now to the northern portion of the department of Cote 
cV Or, the southern portion of the departments of Aube and Haute 
Marne, and the northern portion of that of Haute Saone. 

IV. Senones (Sevuvec; and Sevoveg), to the northeast of the 
Lingones, in what answers now to the southern portion of the 
departments of Seine et Oise and Seine et Marne, and the 
western portion of the department of Aube. The old stem of 
the Senones, of which these appear to have been a branch, un- 
der the conduct of Brennus, invaded Italy at an early period, 
and pillaged Rome. They afterward settled in Umbria, on the 
coast of the Adriatic. 

(b) Smaller Communities. 

These lay principally on the right, and in part, also, on the 
left bank of the Sequana, and were most of them border tribes 
as regarded the province of Gallia Belgica. We find in this 
enumeration, 1. Caletes or Caleti (KaAf/T<u), to the north of 
the Sequana, at its mouth, in what is now the department of 
Seine inferieure, and the northern portion of the department 
of Eure. 2. Bellocasses or Vellocasses, to the southeast of the 
preceding, and on the right bank of the Sequana, in what is 
now the northeastern portion of the departments of Eure and 
Seine. 3. Parisii, on both the right and left banks of the Se- 
quana, in the northeastern portion of the department of Seine 
et Oise, and the southwestern portion of that of Seine et Marne. 
4. Meldi, to the east of the preceding, in the eastern portion of 
the ; department of Seine et Marne. 5. Tricasses or Tricasii 
(Tpindoioi)) to the southeast of the preceding, in the department 
of Aube. 6. A branch of the Boii, on the southwestern flank 
of the ^Edui, may be here mentioned, lying in a southwest di- 
rection from the Sequana, and in the vicinity of the Ligeris. 
Their country answered to the modern Beaujolais. 7. Am- 
barrij in the angle between the Arar and Rhodanus, in the de- 
partment of Ain. 



THESE may be divided into two classes, namely, 1. Cities be- 
tween the northern bank of the Ligeris, the Atlantic Ocean, 
and the Sequana, and, 2. Cities between the Ligeris, Rhod- 
anus, Arar, Sequana, and Matrona. 

1. Cities between the northern bank of the Ligeris, the At' 
lantic Ocean, and the Sequana. 

In the territory of the Veneti we find, 1. Dariorigon (Aapt- 
opiyov), called, also, Darioritum and Civitas Venetorum. It 
was the capital of the tribe, and is commonly identified by ge- 
ographers with the modern Vannes ; but, as Csesar has partic- 
ularly described the situation of the towns of the Veneti, on 
tongues of land insulated at high water, it has been suggested 
by the historians of Bretagne (Lobineau and Morice) that the 
site of Dariorigon could not be identical with that of Vannes ; 
and D'Anville, who adopts the suggestion, is inclined to place 
Dariorigon on the shore of the Bay of Morbihan, about three 
miles from Vannes, called still Durouec. 2. Blavia, further 
west, now Port Lotus, on the River Blavet. 

In the territory of the Corisopiti we find Corisopiti, their 
capital, now Quimper-Corentin ; in the territory of the Osis- 
mii, their capital Vorganium, now Corlay ; in that of the Cu- 
riosolita, their capital of the same name, now Corsenil ; in 
that of the Redones, 1. Civitas Redonum, their capital, now 
Rennes. 2. Aletum, to the northwest of the preceding, near St. 
Malo. The site of Aletum is marked by a headland in the vi- 
cinity of St. Malo, which the Bretons still call Guich Alet. 
The inhabitants of Aletum were, it seems, continually exposed 
in the eighth or ninth century to the attacks of pirates, and 
therefore retired to a neighboring rocky peninsula, on which 
they founded the town of St. Malo, from the name of the then 
Bishop of Aletum. 

In the territory of the Abrincatui we find Ingena, afterward 
called Abrincatui, their capital city, and now Avranches, the 
intermediate form of the name having been Abrinccc. As be- 
ing in Normandy, Avranches was under the dominion of the 
first English monarchs of the Norman and Plantagenet races, 
and was considered as one of the bulwarks of Normandy against 

GALLIA. 129 

the Bretons. It was also the seat of a diocese, and among those 
who held this see in modern times was the celebrated divine 
and scholar. Peter Daniel Huet. 

In the territory of the Unelli or Veneti we have Concilium, 
now Cherbourg. According to Troissard, this place was found- 
ed by Caesar when he invaded Britain, but by others it is de- 
nied that Csesar ever visited this portion of Gaul. The mod- 
ern name, however, is a corruption, according to some, of Cse- 
saroburgus or Csesaris Burgus. In the territory of the Baio- 
casses we have Arcegenus, afterward Baiocasses, now Bayeux. 
In the territory of the Lexobii we have Noviomagus, after- 
ward Lexobii, now Lisieux. In the territory of the Aulerci 
Eburovices we have Mediolanum Aulercorum, afterward Ebu- 
rovices, now Evreux. 

In the territory of the Namnetes we have, 1. Brivates Por- 
tus (Bpiovdr7]$ hipfjv). D'Anville seeks to identify this with the 
modern Brest. But if D' Anville's hypothesis be correct, Ptole- 
my must have very much misplaced this harbor, for the Greek 
geographer states that it was between the mouth of the Liger 
and the Herius (the modern Auray}. D'Anville also thinks 
that this place is mentioned in the Theodosian Table under the 
name of Gesocribate, or, as he would correct it, Gesobricate or 
Gesobrivate, a name which, in its Celtic signification of " great 
harbor or roadstead," is sufficiently appropriate to Brest. How- 
ever this may be, there is no reason to believe that it was a 
place of any great importance in Roman times, and subsequent- 
ly it appears to have sunk into complete obscurity. 2. Corbilo 
(Kop6tAwv), a commercial place, with an extensive traffic, on 
the Liger, at its mouth. It is mentioned by both Strabo and 
Polybius, and answers probably to the modern Coveron. 3. Con- 
divicnum, afterward Namnetum Portus or Namnetes, now 
Nantes, on the north bank of the Liger, near its mouth, and 
the capital of the tribe. In the ninth and tenth centuries it 
was six times pillaged and burned by the Northmen, and con- 
tinued desolate for thirty years. 

In the territory of the Andes or Andecavi we have Julioma- 
gus, afterward Andecavi, now Angers, the capital of the tribe. 
In the territory of the Carnutes we have Autricum, afterward 
Carnutes, and now Chartres, the capital of the tribe. It suf- 
fered subsequently in the civil dissensions of the Merovingian 



kings, and from the ravages of the Northmen, by whom it was 
pillaged and burned in 808. In the Middle Ages it was the 
capital of a county, which was in the tenth century united with 
that of Blois and Tours. In the territory of the Turones we 
have Cccsarodunum, afterward called Turanes, on the River 
Ligeris, and now Tours. It was subsequently included in the 
kingdom of the Visigoths, from whom it was taken (A.D. 507) 
by Clovis, king of the Franks. In the feudal period it came, 
about the middle of the tenth century, into the hands of the 
Counts of Blois. 

In the territory of the Aureliani we have Genabum, after- 
ward Aureliani, now Orleans. Some scholars are in favor of 
identifying Genabum with the modern Glen, but the opinion 
of D'Anville and the best geographers is decidedly opposed to 
this. As the Aureliani were, in fact, a branch of the Carnutes, 
Genabum is often called by writers a town of the latter people. 
It was a place of considerable trade, situate on the Ligeris, and 
was the scene of the outbreak of the great revolt of the Gauls 
against Caesar, in the seventh year of his command. In con- 
sequence of the massacre made here on this occasion of the Ro- 
mans who were residing at the place for commercial purposes, 
Csesar, early in the ensuing spring, attacked the town, which 
he plundered and burned. It seems to have recovered from this 
disaster, and in the time of Strabo was again the emporium or 
trading town of the Carnutes. In A.D. 451 it successfully re- 
sisted Attila, and subsequently it passed into the hands of the 
Franks, and became the capital of one of the kingdoms into 
which their territories were so often divided. Some writers 
maintain that Genabum received the name of Aureliani from 
the Emperor Aurelian, but there is no proof whatever of this, 
and if it had been the case, Genabum must have appeared un- 
der the name of Aureliani in the Antonine Itinerary. 

2. Cities between the Ligeris, Rhodanus, Arar, Sequana, and 


In the territory of the Segusiani we have, 1. Forum Segu- 
sianorum, on the Ligeris, now Feurs. 2. Lugdunum, now 
Lyons, at the confluence of the Rhodanus and the Arar, or Sa- 
one. According to the common opinion, Lugdunum was found- 
ed by L. Munatius Plancus, commander of the legions in Gaul 

GALLIA. 131 

at the time of Caesar's death, who settled here the people of 
Vienna, now Vienne, when they had been driven from their 
own home by a revolt of the Allobroges, about 42 B.C. It 
seems improbable, however, that a situation so advantageous 
should have been entirely neglected by the Gauls ; and the Cel- 
tic name given to the place prevents our ascribing its origin 
wholly to Plancus. Csesar does not mention Lugdunum, which 
has furnished one of the reasons for denying to the town any 
higher antiquity than the time of Plancus; but the reason 
seems altogether insufficient. According to Menestrier, in his 
history of this city, the Roman colony of Plancus was not es- 
tablished at Lugdunum until about thirty years after the set- 
tlement of the Viennenses here. Augustus was in Gaul about 
the time when, according to the more correct opinion just stat- 
ed, Plancus established his colony, and he appears to have made 
Lugdunum his place of residence for some time, an indication 
of the rising importance of the place. Strabo, writing a few 
years afterward, describes it as the most populous city of Gaul 
except Narbo Martius. It was, in fact, the great mart of the 
Romans, who had here, even at that early time, a mint for coin- 
ing gold and silver money, and it gave name, as we have seen, to 
one of the four great divisions of Gaul. An altar was erected 
here by sixty of the nations of Gaul, by common consent, in 
honor of Augustus. Both Tiberius and Caligula appear to 
have favored the town. The latter visited it, and instituted 
games professedly in honor of Augustus, about A.D. 40. The 
Emperor Claudius, himself a native of Lugdunum, raised it 
from the rank of a municipium to that of a colony in the strict- 
est sense of the term, and regulated its local government. But 
its greatness received soon after a terrible blow : it was utterly 
destroyed in a single night by fire, originating, it has been con- 
jectured, from lightning, about A.D. 59, according to some, but, 
according to other calculations, about A.D. 64 or 65. The re- 
building of the city was promoted by a grant from the Emper- 
or Nero, to whom the citizens manifested their affection and 
fidelity on his downfall. In the contest between Albinus and 
Severus, Lugdunum became the scene of conflict. In an en- 
gagement near this place, Albinus was totally defeated and slain 
(A.D. 197), and Lugdunum, which had afforded a retreat for 
the vanquished, was pillaged by the victor, who put most of 


the inhabitants to the sword, and burned the town. At a sub- 
sequent period, while Julian held the government of Gaul un- 
der Constantius, the environs of Lugdunum were ravaged, and 
the place nearly captured by the Allemanni. In the beginning 
of the fifth century it fell into the hands of the Burgundians. 
Lugdunum, during the Roman period, occupies a considerable 
place in ecclesiastical history also. The Gospel had been early 
introduced into this part of Gaul, and here a severe persecu- 
tion raged in the reign of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (A.D. 172 
or 177). The churches of Vienna (Vienne) and Lugdunum 
sent a relation of their sufferings to those of Asia and Phrygia. 
This account, ascribed by some to Irenseus, is written with 
simplicity and beauty, and is one of ihe most affecting passa- 
ges in the ancient history of Christianity. Pothinus, bishop of 
Lugdunum, and perhaps the person who introduced the Gospel 
into these regions, was one of the martyrs in this persecution. 
His successor was Irenseus, one of the most eminent of the ear- 
ly fathers. 

In the territory of the JEdui we find, 1. Cabillonum or Ca- 
balllnum (Ka6akklvov), on the Arar, now Chctlons-sur-Sa6ne. 
In the great revolt under Vercingetorix, many Romans, who 
were here, were obliged to quit the place, and many were slain 
in the assaults which they had to sustain, after their departure, 
from the insurgent populace. Caesar writes the name Cabillo- 
num, while Strabo has KativkUvov. The form Ka6akhlvov is 
given by Ptolemy. Ammianus Marcellinus, who wrote about 
the period of the downfall of the empire, mentions this place as 
one of the ornaments of the province of Lugdunensis, and gives 
to its name the form Cabillones. From the singular form of 
the ancient name, it was usual for a long time to write the 
modern appellation without an s, Ch&lon, by which, when D' An- 
ville wrote, it was distinguished from Ch&lons-sur-Marne, the 
ancient Durocatalauni. It is now, however, usually written 
with the final sibilant. This place contains the ruins of a Ro- 
man amphitheatre. 2. Bibracte, to the northwest of the pre- 
ceding. There is a great difference of opinion among geogra- 
phers whether Bibracte was identical with Augustodunum, now 
Autun, on the Arrosius, now Arrou, one of the tributaries of 
the Ligeris, and many of them place its site on Mount Beuvrai, 
the ancient Mom Bifractus, some miles to the west of Autun. 

GALLIA. 133 

But as this mountain is steep and precipitous on every side, 
and its summit affords an area too small for a populous city 
like Bibracte, it is most probable that the citadel was on this 
mountain, and the town at its foot, and that, as this quarter 
was often desolated in war, the inhabitants eventually migra- 
ted to the spot where Autun now stands, and built a new city. 
This new city was made a Roman colony by Augustus, whose 
name it took, combining with it the termination dunum, from 
the Celtic dun, " a hill." Caesar calls Bibracte by far the great- 
est and wealthiest town belonging to the ^Edui, and says that 
it possessed the greatest influence among them. Augustodu- 
num, in the third century, suffered much from the ravages of 
war, and it was taken by Tetricus, one of the so-called " Thir- 
ty Tyrants." From the effects of this severe blow it was raised 
by the patronage of Constantius Chlorus and his son Constan- 
tine the Great, from whom it received much kindness. In 
gratitude to these princes, whose family name was Flavius, 
the town took the name of Flavia. Upon the downfall of the 
Roman power the town was reduced to ashes by Attila, king 
of the Huns, and afterward came successively into the hands 
of the Burgundians and Franks. In the time of Charles Mar- 
tel (about A.D. 730), when the Saracens invaded France, they 
took and burned Autun, and it was again pillaged by the North- 
men in 894. We have followed Ukert in making Bibracte dis- 
tinct from Augustodunum. D'Anville, however, is of the op- 
posite opinion. 3. Alesia, to the north of the preceding, in the 
territory of the Mandubii, a tribe dependent on the ^Edui. It 
was so ancient a city that Diodorus Siculus ascribes the build- 
ing of it to Hercules. The Celtae regarded the place as the 
" hearth and metropolis of Gallia Celtica" (koriav real prjrpono- 
\iv KehriKfis), a sufficient proof in itself of the antiquity of the 
settlement. Alesia was situate on a high hill, now Mount 
Auxois, washed on two sides by the small rivers Lutosa and 
Ozera, now the Lose and Ozemin. It remained free until 
Csesar's time, who took it a/ter a memorable siege, during which 
he was himself besieged in his own lines by an army of about 
300,000 Gauls, but whom he defeated with very heavy loss to 
them. According to Florus, Caesar burned the town. If so, 
however, it must have been soon rebuilt, for it became a place 
of considerable consequence under the Roman emperors. It 


was laid in ruins in the ninth century by the Northmen. At 
the present day there is a small town or village at the base of 
Mount Auxois, called Le bourg de Sainte-Reine, the upper 
part of which still retains the name of Alise. 4. Noviodunum, 
to the west of Bibracte, near the confines of the Bituriges 
Cubi. It was situate on the River Niveris, now the Nievre, 
at its junction with the Ligeris. The name Noviodunum be- 
came subsequently changed to Ntvernum, from that of the riv- 
er, and is now Nevers. This was a place of little importance 
until the reign of Clovis, in whose time it belonged to the Bur- 

In the territory of the Ling-ones we find, 1. Andomatumtm, 
their capital, afterward Lingones, and now Langres. It was 
a place of great importance under the Romans, and many an- 
tiquities have been found here. There yet remain the ruins of 
two triumphal arches, one erected to Probus, the other to Con- 
stantius Chlorus. This city suffered severely in the invasion 
of Gaul by the barbarous tribes which overthrew the Roman 
empire. 2. Dibio, in the southeastern angle of the country r 
and near the confines of the ^Bdui. It is now Dijon. An an- 
cient legend, attested by Gregory of Tours, relates that the Em- 
peror Aurelian made Dibio a considerable fortress: other le- 
gends seem to confound Aurelian with Marcus Aurelius, who 
lived a century before. This place passed in the fifth century 
into the hands of the Burgundians, and subsequently of the 

In the territory of the Senones we find, 1. AgemKcum, which 
Ptolemy writes 'Ay??&/cdv, Agedicum, while in the Antonine 
Itinerary it is Agedincum. It was afterward called Senones, 
being the capital city, and is now Sens. Some antiquaries dis- 
pute the identity of Agedincum with Senones, and contend that 
the former corresponds to the modern Provins, but this opin- 
ion does not appear to be well sustained. The town was sit- 
uate on the right bank of the Icauna, the modern Yonne* 
2. Antesiodurum or Antissiodurum, to the southeast of the pre- 
ceding, on the left bank of the Icauna, and now Auxerre. It 
was in the country of the Senones, but by a division of that 
territory acquired a district of its own. The line of demarca- 
tion between the former dioceses of Sens and Auxerre (now in- 
corporated together) is supposed to have coincided with the 

GALLIA. 135 

frontier of this district. The bishopric of Auxerre is said to be 
as ancient as the third century, its first bishop having been St. 
Peregrin, who was put to death in the reign of Aurelian, A.D. 
273. 3. Vellaunodunum, to the southwest of Agedincum, and 
near the confines of the Aureliani, now Beaune, according to 
D' An ville ; others, less correctly, are in favor of Chateau Landon, 
or Chateau Renard. In the time of the Carlovingian kings of 
France the district was known by the name of Pagus Belnisus. 
4. Melodunum, to the northwest of Agedincum, on the River 
Sequana, and now Melun. Csesar describes it as situated on 
an island, in the same manner as Lutetia or Paris. It was 
taken by Labienus, Cgesar's lieutenant, in his campaign against 
the Parisii. It was also a place of note in the earlier times of 
the French monarchy, and was repeatedly taken by both the 
Northmen and the English. The modern town is built for the 
most part on a slope on the right bank of the Seine. The ruins 
of an old castle still remain on the island in which the old Cel- 
tic town stood. In the opinion of the best modern authorities, 
Melodunum was the same place with the Metiosedum men- 
tioned in the text of Csesar, and in all probability this latter 
name is merely a false reading for the former. 

In the territory of the Tricassii, or Tricasses, we find, 

1. Augustobona, afterward Tricasses, or Tricassce, now Troyes, 
their chief city, situate on the Sequana. Ptolemy writes the 
name Avyovarodava. The form Tricassce was, at a still later 
period, changed to Trecce, from the oblique cases of which the 
modern name has been derived. This city was plundered by 
the Northmen, A.D. 889. In the feudal period it was the 
capital of the important country of Troyes, or Champagne. 

2. Corobilium, to the northeast of the preceding, on the Sequa- 
na, now Corbeille. Some write the name Corbelium, and 
make Corobilium a town of the Catalauni, the site of which 
is found, as they maintain, near the modern village of St. 
Ouen. But this is an error. 

In the territory of the Meldi we find, 1. latinum ('Idrtvov), 
their capital, afterward called Meldi, and now Meaux. It 
was situated on the Alba, now Aube, one of the tributaries of 
the Matrona. The Peutinger Table calls it Fixtuinum. In 
the early history of the Franks it was a place of considerable 
consequence. 2. Caldgiim, to the southeast of the preceding, 
now Chailly. 


In the territory of the Parisii we have Lutetia Parisionum, 
their chief city, afterward Parisii, and now Paris. This 
place is mentioned by Caesar, in whose time it was already 
the capital of the tribe. In that part of the Seine which now 
traverses Paris were anciently five small islands, on one of 
which, now the island of La Cite, stood Lutetia. This island 
was then of smaller dimensions than at present, two smaller 
islands at its western extremity having been incorporated with 
it. Lutetia, antecedent to the Roman conquest, was an un- 
walled place. The etymology of the name of the Parisii has 
been much disputed. Dulaure conjectures that it meant " in- 
habitants of the frontier." A British tribe, in the neighbor- 
hood of Hull, in Yorkshire, had the same designation. In B.C. 
54, Caesar convoked at Lutetia an assembly of the nations of 
Gaul. In the general rebellion of the Gallic tribes the follow- 
ing year, Lutetia was burned by the Gauls to prevent its fall- 
ing into the hands of the Romans ; but it subsequently came 
with the rest of Gaul into their power. For the next four cen- 
turies the place is hardly noticed, except by geographers, by 
whom the name is variously written; nor does it appear to 
have been of any importance until the later period of the Ro- 
man dominion. It took the name of the tribe to which it be- 
longed about A.D. 358 or 360. It was the seat of a bishopric 
as early as the middle of the third century. Lutetia was the 
favorite residence of Julian while he governed the provinces of 
Gaul with the rank of Caesar. In or about the year 494 it 
was taken by the Franks under Clovis. Under the Romans 
the buildings connected with the town extended beyond the 
island to both banks of the river. 

In the territory of the Velocasses, or Bellocassi, we have 
Rotomagus, now Rouen. The name is variously written, Ro- 
tomagus, Rothomagus, Ratomagus, &c., and in Ammianus 
Marcellinus we have the plural form Rotomagi. This name 
remained when most other capitals had their own proper desig- 
nation superseded by that of the people to whom they respect- 
ively belonged, and was subsequently shortened into Rotomum 
or Rodomum, whence the modern appellation Rouen. In the 
early history of France, Rouen appears as the scene of some of 
the cruelties of Fredegonde. It suffered much from the incur- 
sions of the Northmen, whose capital it eventually becamej 

GALLIA. 137 

when, by virtue of the treaty between Hollo and Charles the 
Simple (A.D. 911 or 912), they settled in this part of France. 


(A.) NAME. 

I. THE name Belgica was given to this province from that of 
the Belgae, the ruling race in this quarter, who, in Caesar's 
time, formed one of the three great divisions of Gaul. 

II. The Belgae, as has already been remarked, were of mixed 
Celtic and Germanic blood, several German tribes having from 
time to time crossed over, and either driven portions of the 
Belgee back into the interior, or else having become amalgam- 
ated with them. 

III. The province of Belgica, as settled by Augustus, was, 
as before remarked, much more extensive than the ancient ter- 
ritory of the Belgse, and contained within its limits three dif- 
ferent stems or races, namely, 1. Belgce, of mixed Celtic and 
German blood ; 2. Batavi, of pure German origin ; 3. Sequa- 
ni and Helvetu, of pure Celtic extraction. 

IV. We will now proceed to speak of these three races in 
order, describing in succession the communities into which 
they were respectively subdivided, and giving some account of 
the cities of each. 

1. OF THE 

1. Larger Communities. 

I. Bellovaci. In the time of Julius Caesar the Bellovaci 
were distinguished among the Belgic Gauls for number, valor, 
and influence, and took an active part in the resistance to the 
Roman arms, when these were first carried into this part of 
the country. They agreed to contribute 60,000 men to the 
confederate army of natives, but the skill and perseverance of 
the Romans triumphed over all opposition, and the Bellovaci, 
with their neighbors, had to submit to a foreign yoke. Their 
territory answered to what is now, in a great measure, the de- 
partments of Oise and Somme. 

II. Menapii, a numerous tribe, occupying originally all the 
country between the Mosa, or Meuse, and the Rhine, and in 
Csesar's time having settlements even on the eastern side of 
the last-mentioned river. They were subsequently, however, 


compelled to retire from the banks of the Rhine, when the Ubii 
and Sicambri, nations from the interior of Germany, were set- 
tled by the Romans on the western side of the Rhine. From 
a passage of Tacitus we learn that, in later times, the settle- 
ments of this tribe were along the lower Meuse. 

III. Nervii, a very powerful tribe, claiming to be of German 
origin, who dwelt in what used to be the French departments 
of Lys, Nord, Sambre et Meuse, Ardennes, or in Hennegan, 
&c., on both banks of the Sambre, the ancient Sabis. Ctesar 
names among their dependents or clients the smaller tribes of 
the Centrones, Crrudii, Levaci, Pleumoxii, and Geiduni. Their 
original capital was Bagacum, now Bavay, but afterward Ca- 
maracum, now Cambray, and Turna^um, now Tournay, be- 
came their chief cities toward the end of the fourth century. 
After subjecting the Suessiones, the BeUovaci, and the Ambi- 
ani, Caesar marched against the Nervii. A desperate battle 
was fought on the banks of the Sabis, in which the Nervii ac- 
tually surprised the Roman soldiers while in the act of tracing 
and intrenching their camp, and came very near defeating the 
latter. The scale was only turned at length by the valor of 
the tenth legion. The Nervii fought desperately to the last, 
and their nation and name, says Caesar, were nearly extin- 
guished on that day. It was reported that, out of 60,000 fight- 
ing men, only five hundred remained. Caesar restored their 
territory and towns to the remnant of the nation, and they ap- 
pear subsequently to have become a considerable people. We 
find them frequently serving, at a later day, among the Ro- 
man forces. 

IV. Treveri or Treviri, a powerful tribe, claiming to be of 
German origin like the Nervii, and dwelling on both sides of 
the Mosella, from the Mosa to the Rhine. Their chief town 
was Augusta Treverorum, now Treves. Their territory an- 
swered to what used to be the French departments of the 
Meuse, Moselle, the department of the Sarthe toward the north, 
and the southern part of that of Luxembourg. 

2. Smaller Communities. 

1. Ambiani, on the east coast, along both banks of the Sama- 
ra, now the Somme, in what is now the department of Somme. 
Their territory lay between that of the Bellovaci, Veroman- 

GALLIA. 139 

dm, and Atrebates. 2. Mormi, also on the coast, between the 
Ambiani and Nervii, and to the northwest of the Atrebates. 
Their name is derived from the Celtic mor, " the sea," and has 
reference to their situation. Their territory answers now to a 
portion of the department of Pas de Calais. 3. Atrebates, to 
the southeast of the preceding, in what answers now to the 
eastern portions of the two departments of Pas de Calais and 
Somme. This tribe were famed for their manufactures of 
woollen goods even in Roman times, and the cloak or sagum 
that was made here was held in high esteem at Rome. 4. Tox- 
iandri, to the south of the earlier settlement of the Menapii, 
in what answers to the modern Seeland and northern Flanders. 
5. Eburones, to the south of the Toxiandri, in what is now the 
Netherland province of Limburg, around Hasselt. 6. Aduat- 
ici or Atuatici, the same, probably, with the Tungri of Tacitus 
and Ammianus Marcellinus, or else the Tungri, a German 
tribe, and the first that crossed the Rhine, became amalgama- 
ted with them. Their territory answered in some degree to 
the present Netherland provinces of Luttich and Namur. 7. Ve- 
romandui, to the southeast of the Atrebates, in the northern 
portion of the department of Aisne, and the western portion of 
that of Ardennes. Ptolemy calls them 'Popdv6vE$. 8. Suessi- 
ones, to the south of the preceding, and southwest of the Remi, 
in the middle portion of the departments of Oise and Aisne, 
and in the northern portion of the department of Marne. 9. Cat- 
alauni, to the south of the Remi, in the southern portion of the 
department of Marne, and the western portion of that of the 
Meuse. 10. Mediomatrlci, to the south of the Treveri, in the 
department of the Moselle. 11. Leuci, to the south of the pre- 
ceding, in the northeastern portion of the department of Haute 
Marne, the northwestern of that of Vosges, and the southern 
portions of those of Meuse and Meurthe. 


Cities belonging to the Ambiani, Morini, and Nervii. 

In the territory of the Ambiani we find, 1. Samarobrlva, on 
the Samara, now the Somme, the chief city of the tribe, called 
afterward Ambiani, and now Amiens. 2. Ambiliati, now Ab- 


In the territory of the Morini we find, 1. Taruenna or Ter- 
uanna, now Terouenne. 2. Gessoriacum, afterward Bononia, 
now Boulogne. Mela mentions this place under its name of 
Gessoriacum, and the manner in which he speaks of it implies 
that it was of Gallic origin, and it was in his time the place of 
greatest note on that coast. After Mela mention is also made 
of it by Pliny and Ptolemy, the latter of whom calls it Tiaop- 
piaKov emveiov. Some writers, and among them Montfaucon 
and Cluverius, have endeavored to show that Boulogne was the 
Portus Itius from which Caesar embarked for Britain, but their 
opinion is rejected by D'Anville, who agrees with Du Cange 
and Cambden in fixing the Portus Itius at Witsand or Wissan, 
a small town near Cap de Griz Nez. ^ Gessoriacum became, 
under the Romans, the chief port of embarkation for Britain. 
Here, D'Anville thinks, was the tower erected by Caligula 
when he marched to the coast of Gaul in order to invade Brit- 
ain ; and the Emperor Claudius, according to Suetonius, em- 
barked here for that island. The port in Britain with which 
a communication was chiefly maintained was Rutupice, now 
Richborough, near Sandwich. About the time of the Emperor 
Constantino, the name Bononia was substituted for that of 
Gessoriacum, and the latter is not used by Ammianus Marcel- 
linus, Eutropius, and other writers of a later period. Bononia 
appears to have been one of the Roman naval stations. When 
Carausius was proclaimed emperor by the legions in Britain, 
he possessed himself of Bononia, which was, in consequence, 
besieged and taken by Csesar Constantius Chlorus, father of 
Constantino the Great, and the capture of the place proved the 
occasion of a serious detriment to it. In the fifth century Bo- 
nonia is said to have been unsuccessfully attacked by Attila, 
king of the Huns, and in the ninth century it was laid waste 
by the Northmen, who had landed in the neighborhood. From 
the discovery of a ring to which the cables of vessels were fast- 
ened, it is thought that the sea flowed up as far as the present 
upper town of Boulogne, in which case Gessoriacum must have 
been at the bottom of a small bay. 

3. Itius Portus, or Iccius Portus, just above Bononia, and 
now Witsand, or Wissan, a small town near Cap de Griz Nez. 
This port was famous as having been the one where Caesar 
embarked on his invasion of Britain, and has already been re- 

GALLIA. 141 

ferred to in the previous article. 4. Castellum Mormorum, to 
the east of Bononia, now Montcassel. 5. Ulterior Portus. 
This was a harbor eight miles east of Itius Portus, according 
to Caesar, and is mentioned by him in the account of his inva- 
sion of Britain. It is supposed to have been either where 
Calais now stands, or near to it. Ukert places it at Grave- 

In the territory of the Nervii we have, 1. Grudii, now 
Groede, in Western Flanders. 2. Turnacum, in the interior, 
now Tournay, on the Scaldis, or Scheldt. This place was 
one of the chief cities of the tribe. It is mentioned by St. Je- 
rome in the beginning of the fifth century as being among the 
places which had been seized by the barbarians who overran 
Gaul. It was among the early acquisitions of the Franks, 
and was the capital of the as yet infant empire of Clovis, 
3. Camardcum, now Cambray, also on the Scaldis, and to the 
south of the preceding. This place rose to notice in the latter 
period of the Roman empire, and is mentioned in both the An- 
tonine Itinerary and the Theodosian Table. In the Notitia 
Provinciarum it appears as one of the chief cities of the tribe, 
Turnacum being the other. In the infancy of the Frankish 
monarchy, Cambray is said to have been the capital of Clodi- 
on, the son of Pharamond, A.D. 427-448, and to have given 
title to his kingdom. Charlemagne fortified it, and Charles 
the Bald ceded it to the bishops, by whom the sovereignty of 
it was long retained. 4. Bagacum, to the northeast of the 
preceding, now Bavay. This was the original capital of the 
Nervii, but was superseded toward the end of the fourth cen- 
tury by Turnacum and Camaracum. The importance of the 
place, however, is testified by the fact that the Romans brought 
water to it across the valley of the Sabis, now Sambre, by 
means of an aqueduct, from springs distant ten or eleven miles. 
Bavay is at the junction of several Roman roads, which trav- 
ersed the surrounding country. According to some, Bagacum 
was destroyed by the barbarians toward the end of the fourth 
century, and it was on this account that Turnacum and Ca- 
maracum rose into importance. The name was variously writ- 
ten, Bagacum in the Antonine Itinerary, Baganum by Ptol- 
emy, and Basiacum, Bavacum, and Bacacum in later author- 
ities. In the Middle Ages the place was a mere castle. 


Cities in the Interior, between the Tribes just mentioned and 
the River Mosa. 

In the territory of the Bellovaci we find, 1. Ccesaromagns, 
the capital of the tribe (Katoapo^ayo^), afterward Bellovaci, and 
now Beauvais. Several writers of great learning, Sanson, 
Scaliger, and Valesius, have considered that Bratuspantium, 
the town into which the Bellovaci retreated with their effects 
on Caesar's approach, was identical with Caesaromagus, and 
D'Anville himself was at first of the same opinion, though he 
afterward made the site of Bratuspantium to be in the neigh- 
borhood of Breteuil, in Picardie. 2. Bratuspantium, just re- 
ferred to in the preceding sentence. ^ 

In the territory of the Suessiones we find, 1. Augusta Sues- 
sionum, the capital of the tribe, . afterward Suessiones , now 
Soissons. D'Anville, Dulaure, and others are disposed to iden- 
tify Augusta Suessionum with the Noviodunum of Caesar, but 
this opinion does not seem consistent with Caesar's narrative. 
In the "Notitia Imperii" it is recorded that there was at Au- 
gusta a government manufactory of shields, balistae, and arm- 
or for the cavalry, called Clibanarii or Cataphracti (fabrica 
scutaria, balistaria, et clibanaria). In the later period of the 
Roman dominion, this city was one of the most important 
places in northern Gaul, and one of the last which remained 
under the government of the emperors. It was also the seat 
of government of ^Egidius and his son Syagrius, and near it 
the latter was defeated by Clovis. Under the early Frankish 
princes it continued to be of importance, and was the seat of 
a bishopric. Here Clovis espoused Clotilde ; and, upon the 
division of his dominions among his descendants, it gave name 
to one of the kingdoms formed out of them. 2. Fines, or 
Fima, on the boundary line between the Suessiones and Remi, 
now Fisme, in Champagne. 

In the territory of the Veromandui we find, \. Augusta Ve- 
romanduorum, the capital of the tribe, now St. Quentin. The 
oldest quarter of the town has retained, down to modern times, 
the name of Aouste. 2. Verbinum, to the east of the preced- 
ing, now Vervins. 

In the territory of the Atrebates we find, 1. Nemetacum, the 
capital of the tribe, afterward Atrebates, and now Arras. Not 

GALLIA. 143 

only the modern name of the place, but that, also, of the coun- 
try, ArtotSj is a corruption of the ancient name of the race. 
It appears from the writings of St. Jerome, who lived during 
the close of the fourth century and the beginning of the fifth, 
that in his time it was a manufacturing town, and had been 
pillaged by the barbarians. 2. Helena, mentioned by Sidoni- 
us Apollinaris, and now probably Lens. 

In the territory of the Aduatici we find Aduatica, afterward 
Tungri, now Tongres. In the earlier settlements of the Me- 
napii, near the Scaldis, before they were driven south by Ger- 
man tribes, we find Castellum Menapiorum, now Kessel, on 
the Meuse. 

Cities in the Interior ', belonging to the Condrusi, Remi, Tre- 
veri, Medromatrici, Leuci, fyc. 

In the territory of the Condrusi we find, 1. Fons Tungro- 
rum, now Spaa, the medicinal waters of this place being known 
to the Romans. 2. Mar coma gus, now Markmagen. 

In the territory of the Remi we find, 1. Durocortorum, aft- 
erward Remi, the chief city of the tribe, now Rheims. This 
place is mentioned by Caesar, in whose time it was already an 
important city. Strabo writes the name AovpiKopropa. It was 
at the convergence of several military roads, according to the 
Antonine Itinerary and Peutinger Table. Under the Roman 
sway, Durocortorum was the most important place in Belgica 
Secunda, and was distinguished by its literary character. Cor- 
nelius Fronto, a rhetorician of the time of Hadrian, has com- 
pared it to Athens, an indication, making allowance for rhetor- 
ical exaggeration, of its high reputation in this respect. In 
A.D. 494, this city, then in the hands of the Franks, by whom 
it had been occupied after the death of Syagrius, was the scene 
of the baptism of Clovis and the chief lords of his court, after 
his victory at Tolbiac. In the civil troubles of the ninth and 
tenth centuries it was repeatedly besieged, and twice, at least, 
taken and plundered. In 1179 it was signalized by the conse- 
cration of Philippe Auguste, and, with a few exceptions, all the 
succeeding monarchs of France have also been consecrated at 
this place. 2. Axuenna, now Vienne la Ville, on the Aisne, 
the ancient Axona. 

In the territory of the Treveri we find, 1. Antunacum or An- 


dernacum, now Andernach, a Roman station. It was famed 
at a later day for the victory gained here by Louis the German 
over Charles the Bald. 2. Confluentes, now Coblenz, at the 
confluence of the Mosella and Rhenus, whence it derived its 
names of Confluentes, Confluentia, or Confluens. This last was 
originally the name of a castle erected by Drusus on the right 
bank of the Mosella. 3. Ambitarinus Vicus, on the Rhine, above 
Confluentes, where the Emperor Caligula was born. D'An- 
ville and others write the name Ambiatinm Vicus, but the oth- 
er form is the more correct one. Ukert makes this place to 
have been in the vicinity of the modern Reuse; Cluver de- 
clares for Capelle. 4. Noviomagus, on the Mosella, now Neu- 
magen. 5. Augusta Trevirorum, calle afterward Treviri, and 
now TreveSj or, as it is called in German, Trier, the capital 
of the tribe, on the right bank of the Mosella. When Julius 
Caesar was in Gaul, the Treviri were a powerful people, and 
their capital even then a place of importance. No credit, how- 
ever, is to be given to the hyperbolical inscription put up in 
modern times, and which states that this city was built 1300 
years before Rome ! In later times Treves was the residence 
of the emperors Constantius, Constantine the Great, Julian, 
Valentinian, Valens, Gratian, and Theodosius, and was so em- 
inent for its commerce, manufactures, wealth, and extent, that 
Ausonius calls it the second metropolis of the empire. It was 
nearly annihilated by the Huns, the Goths, and the Vandals, 
yet subsequently almost recovered its ancient splendor under the 
Archbishops of Treves, some of whom maintained large armies, 
which they occasionally led to the field in person, and greatly 
enlarged their dominions, so that they obtained considerable po- 
litical influence in Germany. 

In the territory of the Catalauni we find Durocatelauni, 
called afterward Catalauni, on the right bank of the Matrona, 
and now Chtilons sur Marne. It was the capital of the tribe. 
The prefix Duro, in the name of the place, is of Celtic origin, 
and means " water," indicating, in the present instance, the 
position of the city on the banks of a river. Near this place 
(A.D. 271) Aurelius defeated the army of Tetricus. In a sub- 
sequent age it was marked by another memorable conflict. In 
the year 451, Attila, at the head of the Huns, who had invaded 
Gaul, was defeated by the combined forces of the Romans and 

GALLIA. 145 

Visigoths under Aetius and Theodoric. D'Anville conjectures 
that the ancient name of the town was originally in the singu- 
lar form Durocatalaunum. 

In the territory of the Virodunenses we find Virodunum, now 
Verdun. Gregory of Tours writes the name Viredunum, and 
other writers of the Middle Ages have Viridunum and Virdu- 
num. In the Middle Ages it was included in the Germanic em- 
pire, of which its bishops were princes. 

In the territory of the Mediomatrlci we find Divodurum, aft- 
erward Mediomatrict, for which last was substituted, early in 
the fifth century, the shorter designation of Mettis or Metis, 
whence the modern name Metz. It was the capital of the tribe. 
In the civil dissensions which followed the death of Nero, A.D. 
70, Divodurum was nearly destroyed by a sudden outbreak of 
the troops of Vitellius. It was completely ruined in the inva- 
sion of the Huns under Attila, A.D. 452 ; but it afterward be- 
came the capital of Austrasia, which was sometimes termed 
the kingdom of Metz. In the division of the Carlovingian em- 
pire, Metz was comprehended in the kingdom of Lotharingia, 
or Lorraine. 

In the territory of the Leuci we find, 1. Nasium, near what 
is now the village of Grand-Nancy. At a place in this vicin- 
ity called Nas or Nais, inscriptions have been dug up with the 
name Nasienses. Nasium does not, as some suppose, answer 
to the present town of Nancy or Nanci, this last not being 
known to have existed before the twelfth century. 2. Tullum 
Leucorum, to the east of the preceding, now Toul. It was the 
chief city of the tribe. In some deeds of the time of the Car- 
lovingian princes it is called Leuci. 


I. UNDER this head we will make mention also of the other 
German tribes settled on the left bank of the Rhine. 

II. All these tribes, the Batavi included, may be divided into 
two classes, namely, 1. Tribes at or near the mouths of the 
Rhine, in what were called Insulce Batavorum, &c., and, 
2. Tribes on the bank of the Rhine further up, in what was 
called Germania Prima. 



First Class. , ,.< 

I. Caninefdtes, a tribe of the same origin with the Batavi, 
occupying not only the western part of the Insula Batavorum, 
between the Helium Ostium and Flevum Ostium, or the lower 
and upper mouths of the Rhine, but also extending beyond the 
Flevum Ostium into what is now northern Holland and west 
Friesland. They were not so numerous, however, as the Ba- 
tavi, and hence their name gradually became lost in that of 
the larger community. Their chief city was Lugdunum Ba- 
tavorum, now Leyden. An account of the Lacus Flevo, in 
the territory of the Frisii, will be given in the geography of 
Germania, when describing the Rhine. 

II. Batavi, a Germanic tribe of the race of the Catti, who 
seem to have left their native district some time before the age 
of Csesar, and to have settled on the banks of the Vahalis, now 
the Waal, a branch of the Lower Rhine. They occupied the 
district, called by some the island, between the Vahalis and 
Mosa, above their junction, and also the island formed by the 
northern arm of the Rhine, or Rhine of Leyden, the Vahalis 
before its junction with the Mosa, the Vahalis and Mosa after 
their junction, and the ocean. This district and island, or, to 
speak less precisely, these two islands, were called Insulce Ba- 
tavorum. In strictness, however, there was but one island, 
that, namely, last described, and the more correct designation, 
therefore, was Insula Batavorum, in the singular. This island 
now constitutes part of the province of South Holland. Csesar 
appears to consider their country as belonging to Germany 
and not to Gaul, the limits of Belgic Gaul being placed at the 
southern branch of the Rhine, or Waal, after its junction with 
the Mosa, or Meuse. We have followed, however, the ordi- 
nary arrangement, which assigns them to Gallia. The Batavi 
seem to have occupied also a small portion of country on the 
banks of the Rhine, and not within the island. Caesar did 
not carry the war into the country of the Batavi. Under Au- 
gustus they became allies of the Romans. Drusus, the broth- 
er of Tiberius, resided for a time among them, and dug a canal, 
Fossa Drusiana, which connected the Rhine with the modern 
Yssel. The name of the Batavi can be traced even now in 
that of the Beturve, which is a district of the ancient Batavo- 
rum Insula, between the Rhine, the Waal, and the Lek. 

GALLIA. 147 

After the death of Galba, the army of the Rhine having pro- 
claimed ViteUius, and followed him on his way to Italy, the 
Batavi took the opportunity of rising against the Romans, 
whose alliance had become very burdensome to them. Claudi- 
us Civilis, a man belonging to one of their principal families, 
though bearing a Roman name, acted as their leader. At one 
time the insurrection seems to have spread among the neigh- 
boring tribes of Germans as well as of Belgian Gauls, but the 
speedy return of the legions suppressed the movement. Civilis 
resisted for a time, but the Batavi were at last subdued. Still 
it would appear that they obtained conditions, for we find them 
afterward restored to their former state of free allies of Rome. 
It appears, however, that subsequently, in the reigns of Tra- 
jan and Hadrian, the Romans completely established their do- 
minion over them, for we find in the Antonine Itinerary and 
the Peutinger Table two Roman roads across the country. 
The Batavi were employed by Agricola in his wars in Britain. 
In the latter part of the third century, during the civil war 
which desolated the empire, the Salian Franks invaded the 
country of the Batavi, and established themselves in it. They 
armed pirate vessels, which were encountered and defeated at 
sea by Carausius. Constantius and Constantine waged war 
against the Franks of the Batavian island, but could not drive 
them out of it. The Franks lost it, however, in the reign of Ju- 
lian, by an irruption of Frisii, who came from the northern coun- 
try, near the Zuider Zee, and drove the Salian Franks beyond 
the Meuse. After this the Insula Batavorum formed part of 
the country called Frisia, which, in the time of the Merovingi- 
ans, extended southward as far as the Scheldt. 

III. Gugerni or Guberni, between the Meuse, Waal, an4 
Rhine. They were a part of the German Sigambri, who had 
been removed by Tiberius, B.C. 8, into the territory of the 

IV. Ubii, a German tribe transported by Agrippa (B.C. 38) 
to the left bank of the Rhine, and settled between this river 
and the Meuse. Their territory extended from what is now 
the Rheno-Prussian village of Gelb or Gellub, as far as Rhein- 
magen. Their capital was Oppidum Ubiorum, afterward Co- 
Ionia Agrippina or Agrippinensis. 


Second Class. 

I. Vangiones, a German tribe dwelling on the Rhine, to the 
east of the Treviri, and north of the Nemetes, or between the 
modern Bingen and Selz. Their capital was Borbetomagus, 
now Wurms. 

II. Triboci or Tribocci, a German tribe on the left bank of the 
Rhine, and between that river and the Mediomatrici and Lerici. 
Their chief town was Argentoratum, now Strasbourg. They 
dwelt in what is now Alsace. 

III. Rauraci, between the Triboci, Sequani, and Helvetii, 
and extending from the mouth of the Arola, now Aar, to that 
of the Birsa, near Basilea, now Basel of Basle. Their capital 
was Augusta Rauracorum, now Augst. 

Cities of the Tribes just mentioned. 

In the territory of the Caninefdtes and Batavi we find, 
1. Forum Hadriani, now Haarlem. 2. Lugdunum Batavo- 
rum, now Leyden, near the mouth of the northern arm of the 
Rhine. 3. Prcetorium Agrippincs, now Roemberg, on the Rhine. 
4. Tablce, now Delft. 5. Vada, now Gouda. 6. Trajectum, 
now Utrecht. 7. Batavodurum, now Wyk de Duurstede. 
8. Arenacum or Arenatium, near the modern Arnheim. 9. No- 
viomagus, on the Vahalis, now Nirmvegen. It was the capi- 
tal of the Batavi. 10. Batavorum Oppidum, on the Mosa, 
southwest of the preceding, now, according to D'Anville, Bat- 

In the territory of the Grugerni we find, 1. Mediolanum, now 
Mayland. 2. Colonia Trajana, called, also, Castra Ulpia, 
now Kelln, in the Circle of Cleve. 3. Tricesimce, which some 
confound with Castra Ulpia, now Drich, near Santen, the clas- 
sical name for which latter place is Castra Vetera. 4. Asci- 
burgium, fabled to have been founded by Ulysses. Mannert, 
following Ptolemy, makes this place to have been situate on 
the right bank of the Rhine, where the canal of Drusus joined 
the Isala, now YsseZ, and where the modern Dosburg lies. It 
seems more correct, however, to make it correspond to Asburg, 
or the neighboring hamlet of Essenberg, on the left bank. The 
name Asciburgium is derived by some from the old German term 
ask, " a vessel," " a ship," and berg or burg, whence it is sup- 

GALLIA. 149 

posed to be equivalent to Schiffburg. Others, however, con- 
nect the name with the legend of Odin and the Asi. 

In the territory of the Ubii we find, 1. Gelduba, probably 
one of the border fortresses erected by Drusus. A bridge was 
here thrown by him over the Rhine. It is now Gelb, in the 
province of Dusseldorf. 2. Novesium, now Neuss. 3. Durno- 
magus, now Durmagen. 4. Juliacum, to the southwest, now 
Julich, or, as the .French write the name, Juliers. 5. Oppi- 
dum Ubiorum, the capital of the tribe, afterward named Colo- 
ma Agrippina or Agrippinensis, when a Roman colony had 
been established here, first by Agrippa, and subsequently by 
Agrippina, the daughter of Germanicus, and wife of the Em- 
peror Claudius. The colony of Agrippina, who was the grand- 
daughter of Agrippa, appears to have been sent out to strength- 
en the first, and its title was Colonia Claudia Agrippinensis, 
Agrippa's colony having been called Colonia Agrippina. The 
modern name of the place is Cologne, or, as the Germans write 
it, Koln. Agrippina adorned it with an amphitheatre, temples, 
aqueducts, &c., the ruins of which may still be traced. It con- 
tinued to be the capital of Lower Rhenish Gaul until A.D. 330, 
and, after a frequent change of masters, was annexed to the 
German empire in A.D. 870. We must be careful not to con- 
found the Ara Ubiorum with the Oppidum Ubiorum. The 
former was an altar, probably erected to Augustus, like that 
at Lugdunum or Lyons. Not far from Bonn is a hill called 
Godesberg, and it is highly probable that this is the site of the 
Ara Ubiorum. That it was somewhere near Bonn is pretty 
certain. The name Godesberg seems to indicate that the place 
was the seat of a religious worship of some kind. 6. Bonna, 
now Bonn, on the Rhine, above Colonia Agrippina. In records 
of a remote date it is called Bunna, a word which Arndt de- 
rives from the Celtic " Buhn" meaning a spot containing pro- 
ductive fields, pastures, and water-courses. Bonna became the 
head-quarters of the sixth Roman legion, and, according to the 
Antonine Itinerary, was afterward kept up as one of the Ro- 
man strongholds on the Rhine. It rose ultimately to be a place 
of some note. According to Tacitus, the Roman troops under 
Herennius Gallus were defeated near this city by the Batavi 
under Claudius Civilis. Bonna and Novesium are repeatedly 
mentioned in the subsequent account of the contest with the 


Batavi as places where the Roman generals mustered their 
forces. In the year 355, Bonn was destroyed by an irruption 
of German tribes, and in 359 was rebuilt by the Emperor 
Julian. Under the Frankish sovereigns it is said to have borne 
the name of Verona. In 881 it was almost ruined by the 

In the territory of the Vangiones we find, 1. Bingium, now 
Bingen, at the influx of the Nava, now Nahe, into the Rhine. 
The bridge of stone leading at the present day across the Nahe 
into Bingen is generally supposed to have been constructed by 
Drusus, and the ruins of the old fort of Klopp, upon an emi- 
nence near the town, stand upon the site of the castle known 
to have been built by the same commander. 2. Magontiacum 
or Moguntiacum, now Mayence, or, as it is called in German, 
Mainz or Mentz, on the Rhine, and the capital of the tribe. 
In B.C. 13, Drusus founded the fortress, on the site of which 
Kastel now stands. The town sprang up around this, but did 
not extend, under the Romans, to the Rhine. It was destroyed 
by the Vandals in 406, and lay in ruins for some centuries t 
until it was rebuilt by the King of the Franks. The writers 
of the Middle Ages generally prefer the form Mogontiacum 
when speaking of this place, not Magontiacum. 3. Borbeto- 
magus, called, also, Augusta Vangionum, and now Worms, 
south of the preceding, and likewise on the Rhine. The mod- 
ern name appears to have arisen from the intermediate form 
Warmatia or Wormatia, which occurs in the " Notitia." It 
was destroyed by the Vandals and Huns, but was rebuilt by 
the Franks. It was afterward the residence (at least for a con* 
siderable time) of Charlemagne, who held in its vicinity those 
primitive legislative assemblies which, meeting in May, were 
called Mai Lager or Champs de Mai, in one of which assem- 
blies the war with the Saxons was resolved on. Some of the 
Frankish and Carlovingian kings also resided here. 

In the territory of the Nemetes we find, 1. Noviomagus, 
called afterward Augusta Nemetum, and now Spire or Speyer* 
The modern name comes from the form Sphira, which occurs 
in the Ravenna geographer. 2. Julius Vicus, now Germers- 

In the territory of the Triboci we find, 1. Argentoratum y 
now Strasbourg, or, as it is called in German, Strassburg-. 

GALLIA. 151 

This place is first mentioned by Ptolemy, who erroneously 
calls it a town of the Vangiones. It was in the Roman prov- 
ince of Germania Prima or Superior ; and it was near this place 
that Julian, while he held the command in Gaul, as Caesar, 
defeated the Allemanni, under their king Chnodomar, A.D. 
357. At a subsequent period it appears to have fallen into 
their hands, and it was taken from them by Clovis and the 
Franks. It was afterward included in Lotharingia, and in the 
tenth century was incorporated with the German empire. It 
was during these changes, perhaps in the sixth century, that it 
exchanged its ancient name of Argentoratum for that of Stratce- 
burgus or Strateburgum, modified subsequently into Stratz- 
burg, and finally into Strassbourg. 2. Helellum, called in the 
Antonine Itinerary Hjelvetum, now Schlettstadt. In its vicin- 
ity were dug up statues of Mercury and Diana, together with 
gold and silver coins. 

In the territory of the Rauraci we find, 1. Argentovaria 
or Argentaria, now Arzheim. In this vicinity the Emperor 
Gratian obtained a victory over the Alemanni. 2. Basilea, 
now Basel, Basle, or Bale. It was originally a castle or for- 
tress built by the Emperor Valentinian I., and after the ruin 
of Augusta Rauracorum it rose gradually into importance. In 
917 it was destroyed by the Maggars, but was soon rebuilt, 
and became again a flourishing place. 3. Augusta Rauraco- 
rum, the chief city of the tribe. Its original name appears to 
have been Rauracum. A Roman colony was led hither by Mu- 
natius Plancus during the reign of Augustus. The city was 
destroyed by Attila. The village of Augst occupies a part of 
the ancient site. 


In the Province of Maxima Sequanorum. 

I. Sequani. These, as before remarked, were a tribe of Cel- 
tic origin. Their territory was bounded on the north by the 
range of Mount Vogesus, on the west by the Arar, now Saone, 
on the south by the Rhodanus, and on the east by the range 
of Jura. It answered, therefore, to what is now the northern 
portion of the department of Ain, the eastern portion of the de- 
partment of Saone, the departments of Jura and Doubs, and 
the southern portion of that of Haute- Saone. The Sequani 


were one of the most powerful tribes of the Celtic stock, and 
had long, together with the Arverni, been rivals of the ^Edui, 
as regarded the superiority in Gaul, before the arrival of Caesar 
in that country. Having been unsuccessful in this contest, 
they had called in the aid of Ariovistus, a powerful German 
monarch, who, however, after defeating the ^Edui and their 
allies, had become a general oppressor to both parties, and had 
seized upon the territories of some of the dependents of the Se- 
quani themselves along the banks of the Rhine. After the de- 
feat of Ariovistus by Csesar, some of the followers of the former, 
and especially the Triboci, still retained possession of this newly- 
acquired territory, which thenceforth was completely lost to the 
Sequani. By the subsequent division, which Augustus made 
of Gaul, the Sequani became included in the new province of 
Belgica, of which they ever afterward continued to form part. 
II. Helvetii. The territory of this powerful tribe, who were 
of Celtic origin, was bounded on the west by Mount Jura, 
which separated them from the Sequani, on the south by the 
Pennine Alps, on the east by the Rsetian Alps, and on the north 
by the Rhine. They occupied, therefore, a great part of what 
is modern Switzerland. Caesar says that they were divided 
into four pagi, or cantons, of which he names two, the pagus 
Tigurinus and pagus Urbigenus or Verbigenus. The mod- 
ern cities of Zurich and Orbes are supposed to have derived 
their names from these two pagi. The other cantons, not 
named by Caesar, were the pagus Tugenus and pagus Ambro- 
nicus. The Helvetii appear for the first time in history about 
110 B.C. The Tigurini having joined the Cimbri in their in- 
vasion of Gaul, the Roman consul L. Cassius was sent with 
an army against them. He met the forces of the Tigurini 
some say near the Arar or Saone, according to others near the 
eastern bank of the Lacus Lemanus, or Lake of Geneva; but 
he was defeated and slain, together with his lieutenant Piso, 
and most of his soldiers. The rest made a capitulation, by 
which they were allowed to return home after passing under 
the yoke. About half a century later, the great body of the 
Helvetians resolved to migrate with their families into the more 
fertile parts of Gaul. They burned their towns and villages, 
and passed through the country of the Sequani until they 
reached the Arar. Here Caesar fell upon the Tigurini, a/ter 

GALLIA. 153 

the others had crossed the stream, and completely defeated 
them. The rest of the Helvetii were defeated with great 
slaughter near Bibracte, in the country of the ^Edui. The 
survivors, about one third of the original number, were allowed 
to return to their country, and were henceforth in the condi- 
tion of allies and tributaries of Rome. The Helvetii who re- 
turned home were mustered by Caesar, and found to be 110,000 
individuals, men, women, and children. Their number when 
they left home was 368,000 individuals, of whom 92,000 were 
fighting men. After the total conquest of Gaul, the Romans 
sent colonies into the country of the Helvetii ; but it appears 
from Tacitus (Hist., i., 67) that the Helvetii retained the right 
of keeping garrisons in some of their own strongholds, and it 
was the rapacity of the twenty-first legion, which appropriated 
to its own use certain moneys destined to pay the Helvetian 
garrisons, that was the first cause of the fatal insurrection of 
A.D. 69. After the legions of Germany had proclaimed Vitel- 
lius, and when Caecina, one of his lieutenants, was marching 
with a strong force toward Italy, the Helvetii, who were not 
yet acquainted with the events at Rome and the murder of 
Galba, intercepted letters which were written in the name of 
the legions of Germany to the legions of Pannonia, and which 
invited the latter to join Vitellius, and they arrested the centu- 
rion and his escort as guilty of treason against Galba. Upon 
this, Caecina, who had just entered the territory of the Helvetii 
on his way to Italy, devastated the country, destroyed the Ther- 
mae Helveticae (the modern Baden, in Aargau], and advanced 
against the main body of the Helvetians, who were in arms, 
and had chosen a certain Claudius Severus for their leader. 
The Helvetians, however, made no stand against the Roman 
veterans, and were massacred without mercy. Those who es- 
caped death were sold as slaves. The town of Aventicum, one 
of the first in Helvetia, sent messengers to Caecina, with an 
offer to surrender ; but Caecina sentenced the principal inhab- 
itants to death, and referred the fate of the rest to Vitellius, 
who with difficulty was induced at length to spare their lives. 
Vespasian, who succeeded Vitellius, had lived, when a boy, at 
Aventicum with his father Sabinus, who went thither as a pub- 
licanus, and had died there. After Vespasian became emperor 
he remembered Aventicum, and embellished and enlarged the 


place. Nothing particular occurred after this in Helvetia un- 
til the beginning of the fifth century of our era. During this 
long period the Roman language and Roman habits and man- 
ners became prevalent throughout the country, though it is sup- 
posed that the more central valleys and the Alpine recesses re- 
tained a sort of rude independence, since Roman stations have 
been traced forming a line at the foot of the high Alps, which 
seem to have extended from the Lake of Wallenstadt to that 
of the Waldst'dtter, where Luzern now is, and thence to the 
highlands of Bern, as if to guard the open country against the 
irruptions of the mountaineers. At the breaking up of the 
western empire, the Burgundians were the first to form a per- 
manent situation in western Switzerland, between the Jura 
range, the Leman Lake, and the River Aar, and Geneva be- 
came the occasional residence of their kings. Meantime the 
Allemanni, a wilder and more barbarous race than the Bur- 
gundians, occupied the banks of the Rhine as far as eastern 
Helvetia, until, being defeated by Clovis, king of the Franks, 
at Tolbiacum, near Cologne, A.D. 496, the Franks became 
masters of the country which the Allemanni had occupied, in- 
cluding a great part of Helvetia. The old natives of Helvetia 
became now by turns subjects or serfs of these various masters ; 
being no longer a nation, their very name became obliterated, 
and they were included in the general appellation of Romans, 
by which the northern conquerors designated the inhabitants of 
the countries once subject to Rome. 

In the territory of the Helvetii is the Lacus Lemanus, now 
Lake of Geneva, one of the largest in Europe, and extending 
in the form of a crescent from east to west. The ordinary or- 
thography of the name is Lemanus, as we have given it, though 
Oudendorp, Ukert, and others consider Lemannus more cor- 
rect. Strabo, according to the latest and best text (that of 
Kramer), calls it 77 hfr]\iivva \i\ivr\, but Ptolemy Ki\iivr\. In the 
Antonine Itinerary it is termed Lausonius Lacus, and in the 
Peutinger Table Losannensis Lacus. Most of the ancient 
writers who make mention of this lake, repeat the erroneous 
account that the River Rhodanus traverses this sheet of water 
without mingling its waters with it. 



Cities of the Sequani. 

Proceeding from north to south we find, 1. Luxovium, now 
Luxeu. There were warm springs in this quarter, and thermae 
erected over them, the ruins of which still exist. 2. Portus 
Abucini, on the Arar, southwest of the preceding, now Port 
sur Saone. 3. Segobudium or Segoboduum, also on the Arar, 
ftow Seveux, on the Saone. 4. Loposagium, on the Dubis, now 
Luxiolj near Beaume. 5. Epamanduodurum, to the northeast 
of the preceding, now Mandeure. 6. Vesontio, on the Dubis, 
now Besanqon. The origin of this town is unknown. Local 
traditions and legends^ dated it as far back as four hundred and 
thirty-four years before the foundation of Rome, which, ac- 
cording to the received chronology, would be about 1186 B.C. 
All that we know with certainty is, that in Caesar's campaign 
against Ariovistus, it was the greatest city of the Sequani, 
and a place so strong by situation as to offer to either party 
the greatest facilities for protracting the war. Caesar, by a 
rapid march, seized the town and placed a garrison in it. 
The Roman general has described the place as nearly sur- 
rounded by the River Dubis, which here formed a bend, as 
though its course had been traced by a pair of compasses, 
and the interval left by the river was occupied by an emi- 
nence, which, being fortified with a wall, served as a kind of 
citadel. This was a flourishing place under the Romans, but 
when the inroads of the barbarians commenced, the city of Ve- 
sontio had its share in the general calamities, and was destroy- 
ed by the Allemanni in the time of Julian. It was rebuilt, 
but again destroyed by Attila and the Huns. Several remains 
at the present day attest its former greatness. 7. Ariolica, 
called afterward Pontarlum, to the southeast of Vesontio. It 
is now Pontarlier. 8. Magetobria, now Moigte de Broie, ac- 
cording to the best opinion, and in the vicinity of Pontarlier. 
The MSS. of Caesar, who makes mention of the place, have al- 
most all Admagetobria. 9. Pom Dubis, now Pont, near the 
frontier of the ^Edui. 

Cities of the Helvetii. 

Proceeding from the northeast toward the south, we find, 
1. Vindonissa, now Windisch, on the Arola, now Aar, in the 


canton of Bern. 2. Forum Tiberii, to the north of the preced- 
ing, on the Rhine, now Kaiserstuhl. 3. Turicum, now Zurich, 
on the Limagus, now the Limmat. 4. Salodurum, to the south- 
west of the preceding, on the River Arola, now Solothurn or 
Solerne. 5. Aventicum, now Avenches, called, also, Colonia 
Flavia and Pia Flavia. It was the chief city of the Helvetii, 
and has already been alluded to in the account just given of 
that people. It took the name of Colonia Flavia and Pia Fla- 
via in the reign of Vespasian, when embellished and enlarged 
by that emperor, as already remarked. 6. Lausanna, now Lau- 
sanne, near the southern shore of the Lacus Lemanus. 7. Not- 
odunum, called, also, Colonia Equestris, now Nyon, in the Pays 

de Vaud. 


I. Uliarus, now Oleron, lying on the coast of the Santones, 
off the mouth of the Carantonus, now Charente, and a little 
distance above the mouth of the Garumna. It belonged to 
Aquitanica. The name Uliarus occurs in Pliny. Subsequent- 
ly we have in Sidonius Apollinaris the derived adjective Olari- 
onensis, which serves to mark the transition to the modem 
name of Oleron. This island extends about twenty miles in 
length, and is about seven miles in breadth. The inhabitants 
appear to have had a very considerable trade as early as the 
twelfth century, and to have collected adjudged cases upon the 
laws of the sea for regulating their own commercial affairs. 
Hence arose the famous maritime laws of Oleron, which be- 
came known and partially adopted throughout all Europe. It 
is an historical error to suppose, as some do, that the laws of 
Oleron were compiled and published by Richard I. of England, 
in this island, on his return from the Holy Land. 

n. Radis, now Re, a short distance above Uliarus. The Ra- 
venna geographer calls it Ratis, but the writers of the Middle 
Ages give the name as Radis. It is about sixteen miles long, 
and about three or four broad. 

III. Ogia, now J)' Yeu or Dieu, northwest of the preceding, 
and lying farther out than it from the mainland, the nearest 
point of which is distant more than ten miles. It is about six 
miles in length, and about two and a half or three miles in 
breadth. The whole island is little else than a vast granitic 

GALLIA. 157 

rock, covered with a vegetable soil three feet in thickness in the 
lower part, but in the higher ground so thin as to leave the rock 
almost bare. 

IV. Strabo speaks of a small island, not far from the coast, 
and lying off the mouth of the Ligeris, on which, according to 
him, dwelt a species of Amazonian race, addicted to the worship 
of Dionysus or Bacchus, and who once every year, during the 
celebration of the orgies of the god, unroofed his temple and put 
on a new covering before evening. Each woman brought ma- 
terials for this purpose ; and if any one of them allowed these 
materials to fall to the ground, she was torn in pieces by the 
rest. Some one always suffered in this way every year. Stra- 
bo calls these females "the women of the Samnites," ai TUV 
Sapvirtiv yvvalKeg, but Tyrrwhit reads Na/mruv, which is, no 
doubt, the true lection, the island lying off the coast of the 

V. Vindilis, now Belle Isle, a little to the northwest of the 
mouth of the Ligeris. It was known to the Romans under this 
name of Vindilis, and it appears in a deed of the Middle Ages 
under the name of Guedel, a form which has some affinity with 
Vindilis. It was also, according to some writers, known to the 
ancients under the Greek name of Calonesus, of which its mod- 
ern name of Belle Isle is a translation. The island is about 
eleven miles in length, and about six in breadth. 

VI. Uxantis, now Ouessant, or, as the English writers fre- 
quently call it, Ushant, above the Gobeeum Promontorium, and 
lying off the territory of the Osismii. It is about four miles 
long and three broad. Another ancient name was Axantos., 

VII. Ccesarea, now Jersey, off the coast of the Unelli. Its 
greatest length is about twelve miles, its greatest breadth about 
seven. The only mention made of this island in the ancient 
writers is that which occurs in the Antonine Itinerary. Its 
original name is said to have been Angia. It appears to have 
been called Caesarea in honor of some one of the Roman em- 

VIII. Sarnia, to the northwest of the preceding, now Guern- 
sey. Mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary. The form of the 
island approximates to that of a right-angled triangle. The 
sides face the south, east, and northwest, and are respectively 
about six and a half, six, and nine miles long. 


IX. Riduna, to the northeast of the preceding, now Au- 
rigny, or, as the English writers more commonly term it, Alder - 
ney. It is about three and three quarter miles long, and about 
one and three eighths broad, and about eight miles in circuit. 
The Northmen settled here at an early period. 



I. THE remarks which we are here about to make, though obtained from the 
best sources, must be regarded as at best merely conjectural or approximative. 
And this must be the character of all speculations upon the language of the an- 
cient Celtic race, notwithstanding the boasted discoveries of modern times. 

II. We do not know of any original Celtic Alphabet, nor of any works in that 
language. Indeed, we have no positive knowledge left of the language of Cel- 
tic Gaul, unless we suppose it to have been similar to the Gaelic of Scotland. 
The Breton language, like the Welsh, is a dialect of the Cymric tongue, belong- 
ing to that great division of the Celtae. 

III. It has been long disputed whether the Basque language is a dialect of the 
old Celtic. W. Von Humboldt (Prufung der Untcrsuchungen uber die Urbe- 
wohner Hispaniens vermittdst dcr Vaskischer Sprache, Berlin, 1821) seems to be 
of opinion that the Basque language is of Iberian, and not of Celtic origin; and 
this undoubtedly is the true view of the case, the Iberian itself being connected 
with the Finnish dialects of northern Europe. 

IV. The remains of the old Celtic language must therefore be sought in the 
Gaelic, and in the Erse or Irish, which is said to resemble the Gaelic, and also 
in the Welsh, and its cognate dialect the Breton. These seem to be the only 
probable offspring, though greatly changed of course, of the language of the an- 
cient Celts. We will now proceed to our more immediate subject, and will 
consider first the prefixes and next the suffixes or endings of the Celtic local 
names frequently occurring in ancient writers. The arrangement will be, for 
convenience' sake, an alphabetical one. 

Celtic local Prefixes. 

1. AGEN. In the life of St. Caprasius it is said that the town of Agcnnum, 
now Agen, in Guienne, had its name "ab hiatu spelunca." Agen in Welsh, at 
the present day, is a word for " a cleft or cave." There is no similar word in 
Erse with this meaning ; but in Bas-Breton we have agen, aifnen, eitnen, "a 
spring, coming forth from the earth," and in Cornish we have agery, " to open." 
(Adelung, ii., p. 42. Diefenbach, i., p. 21.) 

2. ALP or ALB. A root rather than prefix, but still deserving of a place here. 
It appears to mean " high," " lofty," and is found in the name of the Alpes or 
Alps. Hence we have in Isidonis, iv., 8, the following: " Gallorum lingua 
Alpes alti monies vocantur." Compare with this the Gaelic alb, "an eminence 
or mountain," whence Albion, a name given to England from its lofty coasts, 
and Albain, an appellation for the Highlands of Scotland. So we find Alba in 
Latium, and several places of the same name in Spain and Gaul, and it is ob- 
servable that all of them were situate on elevated spots. We find the Albani, 

GALLIA. 159 

also, in upper Asia, occupying a mountainous region called Albania, on the 
western shore of the Caspian. The same root is likewise found in the name of 
many other places in other quarters. (Compare Adelung, Mithr., vol. ii., p. 42. 
Diefenbach, Ccltica, i., p. 18, seq. Pott, Etymol. Forsch., ii., p. 525.) 

3. AR. A prefix or preposition, meaning " upon" or " near," and appearing 
in the Latinized term Armorica, where it is united with the Celtic mor, " the 
sea," by which the northwestern coast of Gaul is indicated, where the Armori- 
es Civitates were situated. We find it, also, in the name of Arelate, the mod- 
ern Aries, which is said to come from ar, "upon," and llaeth, "a morass." In 
the Bas-Breton we have still arvor, " a maritime tract," changed from the old 
form armor by the genuine Celtic substitution of v for m, just as we find the 
people of Armorica called 'Ap66pv%oi in Procopius. (Diefenbach, i., p. 80.) 

4. BRIGA, BRIVA, BRIA, as in Brigantes, Brivates, Briaria, &c., consult remarks 
on these same combinations under the head of Suffixes. 

5. CAD, CAT, CAS, in Cadurci, Catalauni, Cassivelauni, &c. Cad in Welsh 
means "a troop" or "band." According to Vegetius (ii., 2) and Isidorus (ix., 
3, 46) the term caterva in Latin was of Celtic origin, and meant the same as 
legio, and hence Diefenbach supposes it to have come from cad and torfa (Welsh, 
catrawd), " a troop of soldiers." Compare the Gaelic ceatham, " a band of men." 
In Bas-Breton cadarn, and in Cornish cad, both signify " a fight." 

6. CARN. This prefix appears to mean " rocky," " stony," and hence the 
Garni and Carnutes, as well as many names of places involving the same root, 
would seem to have reference to stony or rocky localities. Compare the Gaelic 
earn, " to heap up," and earn, cairn, " a heap of stones," " rock." 

7. CRAG. A root rather than prefix, unless we suppose it to form part of the 
name Graiocdi. It means " rocky," " stony," and may be compared with the 
Bas-Breton krag, the Welsh craig, the Gaelic carraig, creag, all signifying " a 
rock," " a large stone," and our English word " crag." This same root appears 
to exist in the name of Mount Cragus in Cilicia and Lycia, and more than prob- 
ably in that of the Alpes Graia, " the craggy or rocky Alps," an etymology far 
preferable to that which connects the name of the Graian Alps with the fabled 
wanderings of the Grecian hero Hercules. Diefenbach appears to think that 
there is some confirmation of this Celtic etymology to be deduced from Petro- 
nius Arbiter, c. 122. This same root crag seems to lie also at the basis of the 
modern name Crau, which is given to the celebrated lapideus campus, or " stony 
field," near Aries. 

8. DURO. The syllables duro at the beginning (and also durum at the end) of 
Celtic local terms, occur in the names of places, &c., situated near rivers or the 
sea. We find in Welsh dwr, i. e., dur, and duvr or duvyr, signifying " water." 
We have also dour in Cornish, and dur in Bas-Breton, with the same meaning. 
The Irish and Gaelic word corresponding is uisge ; but Lhuyd and Armstrong 
give dobhar and dovar, " water," as obsolete Erse terms, with which we may 
compare the Sanscrit dabhra, "ocean." We find, also, the same root dur ap- 
pearing in the names of several rivers, as, for example, the Durius in Spain, the 
Aturis and Duranius in Gaul, the Duria in northern Italy, &c., all marking Cel- 
tic localities. (Prichard, Researches, vol. iii.,p. 125. Diefenbach, i., p. 155, seq. 
Adelung, ii., p. 57.) 

9. EBOR or EBUR. This prefix is probably derived from a lost Celtic word 
analogous to ufer, " banks," in German. Supposing this to be so, the name 
Ebor-ach, whence Ebordcum, " York," in England, might mean a place on the 
banks of a river or water. Another, but less probable derivation, would be that 
connecting it with the Welsh aber, " a confluence of waters." It has been sup- 


posed that such names of places as Aberdeen, Aberbothrick, Abercurnig, &c., in 
Scotland, contain this Celtic prefix. (Prichard, ill, p. 128.) 

10. LUG. The meaning of this prefix has been disputed. According to one 
of the ancient writers (Clitophon, ap. Pint, de Flum. Op. ed. Rciske, vol. x., p. 
733) the name Lugdunum (A.ovy6ovvov), in which it occurs, signifies " crow's 
hill," the prefix lug meaning "a crow :" tovyov yap TTJ c<f>uv tiiateKTy rbv Kopaxa 
xaXovaiv, dovvov de TOKOV t&xovra. The latter part of the name is explained 
well enough, but the signification given to the prefix can not be correct. The 
appellation Lugdunum appears rather to indicate a city situate on or near a hill 
or elevation on a river, or near some confluence of waters. We may then com- 
pare lug with the Welsh Ihwch, and the Erse loch, " a lake," " an inlet of wa- 
ter," &c. This explanation will suit very well the position of Lugdunum, the 
modern Lyons, situate under a hill at the confluence of the Arar and Rhodanus. 
So, again, Lugdunum Batavorum, the modern Leydtn, is in the immediate vicin- 
ity of water, being situate on the Old Rhine, the burg or central part, which 
marks the site of the ancient city, being the only elevated spot of ground for 
many miles around ; and, finally, Lugdunum Convenarum, now St. Bertrand, stands 
on high ground on both sides of the Garonne. 

11. NANT. This prefix means "a valley," " a rivulet." In Welsh we have 
nant, " a ravine," " a brook ;" in Cornish, nance, " a valley." The term nant is 
in common use in Wales, and it is understood in the same sense in Savoy, where 
we find Nant de Gria, Nant de Taconay ; and so, also, Nant Arpenaz, " a torrent 
flowing over a summit," which is exactly described in Welsh by Nant-ar-penau. 
Hence many local names in Gaul, as Nantuacum, now Nantue, in Burgundy, sit- 
uated in a narrow valley, on a lake between two mountains ; so, also, the Nan- 
tuates, who, as we are informed by Strabo, occupied the valley of the Rhine, 
immediately below its source ; and, again, Namnetcs or Nannetes, now Nantes or 
Nantz, in a country intersected by rivulets. (Adelung, ii., p. 64. Prichard, iii., 
p. 128. Diefenbach, i., p. 82.) 

12. NEMET. This prefix, according to Fortunatus, meant " a temple," prob- 
ably a grove-temple, and hence was connected, perhaps, in some way with the 
Greek vefiog, " a glade," " a piece of wooded ground," and the Latin nemus, "a 
grove." Hence Drynemetum (where it appears as a prefix to the second part of 
the compound), the name of a place in Galatia, where the Council of Three Hun- 
dred, from all the three nations of Gauls in Galatia, were accustomed to as- 
semble. Hence, also, Vernemetis, the name of a celebrated temple in the vicin- 
ity of Burdigala, now Bourdeaux, which, according to Fortunatus, meant "fanum 
ingens." So, too, Augustonometum, now Clermont, in Auvcrgne, where was the 
temple of Vasa. (Adelung, ii., p. 77. Prichard, iii., p. 127. Radio/, Neue Un- 
tersuchungen, p. 399.) 

2. Celtic local Suffixes. 

1. -ACUM. This suffix contains the Celtic root ac, " water," and hence the 
names of so many places in Gaul with this termination, all situate on rivers, 
&c., as Arenacum, on the Rhine ; Laureacum, on the Danube ; Magontiacum, 
on the Rhine ; Turnacum and Bagacum, on the Scaldis ; Blariacum, on the Mosa, 
<tc. (Adelung, ii., p. 41.) So, at a later day, the convent of Mauzacum, in Au- 
vergne, is said to have been so named from its having been founded " inter aquas." 
(Diefenbach, i., p. 66.) 

2. -AXES, -IATES. In Welsh, iaid, aid, is a frequent termination of adjectives, 
as Ceisariaid, the Csesarians or Romans, easily convertible into ates, iates ; like- 
wise aeth, a termination of nouns, as Catlraeth. (Prichard, iii., p. 129.) 

GALLIA. 161 

3. -BRIGA, -BRIVA, -BRiA. The meaning of these terminations is far from be- 
ing clearly ascertained. The first occurs very frequently in the Ibero-Celtic 
parts of Spain, as Nertobriga, Mirobriga, Langobriga, Segobriga, &c., and is gen- 
erally appropriated to towns on rivers. This had led many to imagine that the 
ending in question is the same as the German Brucke and English bridge. 
This, however, though a very plausible analogy, will not stand the test of a 
close examination, and can not in any way be made applicable to such names 
as that of the Brigantes. It seems better, therefore, upon the whole, to give 
the termination briga the signification of " city," with the associate idea of ele- 
vation, i. e., a city on some elevated spot, and we may then compare it with the 
Welsh bre, " a hill or mount," " a peak ;" the Erse bri, " a hill," " a rising 
ground," whence brioghach, "hilly;" the Gaelic braigh, "the upper part" of any 
thing or place, &c. The termination brio, will also have the meaning of " a 
city," and with this we may compare the ending (3pia, in the names of certain 
cities of Thrace, which, according to Strabo, also meant " a city," and was 
equivalent to Trd/taj-. Thus Mesembria, a colony of Megarians, was originally 
called Menebria, that is, " the city of Mene," its founder. So the city of Selys 
was Selybria, and JSnus was called Poltyobria, or the city of Poltys. (Strab., 
vii., p. 319, Cas.) The termination -briva appears to be closely connected with 
these, and is probably only another form of the same ending, though many give 
this also the meaning of "bridge," while others make it signify "ford." 

4. -DUNOM, -DINUM. According to Bede, dun signified a hill in the language 
of the ancient Britons, namely, that of Wales and the Strathclyde Britons. 
According to Clitiphon, as quoted by Plutarch (compare remarks under the pre- 
nx Lug), it was the same in meaning in the language of Gaul, 6ovvov Katovat, 
TOV i&xovTa. Adelung compares with this the Greek i9w, " a heap." In the 
names of places in Britain, dun and din appear to have been used indifferently 
one for the other. Thus, for example, Londinum and Londunum are both found. 
The Welsh dinas, meaning " city," has probably the same origin. In the Neth- 
erlands, the sand-hills on the coast are, according to Adelung, still called Dunen, 
and so in England the name of downs or dunes is given to little hillocks of sand 
formed along the sea-coast. (Adelung, ii., p. 57. Prichard, iii., p. 126.) 

5. -DURUM. Compare remarks on the prefix Duro. 

6. -LAUNI, -LANI. In Welsh llan means " an inclosure." Hence Segelauni, 
Catieuchlani, &c. 

7. -MAGUS. According to some, this ending has reference to an association, 
onion, or fellowship, and hence to a collection or union of families. (Radloff, 
p. 397.) Others, however, find traces of it in the Irish and Gaelic magh, "a 
field or plain." It would then have reference to the surrounding locality 
(Prichard, iii., p. 126. Diefenbach, i., p. 77.) 

8. -RITUM. This ending, which we find in Augustoritum, Camboritum, &c., 
appears to mean " a ford." Compare the Welsh Rhyd and Cornish Ryd, both 
meaning " a ford ;" hence Rhyd-ychan, the Welsh for Oxford. Erse has no cor- 
responding word approaching this root. 

9. -TRIGES. This ending occurs in the name of the Durotriges, &c. In 
Welsh, trig means " to stay," " to abide ;" whence trigan, " to remain ;" triga- 

inhabitants ;" and hence Duro-triges, " dwellers near water." 



THESE may be considered under three heads : 1. Britannia ; 
2. Hibernia ; 3. Insulce Britannicce Minores. 


1. NAMES. 

I. BRITAIN was known to the Romans by the names of Bri- 
tannia (in Greek Bperavia, Eperravia,^BperravtKri vrjoog) and Al- 
bion ('Akoviuv). 

H. The etymology of the word Britannia or Britain has been 
much disputed. One of the most plausible is that which derives 
it from a Celtic word brith or brit, signifying " painted," and tan, 
an element which we find forming part of so many other names 
of countries, both ancient and modern, such as Mauri-tan-ia, 
Aqui-tan-ia, Lusi-tan-ia, Kurdi-stan, Hindo-stan, &c., and 
which appears to signify " region" or " country." 

III. The term brith is supposed to refer to the custom fol- 
lowed by the inhabitants of staining their bodies of a blue color 
extracted from woad. Carte says that the name in the most 
ancient British poets is Inis (" island") prydhain. The mean- 
ing, however, of prydhain, if it be any thing more than a cor- 
rupt form derived from the root brit, does not seem to be known. 

IV. The name Albion comes from the Celtic root Alp or Alb, 
and has reference to the lofty coasts of the island, as it lies fa- 
cing Gallia. Others, giving Alp or Alb the meaning of " white," 
refer the name to the white or chalky cliffs of Britain 


I. THE earliest inhabitants of Britain, so far as we know, 
were probably of that great family, the main branches of which, 
distinguished by the designation of Celts, spread themselves 
so widely over middle and western Europe. The Welsh and 
Danish traditions indicate a migration from Jutland, but it is 
decidedly erroneous to seek to connect, as some do, the name 


Cymry, the national appellation of the Welsh, with the Cim- 
merians (the Kifjifiepioi of Herodotus) and the Cimbri of the 
Roman historians, on the supposition of their having once oc- 
cupied Jutland, or the ancient Cimbric Chersonese. Neither 
the Cimmerii nor Cimbri ever dwelt in this quarter. 
. . II. The Celtse crossed over from the neighboring country of 
Gaul ; and Welsh traditions speak of two colonies, one from the 
quarter since known as Gascony, and another from Armorica. 
At a later period, the Belgae, actuated by martial restlessness 
or the love of plunder, assailed the southern and eastern coasts 
of the island, and settled there, driving the Celts into the inland 

III. On the conquest of the island by the Romans, we must 
conceive that it received a very considerable mixture of Roman 
and foreign blood. Comparatively few women would be brought 
by the Roman soldiers, and such of the latter as settled perma- 
nently would unite themselves to native females. It was the 
policy, moreover, of the Romans, to employ the native troops 
of one province in the conquest or military administration of 
other provinces, a contrivance, obviously devised with the view 
of preventing revolt. Accordingly, we find among the Roman 
monuments of Britain abundant evidence of the presence in 
that island of soldiers from Gaul and various other parts of the 
Continent, from which circumstance there necessarily resulted 
a great intermixture of foreign and native blood. 
> IV. On the subsequent withdrawal of the Roman forces, the 
Saxons and Angli came over and founded the Heptarchy, and 
their power, in its turn, was overthrown by the Normans ; so 
that here, again, we have two new elements added to the an- 
cient stock. 


I. BRITAIN becomes known in early times to the Phoenicians, 
and then to the Carthaginians and the people of Massilia, who 
all trade for tin to certain islands, called by Herodotus Kaaai- 
repides (Cassiterides), or "The Tin Islands," and which are 
commonly supposed to have been the Stilly Isles, including a 
part of Cornwall. 

II. This trade in tin is subsequently carried on by the Vene- 
tes, a Gallic tribe, and from them Caesar is first made acquaint- 


ed with Britain, and conceives the idea of its conquest. Stim- 
ulated by the desire of military renown, and of the glory of 
first carrying the Roman arms into Britain, and provoked, also, 
as he tells us, by the aid which had been furnished to his enemies 
in Gaul, Caesar determines upon the invasion of the island. 

III. Invasion of Britain by Ccesar. He penetrates some dis- 
tance into the island ; but his success is certainly not such as 
to induce him to attempt the permanent reduction of the isl- 
and ; and, from some passages in ancient authors, it has been 
conjectured that his success was even not so great as he him- 
self has represented it. 

IV. After the departure of Caesar, the Romans do not return 
to the island until the reign of Claudius, leaving the Britons 
alone for about a century, or going no further than to threaten 
an attack. In the interval, those of the Britons who dwelt in 
the parts nearest to Gaul appear to have made some progress 
in civilization. They coin money, and many British coins have 
been discovered, of which about forty belong to a prince named 
Cunobelin (so on his coins), called by Suetonius Cynobellinus, 
who appears to have reigned over the Trinobantes, and to have 
had his residence at Camalodunum. 

V. Aulus Plautius, a senator of praetorian rank, is sent by 
Claudius into Britain, in command of the forces designed for 
the subjugation of the island. The Britons, under the sons of 
the now deceased Cunobelin, namely, Cataratacus and Togo- 
dumnus, make a brave resistance, but are finally overpowered, 
Claudius himself having come with re-enforcements to the Ro- 
man army, and having taken Camalodunum, the capital of 
Cunobelin, and numbers of the natives submit either at dis- 
cretion or upon terms. The Roman Senate decree triumphal 
honors to the emperor, and the memory of his success has been 
perpetuated in his coinage. 

VI. Vespasian (the future emperor), lieutenant to Plautius, 
conquers Vectis Insula, or the Isle of Wight, and has consider- 
able success against the tribes of the southern coast. Upon the 
departure of Plautius, however, those Britons who are strug- 
gling for independence overrun the lands of such as have allied 
themselves with, or submitted to the Romans, and P. Ostorius 
Scapula, who succeeds Plautius (A.D. 50) as propraetor, finds 
affairs on his arrival in the greatest confusion. 


VII. Ostorius, after valiant efforts on the part of the natives, 
defeats and takes prisoner Cataratacus (or, as Tacitus calls 
him, Caractacus), about A.D. 51, and receives the insignia 
of a triumph. Cataratacus is thrown into chains by Cartis- 
rnandua, queen of the Brigantes, with whom he has taken ref- 
uge, and is delivered up to the Romans. He is taken to Rome 
with some of the members of his family, but his unbroken spirit 
and noble demeanor command the admiration of Claudius, and 
he is pardoned by that prince. 

VIII. The Romans are harassed after this with repeated 
skirmishes, and by the obstinate resistance of the Silures, and 
Ostorius dies, worn out with care, about A.D. 53. Didius suc- 
ceeds Ostorius, and finds the Roman affairs in a very depressed 
condition. He engages in hostilities with the Brigantes, but 
does not appear to have gained any signal advantage. His com- 
mand extends into the reign of Nero, the successor of Claudi- 
us, probably until A.D. 57. 

IX. Veranius succeeds Didius, but lives only a year after 
taking the command, and does little in that interval. His suc- 
cessor is Suetonius Paulinus, who obtains more distinction 
Suetonius attacks and captures the Isle of Mona, now Angle- 
sey ', the great seat of the Druids, cuts down their sacred groves, 
and destroys the altars on which they had been accustomed to 
offer up human sacrifices. He is then recalled from the west- 
ern shores of Britain by the news of a great rising of the na- 
tives under Boadicea, in that part of the island which has al- 
ready been subdued by the Romans. The revolt of Boadicea 
nearly extinguishes the Roman dominion in Britain, but at last 
the natives are completely defeated in a battle, the scene of 
which is supposed to ha\*e been just to the north of London. 
The Roman general ravages with fire and sword the territories 
of all those native tribes which have wavered in their attach- 
ment to the Romans, as well as those who had joined in the 

X. The chief civil, or, rather, fiscal officer of the Romans, 
quarrels with Suetonius, and, though the latter retains the com- 
mand for a time longer, he is at last recalled without finishing 
the war (A.D. 62), and Petronius Turpilianus is appointed his 
successor. Under the milder treatment of the new general the 
revolt seems to have subsided. 


XI. Several generals are successively sent to the island ; but 
the Romans make little progress until the time of Vespasian 
(A.D. 70-78), in whose reign Petilius Cerealis subdues the 
Brigantes, who had renewed hostilities ; and Julius Frontinus 
subdues the Silures. But the glory of completing the conquest 
of South Britain is reserved for Cnaeus Julius Agricola, whose 
actions are recorded subsequently by his son-in-law, the histo- 
rian Tacitus. 

XII. From the time of Agricola, the later years of whose 
government are during the reign of Domitian, we read little 
about Britain in the Roman historians until the reign of Ha- 
drian (A.D. 85-120), who visits the island, which has been 
much disturbed. The conquests which Agricola had made in 
Caledonia seem to have been speedily lost, and the emperor 
fences in the Roman territory by a rampart of turf, eighty Ro- 
man, or about seventy-four English miles long. This rampart 
will be described at the end of the geography of Britannia. 

XIII. In the subsequent reign of Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138- 
161) Roman enterprise revives a little. Lollius Urbicus, his 
lieutenant in Britain, drives back the barbarians, and recovers 
the country as far as Agricola's line of stations between the 
Forth and Clyde. An account of the intrenchment erected by 
him in this quarter, and which is called the Wall of Antoninus, 
will be found at the end of the geography of Britannia. 

XIV. In the following reign of M. Aurelius Antoninus (A.D. 
161 180) we have some notice of wars in Britain, which Cal- 
purnius Agricola is sent to quell. During this same reign, or 
else in that of Commodus, son of Aurelius, the Caledonians 
break through the Wall of Antoninus. Ulpius Marcellus, an 
able leader, is sent against them, and defeats them with heavy 
loss. A great mutiny among the legions in Britain occurs dur- 
ing the reign of Commodus, which is with difficulty quelled by , 
Pertinax (afterward emperor), one of the successors of Marcel- 
lus in the government of the island. 

XV. The contest between Clodius Albinus and Severus for 
the empire drains Britain in a great measure of its troops, who 
are called by the former to strengthen his army, and the north- 
ern tribes, taking this opportunity of renewing hostilities, break 
into the Roman province, and spread desolation far and near. 
Induced by the unfavorable tenor of the intelligence from the 


island, Severus, who had succeeded in the contest with Albi- 
nus, resolves to undertake the war in person, and accordingly 
crosses over, A.D. 206 or 207. The natives do not come to a 
pitched battle, so that the campaign is not marked by any 
brilliant exploits. Severus, however, orders the erection of the 
famous wall that bears his name, stretching across the island 
from the Solway to near the mouth of the Tyne, an account 
of which will be given hereafter. 

XVI. Many years elapse, and many emperors reign after 
this, without the occurrence of any event of importance in Brit- 
ain. In the reign of Dioclesian and Maximian, Carausius, a 
Menapian, who commands the Roman fleet in the North Sea 
against the Prankish and Saxon pirates, seizes Britain, and as- 
sumes the purple (about A.D. 288), and such is his activity 
and power that the emperors consent to recognize him as their 
partner in the empire. He is killed, however, some years aft- 
erward by Allectus, one of his friends (A.D. 297), and, three 
years after this, Britain is recovered for the emperors by As- 
clepiodotus, captain of the guards. 

XVII. On the resignation of Dioclesian and Maximian (A.D. 
304), Britain is included in the dominions of Constantius Chlo- 
rus, one of their successors. This prince dies in Britain, at 
Eboracum, now York (A.D. 307), after having undertaken, 
with some success, an expedition against the Caledonians. 
His son, Constantino the Great, also carries on some hostilities 
with the same people. The northern tribes now begin to be 
known by the name of Picts and Scots. 

XVIII. The Roman power is now fast decaying, and the 
provinces are no longer secure against the irruptions of the sav- 
age tribes that press upon the long line of the frontier. Brit- 
ain, situated at one extremity of the empire, suffers dreadfully. 
The Picts, Scots, and Attacotti burst in from the north, and 
the Saxons infest the coast. In the reign of Valentinian, prob- 
ably in the year 367, Theodosius (father of the emperor of that 
name) being sent over as governor, finds the northern people 
plundering Augusta, or London, so that the whole province ap- 
pears to have been overrun by them. He drives them out, re- 
covers the provincial towns and forts, re-establishes the Roman 
power, and gives the name of Valentia either to the district be- 
tween the walls of Antoninus and Severus, or, as Horsley thinks, 
t6 a part of the province south of the wall of Severus. 


XIX. Gratian and Valentinian II. associate Theodosius (son 
of the preceding) with them in the empire. This gives um- 
brage to Maximus, a Spaniard who had served with great dis- 
tinction in Britain, and he raises in this island the standard of 
revolt. Levying a considerable force, he crosses over to the 
Continent, defeats Gratian, whom he orders to be put to death, 
and maintains himself for some time in the possession of his 
usurped authority. He is at last, however, overcome by The- 
odosius, and the province returns to its subjection to the em- 
pire. The Britons who had followed Maximus to the Conti- 
nent, receive from him possessions in Armorica, where they lay 
the foundation of a state which still, at the present day, under 
the appellation of Bretagne, retains tl^eir language and their 

XX. Stilicho, whose name is one of the most eminent in the 
degenerate age in which he lived, serves in Britain with suc- 
cess, probably about A.D. 403. After his departure, the un- 
happy province is again attacked by the barbarians, and is agi- 
tated also by the licentiousness of the Roman soldiery, who suc- 
cessively set up three claimants to the imperial throne, Marcus, 
Gratian, and Constantine. The first and second are soon de- 
throned and destroyed by the very power which had raised 
them. Constantine is for a time more fortunate. Raising a 
force among the youth of the island, he passes over into Gaul, 
(A.D. 409), acquires possession of that province, and fixes the 
seat of his government at Arelate, now Aries, where he is soon 
after besieged, taken, and killed. His expedition serves to ex- 
haust Britain of its natural defenders : the distresses of the 
empire render the withdrawal of the Roman troops necessary, 
and near the middle of the fifth century, or, according to some, 
about A.D. 420, nearly five hundred years after the first inva- 
sion by Julius Csesar, the island is finally abandoned by them. 


I. THE first Roman governors were the propraetors, officers 
chiefly or entirely military ; nor are there, so far as we know, 
any records or traces of a subdivision of Britain till a compara* 
tively late period of the Roman dominion. Our authority for 
the administration of Britain is the Nolitia Imperil, a record 
of late date, probably as late as the time of the Romans quit- 


tiag the island. From the " Notitia" we learn that the gov- 
ernment of the island was intrusted to an officer called Vica- 
rius, under whom there were five governors, one for each of the 
five provinces. 

II. The names of the five provinces into which Britannia 
was divided were as follows : 1. Britannia Prima ; 2. Britan- 
nia Secunda ; 3. Flavia Ccesariensis ; 4. Maxima Ccesarien- 
sis ; 5. Valentia or Valentiana. Previous to this, the only di- 
vision had been into Britannia Romana, or that part of the isl- 
and under the Roman sway, and Britannia Barbara. 

III. The situation of these five provinces is given by Richard 
of Cirencester, a monk of the fourteenth century, whose work 
was discovered and published at Copenhagen about the middle 
of the last century, and whose authority, though disputed by 
some, is apparently not untrustworthy. 

IV. Britannia Prima , according to the authority just men- 
tioned, comprehended the country south of the Thames and 
Bristol Channel. 

V. Britannia Secunda comprehended the country separated 
from the rest of Britain by the Sabrina, now the Severn, and 
the Deva, now the Dee ; in other words, Wales, Herefordshire, 
Monmouthshire, and parts of Salop, and of the counties of 
Gloucester and Worcester. 

VI. Flavia Ccesariensis comprehended the territory north 
of the Thames, east of the Severn, and probably south of the 
Mersey, of the Don which joins the Yorkshire Ouse, and the 

VII. Maxima Ccesariensis comprehended the country from 
the Mersey and the Humber to the wall of Severus. 

VIII. Valentia or Valentiana comprehended the country be- 
tween the wall of Severus and the rampart of Antoninus, in- 
cluding the southern part of Scotland, the county of Northum- 
berland, and part of Cumberland. 

IX. The remaining part of the island was never long in the 
power of the Romans. Agricola overran part of it, and estab- 
lished some stations ; and probably other commanders after him 
brought it into temporary subjection. The part which Agric- 
ola thus subdued is termed by Richard Vespasiana, and in- 
cluded the country between the rampart of Antoninus and a 
line drawn from the Moray Frith (Ptolemy's gestuary of the 
Varar) to the mouth of the Clyde. 


X. Horsley gives an arrangement of the provinces entirely 
different from the above, except so far as regards Britannia 
Secunda. He makes Britannia Prima to extend from the 
coast of Sussex to the banks of the Nene, and assigns the west- 
ern counties to Flavia Ccesariensis. He places Valentia with- 
in the wall of Severus, and Maxima Ccesariensis beyond it. 


I. THE knowledge which the earlier Greeks and Romans had 
of the shape and situation of Britain was at first extremely lim- 
ited and erroneous. According to Dio Cassius, it was at first 
a matter of complete uncertainty whether Britannia was an 
island or merely a frontier of the Continent. The invasion of 
Julius Caesar first threw some light upon this subject. That 
commander describes Britannia as triangular in shape, one side 
of the triangle being opposite to Gaul, and in this he is followed 
by Strabo. 

H. The Romans first became fully acquainted with the cir- 
cuit of Britain in the time of Agricola, during whose govern- 
ment in that quarter a Roman fleet first sailed round the isl- 
and, as if to mark the extended boundary of the Roman empire. 

III. Erroneous ideas, however, still remained on various points 
connected with the position of this island. The old geogra- 
phers had given the northern coast of Spain a northwesterly 
direction, and, unacquainted with the extent to which Bretagne 
reached westward, made the coasts of Gaul and Germany run 
in an almost uniform northeasterly direction. Tacitus, the con- 
temporary of Agricola, places Britain in the angle thus formed, 
and makes its western side lie facing the coast of Spain. 

IV. According to Ptolemy, Britannia had the Oceanus Due- 
caledonius ('fl/ceavof &ovr)Ka%i]d6vio<;) on the north ; the Oceanus 
Hibernicus ('Qiceavbs 'lovdepvittog), or Irish Sea, and the Oce- 
anus Verginicus ('SlKeavbg Ovepymof), or St. George's Channel, 
on the west ; the Oceanus Britannicus ('Qfceavbg BpBTraviKos), 
or British Channel, on the south ; and the Oceanus German- 
icus ('Sltieavbs lepfiaviKos), or German Ocean, on the east. 


THE only chain of mountains in Britain expressly named by 
the ancient geographers are the Grampian, Mons Grampius. 


In the ancient Scottish tongue this ridge was called Grantz- 
bain. It runs from Dumbarton to Aberdeenshire. The Gram- 
pian hills are rendered memorable by the victory which Agricola 
obtained on them over Galgacus, in the last year of his gov- 
ernment, and which entirely broke the spirit of the Britons. 
In Strathern, about half a mile south of the Kirk of Comerie, 
is a valley nearly a mile broad, and some miles long, through 
which the Erne and Ruchel flow. Here are the remains of 
two Roman camps, with a double wall and trench, one large 
enough to contain the eight thousand men which Agricola led 
to battle on the occasion mentioned above, the other smaller, 
and suited for his three thousand cavalry. Two miles south- 
east is a third camp, in which two legions might be conveniently 
quartered. The place itself still bears the name of Galgachan 
Rossmoor, taken from that of the Caledonian leader. 


1. On the Southern Side. 

1. Bolerium Promontorium (Bohspiov 'A^pwr^pioi^), called, 
also, Antivestceum Promontorium ('Av-iovearaiov 'AKpurTjpiov), 
now Land's End, in Cornwall. 2. Ocrinum Promontorium 
("Oicpivov 'A/cpo)T?/pfov), called, also, Damnonium Promontorium 
(&a[jiv6vLov 'A/fpwT?7pfoi>), now Lizard Point, in Cornwall. 

3. Crib Metopon (Kpiov Merunov), now Ram Head, in Devon- 
shire. 4. Hellenis Promontorium, now Berry Head, in Dev- 
onshire, to the northeast of the preceding. 5. Vindelia Prom- 
ontorium, to the east of the preceding, now Portland Bill, in 
Dorsetshire. 6. Durotrigum Promontorium, now St. Albarfs 
Head, in Dorsetshire, in the territory of the Durotriges. 

2. On the Western Coast. 

1. Herculis Promontorium ('HpaicXeovg 'AKpurripiov), to the 
northeast of the Bolerium Promontorium, now Hartland Point, 
in Devonshire, at the mouth of Bristol Channel. 2. Octape- 
tarum Promontorium ^OKranoirapov 'Awpwr^p^ov), now St. Da- 
vid's Head, at the southwestern extremity of Wales. 3. Can- 
canorum Promontorium (Kaynavuv 'A/cpwr^ptov), now Braich 
y Pwill, or Braichy Pwill Head, in Caernarvonshire, Wales. 

4. Novantum Promontorium (Novavrtiv 'AKpurriptov), now 
Mull of Galloway. 5. Epidium Promontorium ('Enidiov 

|, now Mull of Cantyre. 



3. On the Northern Side. 

1. Ebudum Promontorium, now Cape Wrath, in Suther- 
landshire, Scotland. 2. Tarvidium Promontorium, called, also, 
Orcas Promontorium ("Opicag 'A/tp&)T?/ptov), now Dunnet Head, 
in Caithness-shire, Scotland. 3. Virvedrum Promontorium 
(Omepovedpovfj, 'A/tpwrT/piov), called, also, Caledonia Extrema, 
now Duncansby Head, in the same shire. 

4. On the Eastern Side. 

1. Berubium Promontorium (Ovepovdiovp 'A/epwrT/pjov), now 
Noss Head, in Caithness-shire, Scotland. 2. Penoxullum 
Promontorium, now Ord Head, in thj* same shire. 3. Taize- 
lum Promontorium (Tat^eAov 'A/cpwr^ptov), called, also, Taix- 
alorum Promontorium, now Kinnairtfs Head, in Aberdeen- 
shire, Scotland. This point of land forms the northeastern ex- 
tremity of the Grampian chain. 4. Ocellum Promontorium 
('O/ce/Uov *AKpG)T7)piov), now Spurn Head, at the mouth of the 
Humber, in England. 5. Cantium Promontorium (Kdvrtov 
'A/epa>T?7p*ov), called, also, Acantium Promontorium, now the 
North Foreland, in Kent. 


1. On the Eastern Side. 

I. Tamesis, called by Tacitus the Tamesa, now the Thames, 
rising in the country of the Dobuni, a few miles to the south- 
west of Durocornovium, now Cirencester, and flowing east- 
ward into the Oceanus Germanicus, or German Ocean. Its 
whole course is about two hundred and twenty miles. It is a 
common opinion that this river, in the upper part of its course, 
is properly called Isis, and that it is only below the junction 
of the Thame that it is called Thames, which name is said to 
be formed by combining the two names Thame and Isis. But 
Cambden observed long ago that this is a mistake ; that the 
river was called Thames in its upper as well as in its lower 
part ; that the name Isis never occurs in ancient records, and 
was never used by the common people, but only by scholars. 
Csesar writes the name Tamesis (evidently Tames or Thames, 
with the addition of a Latin termination). Tacitus, as we 
have already said, writes it Tamesa, and Dio Cassius 


which is the same name with the appendage of a different ter- 
mination. Ptolemy has it 'Idprjoa, or, in some MSS., 'lafjieaais, 
and in some editions 'Id/waaa, all which, most probably, are 
forms of the same name, 'I having been, by the carelessness of 
some early transcriber, substituted for T. 

II. Idumania (EMovjuavm Tcorapo^) or Sidumanis (Lidovnavis), 
according to most authorities Blackwater River and Bay, but 
according to Mannert the mouth of the River Stour. The 
former is the more correct opinion. Both the Blackwater and 
the Stour are in Essex, the latter forming, in part, its north- 
ern boundary. 

III. Sturius, now the Stour, to the north of the preceding, 
and having Harwich at its mouth. 

IV. Garyenus (Tappvevog), in the territory of the Iceni, now 
the Yare, in the county of Norfolk. 

V. Metaris JEstuarium (NLerapis el?XP ai ?)i now the Wash. 
Cambden makes Ptolemy's Merapig to be a corruption of the old 
British term Matifmth, which, according to him, was a gen- 
eral name for an sestuary. The sestuary of the Wash at the 
present day is occupied for the most part by sand-banks, dry 
at low water. Between these banks the streams that flow into 
the sestuary have their channels. Among these streams may 
be named the Ouse, the ancient Trivona, and the Nene, the 
ancient Aufona, which others, however, make to correspond to 
the modern Avon. 

VI. Abus ("A6o^), now the Humber. The Humber is, prop- 
erly speaking, an sestuary, since the name is only applied to 
the united streams of the Trent and smaller or northern Ouse, 
and since the tide flows up both these rivers above their junc- 
tion. Some make a distinction, therefore, between the Abus 
cestuarium and the Abus fluvius^ regarding the former as the 
Humber, and the latter as the modern Ouse. The tributaries 
of the Ouse are the Urus, now Yore, and the Derventio, now 

VII. Dunum Mstuarmm (Aovvov /soATrof), now the month of 
the River Tee. 

VIII. Vedra (Ovefya), now, according to most authorities, 
the Weare, in the county of Durham. Mannert, however, 
seeks to identify it with the Tyne, but this last is the ancient 
Tina, north of the Vedra, and marking the eastern termination 
of the wall of Hadrian. 


IX. Alauna or Alaunus (KXalvoq), now the Aln, in Northum- 
berland. Some, less correctly, make it answer to the modern 
Coquet, which enters the ocean a little to the south of the Aln. 
Horsley, still more erroneously, makes the Alaunus the same 
with the modern Tweed. 

X. Tueda, now the Tweed. This Latin form of the name 
is given by Cambden, who errs, however, in making the Taunt 
jEstuarium correspond to the mouth of this river, when it is 
rather the Frith of Tay, further to the north. 

XI. Boderia jEstuarium (Bodepia d^vais), now the Frith of 
Forth. Here was the western termination of the wall of An- 
toninus. Tacitus calls it Bodotria jEstuarium. Some erro- 
neously make Bodotria the same as^Solway Frith, but this 
was the Ituna Mstuarium. 

XII. Tava JEstuarium, now the Frith of Tay, into which 
fell the River Tavus, now the Tay. 

XIII. JEsica, as given by Richard of Cirencester, now the 
Southern Esk. In like manner, the same authority gives the 
Tina, a short distance above the former, now the Northern Esk. 

XIV. Dev a (Af/ova, Atova), now the Dee, on which stands 
New Aberdeen. It rises in the Grampian chain. There was 
another river called the Deva, the modern name of which is 
also the Dee, on the western coast of England, and which falls 
into the Irish Sea, having Chester on it, near its mouth. 

XV. Celnius (Kehvio$), now the Dover an, to the west of 
Taizelum Promontorium, and rising in the Grampian chain. 

XVI. Tucesis JEstuarium (Tovalats el$%vat$), now Murray 
Frith. Richard of Cirencester calls this Vara JEstuarium, but 
the Vara JEstuarium of Ptolemy (Ovdpa el$xvais) is rather the 
Frith of Cromartie, a little beyond. 

XVII. Abona JEstuarium, now Dornoch Frith. On the 
point of land where the lower shore of the frith terminates, 
now Tarbet Ness, were erected the " Arce Finium Imperil 

XVIII. Loxa (Ada), just above the aestuary last mentioned, 
now, according to Mannert, the Struth, but, according to oth- 
ers, the Loth or Lossie. 

XIX. Ha (*IAa), now the Wick, running into a bay of the 
same name. 


2. On the Northern Side. 

I. Nabceus (Na6<uof), now, according to Mannert, the Dur- 
ness, but more probably the Navern. 

II. Volsas Sinus (QvoXaas Kohiros), now Calva Bay. 

3. On the Western Side. 

I. Longus JEstuarium (Adyyof et^vaig), now Loch Linnhe, 
at the mouth of which lay Maleas Insula, now the Isle of Mull. 

II. Lelaanonius Sinus (Aehaavvoviog /cd/bro^), now Loch Fine, 
with the Glota Insula, now Isle ofArr an, lying off its mouth. 

III. Glota jEstuarium (KAwra el^x^aig), now the Frith of 
Clyde. Here was the western extremity of the wall of An- 

IV. Rherigonius Sinus ('Pepiyoviog KO^TTO^), now Loch Ryan, 
the outer shore of which formed part of the Novantum Cherso- 
nesus, terminating in the Novantum Promontorium, or Mull 
of Galloway. 

V. Abravannus Sinus ('A6paovavvog Ko^nog), now Luce Bay, 
east of the Novantum Chersonesus. 

VI. lena JEstuarium ('Irjvd els%vai$) 9 to the east of the pre- 
ceding, now Wigton Bay. 

VII. Ituna Mstuarium ('Irovva et$%y<7/?), now Solway Frith, 
between Scotland and England, and where was the western 
'termination of the wall of Hadrian, its eastern one being on the 

VIII. Moricambe JEstuarium (Maputo,^ els%vais), now Mo- 
ricambe Bay, just below which was Setantiorum Portus, now 
Lancaster Bay. 

IX. Belisama JZstuarium (EeXiaa^a ei$xu ai s)> now tne mouth 
of the River Mersey, according to most authorities; but more 
properly that of the River Ribble, and so given by Cambden. 

X. Seteia jEstuarium (Zerrjta et^vaig), the mouth of the 
Deva, the modern Dee. 

XI. Toisobius or Toesobis (Toiaodig), now the Conway, a riv- 
er of Wales, flowing into the Irish Sea. At its mouth was 
Conovium, now Aberconway. ...;./ 

XII. Stucia (SrovKta), now, according to Mannert, the Duffi 
or Douay, but, according to Reichard, the Dyst. The former 
is the more correct opinion. 


XIII. Tuerobis (Tovepo6t$), now the Teify or Teive, on the 
southern borders of Cardiganshire in Wales. Reichard makes 
it the Milford. 

XIV. Sabrina jEstuarium, called, also, Sabriana jEstuari- 
um (2a6piava etf^va^), now the mouth of the Severn, the an- 
cient Sabrina or Sabriana. Tacitus makes mention of this 
river, and names as one of its tributaries the Antona, now the 
Avon. The true reading in Tacitus for the latter stream is, 
Mannert thinks, Avona. 

XV. Vexalla jEstuarium (Ovet-aMa ef$%v<w?), now Bridge- 
water Bay, just below the mouth of the Severn. 

4. On the Southern Side. 

I. Cenionis Ostia (Keviuv Trora/zof), now, according to Man- 
nert, Falmouth Harbor or Bay, into which the small river 
Vale flows. 

II. Tamarus (Tdfiapos), now the Tamar, on which stands 
Plymouth, and the Tamari Ostia is now Plymouth Sound. 

III. Isaca ('lodica), now the Axe, or, as it is more commonly 
called, the Exe, with Exmouth at the entrance, and Exeter, 
the ancient Isca Dumnoniorum, a little distance up. 

IV. Alcenus ('AAatvof), or, according to a more correct read- 
ing, Alaunus ('AAavvof ), supposed to be the small river on which 
Bridport is at present situated. Ptolemy places his Isca on 
this, in the interior, which the copyists often confound with 
Isca Silurum, now Caer Leon, in Monmouthshire. 

V. Portus Magnus (Meyag Atpjv), now Portsmouth Harbor. 
The position of this haven is well ascertained, both by its size 
and security, when compared with the neighboring harbors. 
The situation of Venta Belgarum, now Winchester, to the north- 
west, as mentioned by Ptolemy, likewise serves to fix the lo- 
cality. The only difficulty is, that the Isle of Wight, the an- 
cient Vectis Insula, lies to the southwest of Portsmouth, where- 
as Ptolemy places it to the southeast of the Meya? AJJMTJV. The 
old geographer, however, occasionally makes slips of this kind. 

VI. Novus Portus (Katvb$ liprjv), now the harbor of Rye, 
into which the River Rother, the ancient Limanus, empties. 
Mannert, less correctly, seeks to identify it with the harbor of 

VII. Next follow, in succession, Portus Lemanianus, now 


the harbor of Lymne, the ancient Lemance ; Portus Dubris, 
now the harbor of Dover ; and Portus Ritupis^ called, also, 
Ritupce or Rutupice, now Richborough. 


THE ancient writers describe Britannia as for the most part 
level and well wooded. Several portions of it, however, are 
represented as mountainous and hilly, particularly to the north. 
The soil is spoken of as very productive, and the surface of the 
country as abounding in rivers large and small. Among the 
mineral products are mentioned gold, silver, iron, tin, &c. 


I. VARIOUS particulars are given, relative to the ancient Brit- 
ons, by Csesar, Tacitus, Mela, Dio Cassius, Herodian, and other 

II. According to Csesar, the natives of Cantium, the modern 
Kent, were by far the most civilized, and did not differ much in 
their customs from the Gauls. The inland people, on the other 
hand, for the most part did not sow corn, but lived on milk and 
flesh, and had their clothing of skins. 

III. All the Britons, according to the same authority, stained 
themselves with woad, which produced a blue tinge, and gave 
them a more fearful appearance in battle. They also wore the 
hair long, and shaved every part of the body except the head 
and the upper lip. 

IV. They fought without coat of mail and helmet, armed 
merely with the long and broad Celtic sword, a javelin, and a 
small shield. 

V. They built their dwellings after the manner of mere huts. 
For example, the city of Cassivellaunus, though called a town 
and a capital, appears, from Csesar, to have been nothing but 
a thick wood or labyrinth, with clusters of houses, or rather 
huts, scattered about it, the whole being surrounded by a ditch 
and a rampart, the latter made of mud or felled trees, or prob- 
ably of both materials intermingled. In many respects, the 
towns of the Cingalese, in the interior of Ceylon, and the mode 
of fighting against the English practiced by that people at the 
beginning of the present century, resemble the British towns 
and the British warfare of nineteen centuries ago. 



VI. The mode of fighting practiced by the ancient Britons 
differed in one respect very materially from that of the Gauls, 
namely, in the employment of war-chariots, which several times 
produced very serious effects on the Romans. These cars, called 
Esseda or Essedce by the Romans, were made to contain each 
a charioteer for driving, and one, two, or more warriors for 
fighting. They were at once strong and light ; the extremity 
of their axles and other salient points were armed with scythes 
and hooks for cutting and tearing whatever fell in their way, 
as they were driven rapidly along ; and the Britons, in the man- 
agement of them, displayed, according to Caesar, the greatest 
valor and dexterity. 

VII. As to the religion of the Brians, Druidism flourished 
among them in all its vigor. Indeed, this singular superstition 
was considered by the Gauls, erroneously to be sure, to have- 
originated in Britain. A late writer, Sir J. Mackintosh, ob- 
serves, that it is not without Oriental features. So much sub- 
serviency, as he remarks, of one part of a nation to another, in 
an age so destitute of the means of influence and of the habits 
of obedience, is not without resemblance to that system of an- 
cient Asia which confined men to hereditary occupations, and 
consequently vested in the sacerdotal caste a power founded in 
the exclusive possession of knowledge. 

VIII. The Druids, according to Csesar, were the ministers 
of sacred things ; they had the charge of sacrifices, both public 
and private ; and they gave directions for the ordinances of re- 
ligious worship. A great number of young men resorted to 
them for the purpose of instruction in their system ; and they 
were held by the nation at large in the highest reverence. They 
determined most disputes, whether of the affairs of the state or 
of individuals ; and if any crime had been committed, if a man 
had been slain, if there were a contest concerning an inherit- 
ance, or the boundaries of lands, it was the Druids who settled 
the matter. One Arch Druid presided over all the rest. One 
of the most revolting features in the superstition of the ancient 
Gauls was the offering of human sacrifices, and they employed 
the Druids to officiate at these. 



I. CAESAR, in his two descents upon Britain, saw no more 
than a corner of the country. The furthest point to which he 
penetrated was the capital of Cassivellaunus, which is generally 
supposed to have stood on the site of the now ruined town of 
Verulam, in the vicinity of St. Alban's, in Hertfordshire. Caesar 
himself describes the dominions of this prince as lying along 
the north bank of the Thames, at the distance of about eighty 
miles from the sea, by which he probably means the east coast 
of Kent, from which he began his march. Unfortunately, we 
are nowhere told of what people Cassivellaunus was king. The 
only British nations mentioned by Caesar are the people of 
Cantium, the Trinobantes, the Cenimagni, the Segontiaci, 
the Ancalites, the Bibroci, and the Cassi. Nearly all these 
must have dwelt in that part of the country which he hastily 

II. The Trinobantes of Caesar occupied Essex, and probably 
the greater part of Middlesex ; the Cenimagni are thought to 
have dwelt in Suffolk, Norfolk, and Cambridgeshire ; the Se- 
gontiaci in Hampshire ; the Ancalites and Bibroci in Berk- 
shire ; and the Cassi in Hertfordshire, one of the hundreds of 
which, that in which St. Alban's stands, still retains the name 
of Cassio. 

III. According to Ptolemy, who, after all, is the only author- 
ity upon whom much dependence can be placed, the space over 
which the tribes mentioned by Caesar have been commonly dif- 
fused appears to have been fully occupied by other tribes. The 
following is the order in which he enumerates the several na- 
tions inhabiting what we now call South Britain, with the man- 
ner in which he appears to distribute the country among them. 

Tribes in South Britain, according to Ptolemy. 

I. Brigantes. Their territory is described as extending across 
the island from sea to sea, and it appears to have comprehended 
the greater part of the modern counties of Durham, York, Cum- 
berland, Westmoreland, and Lancashire. The Brigantes were 
considered the most powerful of the British nations. 

II. Parisi. These are stated to have been adjacent to the 
Brigantes, and in a southeastern direction from them. They 


are thought to have occupied the southeastern angle of York- 
shire, now called Holderness, lying along the coast of Bridling- 
ton or Burlington Bay. 

III. Ordovlces. They dwelt to the southwest of the Brigantes 
and Parisi, in the most westerly part of the island, and appear 
to have been the inhabitants of North Wales. 

IV. Cornavii. These were in an eastern direction from the 
preceding, and seem to have occupied Cheshire, Shropshire, 
Stafford, Worcester, and Warwick. 

V. Coritani. These were in an eastern direction from the 
preceding. They probably occupied the whole of the space in- 
tervening between the Cornavii and the eastern coast, compre- 
hending the modern counties of Derby+ Nottingham, Lincoln, 
Leicester, Rutland, and part of Northampton. 

VI. Catyeuchlani (or Catuellani, as they are called by Dio 
Cassius). These lay to the south of the preceding, and are 
conjectured to have occupied the remainder of Northampton, 
and all Buckingham, Bedford, Hertford, and Huntingdon, and 
probably the southwestern portion of Oxfordshire, lying along 
the Thames. 

VII. Simeni, called by Tacitus Iceni. These lay to the east 
of the preceding, and are supposed to have occupied Norfolk, 
Suffolk, and Cambridgeshire. 

VIII. Trinoantes, called Trinobantes by Csesar and Tacitus. 
These lay to the south of the preceding. Ptolemy places them 
more to the eastward than the Simeni, and this may suggest 
a doubt as to these last being really the same with the Iceni, 
who appear, from the Itinerary, to have certainly inhabited 
Norfolk. Probably, however, Ptolemy erroneously supposed 
the coast of Essex to stretch further to the east than that of 
Norfolk and Suffolk. There can be no doubt as to Essex be- 
ing the district, or a part of the district, assigned by Ptolemy 
to the Trinobantes, since he settles them beside the aestuary 
Jamissa, or the mouth of the Thames ; and they also occupied 
a portion of Middlesex. 

IX. Demetce. These were situated to the southwest of the 
Ordovices, and in the extreme western part of the island. They 
seem to have occupied the three south Welsh counties of Caer- 
marthen, Cardigan, and Pembroke. 

X. Silures. These were to the east of the preceding, and 


occupied, as is supposed, the Welsh counties of Radnor ', Breck- 
nock, and Glamorgan, and also Hereford and Monmouth- 

XL Dobuni (probably the same who are called by Dio Cas- 
sius the Boduni). These lay to the east of the Silures, and 
probably inhabited Gloucestershire, with the greater part of 

XII. Atrebatii. These lay to the southeast of the preceding, 
and are thought (although the point is disputed) to have been 
the occupants of Berkshire. As they were, if we may trust to 
their name, a Belgic community, it is more probable that they 
were seated to the south than to the north of the Thames ; and 
the order in which they are enumerated by Ptolemy, namely, 
among the nations to the south of the Catieuchlani and the 
Trinobantes, appears also to favor the former position. 

XIII. Cantii. These were to the east of the preceding, and 
extended to the eastern coast of the island. They inhabited 
Kent and a part of Surrey, and their territories and those of 
the Atrebatii met, in all probability, somewhere in the north- 
ern part of Surrey. 

XIV. Regni. These lay to the south of the Atrebatii and 
Cantii. They therefore occupied Surrey, Sussex, and prob- 
ably the greater part of Hampshire. 

XV. Belga. These were situate to the south of the Dobuni, 
and are supposed to have possessed the eastern part of Somer- 
set, Wilts, and the western part of Hampshire. 

XVI. Durotriges. These lay to the southwest of the pre- 
ceding. Their seat was the present Dorsetshire, which still, in 
a measure, preserves their name, which signifies, in Celtic, " the 
dwellers by the water." (Compare page 159.) 

XVII. Dumnonii (or Damnonii, as they are called in the 
Itinerary). These occupied the southwestern extremity of the 
island, and were the inhabitants of Devon, Cornwall, and the 
western part of Somerset. Their name Dumn, or, as it would 
be in Celtic, Duvn, probably still subsists in the modern Devon. 

XVIII. Although we have thus indicated the localities of the 
several tribes by the names of the present English counties, it 
is, of course, not to be understood that the ancient boundaries 
were the same as those of these comparatively modern divisions. 
But to ascertain the precise line by which each territory was 


separated from those adjacent to it is now, in most instances, 
utterly impossible. All that can be attempted is to determine 
generally the part of the country in which each lay. In a good 
many cases, the evidence of inscriptions and other remains has 
confirmed Ptolemy's account. 

XIX. The tribes mentioned by Richard of Cirencester, within 
the space we have just been surveying, are, the Segontiaci, An- 
calites, Bibroci, and Cassi (as already noticed), the Hedui in 
Somersetshire, the Cimbri in Devonshire, the Volantii and Sis- 
tuntii in Lancashire, and the Rhemi in Surrey and Sussex, but 
these last are probably intended to be considered the same people 
with the Regni of Ptolemy. Richard's list also includes the 
Cangiam, supposed to be the same wi^h the Gangi mentioned 
by Tacitus, and with the Cangani of Dio Cassius. These, how- 
ever, do not appear to have been a distinct nation, but those of 
the youths of each tribe, or, at least, of many of the tribes, who 
were employed as the keepers of the flocks and herds. 

XX. Ptolemy's description of North Britain is, in various 
respects, not so satisfactory as that which he has given of the 
southern portion of the island. In particular, his account is 
rendered obscure and confused by a strange mistake into which 
he has fallen as to the direction of the land, which he extends, 
not toward the north, but toward the east. In other words, he 
gives as differences of longitude what he ought to have given 
as differences of latitude. His enumeration of the northern 
tribes may also be safely presumed to be more imperfect than 
that which he gives of those in the south. 

Tribes in North Britain, according* to Ptolemy. 

I. Novantce. These are the first people Ptolemy mentions, 
He describes them as dwelling on the north coast of the island 
(by which we must understand the west), immediately under 
the peninsula of the same name. The peninsula or promontory 
of the Novantse is admitted on all hands to be what is now 
called the Mull of Galloway ; and the Novantee are considered 
to have occupied the county of Wigton, the western half of 
Kircudbright, and the southern extremity of Ayrshire, their 
boundaries probably being the Irish Sea, the Solway Frith, 
the River Dee, and the hills dividing the districts of Galloway 
and Carrick. 


II. Selgovce. These are described as under or south (mean- 
ing east) from the Novantse, and appear to have occupied the 
eastern half of Kircudbright and the greater part of Dumfries- 
shire. They are supposed to have given its present name to 
the Solway, along which their territory extended. 

III. Damnii. These lay to the north of the preceding, and 
would seem to have extended over the shires of Ayr, Lanark, 
Renfrew, and Stirling, a corner of that of Dumbarton, and a 
small part of that of Perth. 

IV. Gadeni. Of these, all that Ptolemy says is, that they 
were situated more to the north. This can not mean, however, 
more to the north than the Damnii last mentioned, who, as 
we have seen, were placed along the sea-coast of what Ptole- 
my understands to be the north side of the island. The mean- 
ing must be, more to the north than the Otadeni, who are 
next mentioned, and are, by a corresponding epithet, described 
as more to the south. With the notion which Ptolemy had of 
the shape of the island, this would place the Gadeni along a 
tract in the interior, which might extend from the Tyne to the 
Forth, embracing the north of Cumberland, the west of Nor- 
thumberland, the west of Roxburgh, together with the coun- 
ties of Selkirk, Peebles, West Lothian, and the greater part 
of Midlothian. The town of Jedburgh, and the River Jed, 
seem still to preserve traces of their name. 

V. Otadeni. These, in Ptolemy's notion, lay to the south 
of the preceding tracts, but, in reality, to the southeast of it, and 
would occupy the space intervening between it and the sea- 
coast, comprehending the remainder of Northumberland and 
Roxburgh, and the whole of Berwick and East Lothian. 

VI. Epidii. These lay east (that is, north) from the Dam- 
nii, but more northerly (that is, westerly), stretching eastward 
(that is, northward) from the promontory Epidium. The prom- 
ontory in question is undoubtedly the Mull of Cantyre ; and 
the Epidii, therefore, were the inhabitants of the district of 
Cantyre, and of nearly all the rest of Argyleshire, from the 
Frith of Clyde on the east, to Loch Linnhe on the west. 

VII. Cerones. These were next to the Epidii, and are sup- 
posed to have inhabited the part of Argyleshire to the west of 
Loch Linnhe, and the continuation of the same tract forming 
the western half of Inverness. The Creones are described as 


lying to the east (that is, to the north) of the Cerones, and occu- 
pied probably almost the whole of the present shire of Ross. 
But it may be doubted if the Cerones and Creones were not 
the same people, in which case their territory must have in- 
cluded the whole space we have assigned to the two. 

VIII. Carnonacce. These appear to have occupied the west- 
ern coast of Sutherland, including probably a small portion of 
the northern part of Ross. 

IX. Careni. These lay beyond the former, and may be sup- 
posed to have inhabited the north coast of Sutherland, and per- 
haps a small portion of Caithness. 

X. Cornavii. These lay beyond the preceding, and are said 
to have been the last people in that direction. They therefore 
occupied the north and east of Caithness. 

XL Caledonii. These are the next people mentioned by 
Ptolemy ; but the enumeration here starts from a new point, 
namely, from the Lelaanonian Bay, on the western coast, now 
Loch Fyne. The Caledonii are described as extending from 
that bay across the country to the sestuary of Varar ; and they 
therefore occupied the eastern portion of Inverness, with prob- 
ably the adjoining parts of the shires of Argyle, Perth, and 
Ross. In the northwestern part of this tract was the great 
Caledonian forest. 

XII. Cantce. These were more to the east (that is, the north), 
and are supposed to have possessed the eastern angle of Ross- 
shire, included between the Murray and Dornoch Friths. 

XIII. Logi. These were between the Cantae and Cornavii, 
and must therefore have occupied the southeast part of Suth- 
erland, and probably a portion of the southern part of Caithness. 

XIV. Vacomagi. These are described as lying to the south 
(that is, the southeast) of the Caledonii, and appear to have oc- 
cupied the counties of Nairn, Elgin, and Banff, with the west 
of Aberdeenshire, and perhaps a small portion of the eastern 
part of Inverness. 

XV. Venicontes. These appear to have occupied the whole 
of the peninsula, now forming the counties of Fife, Kinross, 
and Clackmannan, with a portion of the east and southeast 
parts of Perth, and probably, also, the counties of Forfar and 
Kincardine. Richard of Cirencester, however, places the tribe 
of the Horestii (called by Tacitus Horesti) in the peninsula of 


Fife. All that appears with regard to the situation of the Ho- 
restii, from the narrative of Tacitus, is, that they lay some- 
where between the Grampian Hills and the previously-con- 
quered nations to the south of the Forth. They seem to be in- 
cluded by Ptolemy under the name of the Venicontes. 

XVI. Texali. These are described as lying to the south of 
the Vacomagi, and to the east (that is, the northeast) of the 
Venicontes. Their territory corresponded to the present Aber- 
deenshire, with, perhaps, a part of Kincardine. 

XVII. Attacotti. These are mentioned by Ammianus Mar- 
cellinus ; but it is very doubtful whether they were a British 
or an Irish nation. A territory is found for them, on the au- 
thority of Richard of Cirencester, in the space between Loch 
Fine and Loch Lomond, comprehending a portion of Argyle 
and the greater part of Dumbartonshire. 

XVIII. Mcedtce. This name is mentioned by some later 
writers, but does not occur in Ptolemy. Different interpreta- 
tions have been given of its meaning. It appears to have been 
a collective name given to the tribes included between the wall 
of Antoninus and that of Severus. These tribes were the No- 
vantce, the Selgovce, the Gadeni, the Otadeni, and, in part, the 
Damnii. In a loose way of speaking, the names Mceatce and 
Caledonii seem to have come at length to be used as a general 
expression for all the tribes beyond the more limited Roman 
province, the Mceatce being understood to mean the inhabitants 
of the comparatively level and open country, and the Caledonii 
those who dwelt among the woods and mountains of the north 
and west. From about the beginning of the fourth century we 
begin to find the Caledonians and Maeatae giving place to the 
new names of the Scots and Picts. 


BRITAIN was divided by the Romans into two main parts, one 
called Britannia Romana, or Provincia Inferior, the other 
Britannia Barbara, or Provincia Superior. 


I. THE name of Britannia Romana was applied to that part 
of the island which answered to what is now called England 
and Wales, and it received this name from the circumstance 


of its being completely subjugated by the Romans, and filled 
with Roman settlements. The rest of the island was called 
Britannia Barbara. 

II. The boundary between Britannia Romana and Barbara 
was different at different times. In the reign of the Emperor 
Claudius, when the province was only beginning to be formed, 
it may be said to have comprehended only that part of the isl- 
and which lay to the south of the Abus, or Humber, and east 
of the Sabrina, or Severn ; and even portions of this extent were 
but incompletely subdued. Modern Wales, therefore, was as 
yet excluded. 

III. In the reign of Hadrian, however, the wall erected by 
that emperor, from the River Tina, or. Tyne, on the east, to 
ItuncB jEstuarium, or Solway Frith, on the west, formed the 
northern limit ; and in the reign of Antoninus Pius this limit 
was extended still further north, the boundary between Britan- 
nia Romana and Barbara being then marked by the wall of 
this latter emperor, and which extended from Boderia JEstua- 
rium, or the Frith of Forth, on the east, to the Glotta JEstu- 
arium, or Frith of Clyde, on the west. 

IV. The division here spoken of lasted until the fourth cen- 
tury of our era, when the subdivision into five provinces, al- 
ready mentioned (page 169), appears to have taken place. 

V. We now proceed to enumerate the cities and towns of 
Britain, following the old division of Britannia Romana and 
Barbara as the more convenient of the two. 

Cities, Sfc., of Britannia Romana. 


In the territory of the Cantii we find, 1. Durovernum, now 
Canterbury, on the River Sturius, now Stour. At the time 
of the Roman occupation this was a place of considerable im- 
portance, as is evident from the Roman military roads to Dover 
and Lymne, their two principal havens, the ancient Dubris and 
LemancB. The old British name seems to have been Dur- 
whern, which the Romans Latinized by Durovernum, and it 
signified " a swift river," a name probably given to the place 
from the circumstance of the Stour running through the city 
with some rapidity. By the Saxons it was called Caer-Cant, 
or " the city of Kent," whence we have Cantuaria, the more 


modern Latin form, and finally Canterbury. 2. Portus Le- 
manus, called, also, Portus Lemanianus, now Lymne, to the 
southwest of Dover. It is generally supposed that Caesar land- 
ed here on his first expedition into Britain, after having set sail 
from the Portus Itius in Gaul. The place, however, where 
Caesar first touched, and where steep cliffs skirted the shore, 
was probably near the South Foreland, and he landed some- 
where on the flat shore which extends from Walmer Castle to- 
ward Sandwich. Some contend for Romney Marsh, or the 
neighborhood of Hythe. The question is whether Caesar's " ab 
eo loco progressus" is to be understood of an advance toward 
the north or toward the southwest. Horsley shows that it 
must have been toward the north. 

3. Portus Dubris, now Dover. By the Britons Dover was 
called Dufyr, from dufyrrha, " a steep place." The castle, 
which is on the northern side of the town, is supposed to 
have been originally constructed by the Romans. 4. Ritupce 
or Rutupice (TOVTOVKLCLI), now Richborough, to the northeast 
of the preceding. In the Antonine Itinerary it is called " Ad 
Portum Ritupis" and in the Peutinger Table Ratupis. It 
would seem that RitupcB is the nominative of Ritupis, as Du- 
brce of Dubris, and Lemance of Lemanis. Richborough is one 
of the noblest Roman remains in the island. It was the usual 
place of communication with the Continent, and guarded one 
mouth of the channel which then insulated Thanet. It stands 
on a small elevation, along the base of which flows the Stour, 
the ancient Sturius. The Roman walls still, in a great meas- 
ure, remain. Ritupae was famed for its oysters. 4. Durole- 
vum, now, according to some, Newington, where are the re- 
mains of intrenchments, and where an abundance of Roman 
pottery has been dug up ; but it is more correct to fix the site 
of this place on Judde Hill, in the parish of O springe, and this 
agrees better with the distances of the Itinerary. Here are the 
remains of a square camp, with the corners rounded off. 

5. Durobrivce, now Rochester, to the northwest of the pre- 
ceding. In the Antonine Itinerary it is called Durobrivis. 
The name of this place is said to have been corrupted, in the 
later period of the empire, into Roibis (Roibae), or, as we find 
it in the Peutinger Table, Raribis (Raribae). From Roibis or 
Jtoiba appears to have been formed the Saxon Hrof-C easier, 


and from this the modern Rochester. Bede, however, derives 
Hrof- C easier from one Hrof, a Saxon chieftain. 6. Novioma- 
gm, to the west of the preceding. Its site corresponds with 
Holwood Hill, near Farnborough, where are the remains of 
an immense elliptical encampment. Noviomagus is said, by 
Richard of Cirencester, to have been the capital of the Bibroci. 
Of the Roman roads in the territory of the Cantii, the Wat- 
ling Street, which nearly coincided with the present road from 
London to Canterbury, may be traced in several places. The 
branch of Watling Street which led from Durovernum to Le- 
manse is still conspicuous for some miles. It preserves a straight 
course between the two places, and is known by the name of 
Stone Street. + 


In the territory of the Regni we find, 1. Regnum, now Chi- 
Chester, near the coast, and the chief city of the tribe. Accord- 
ing to some, it corresponded to the modern Ringwood ; but this 
is an error. Excavations made at Chichester in 1723, leave 
no doubt that this place answers to Regnum. 2. Anderida, a 
fortified sea-port, the situation of which has given rise to much 
controversy. It was placed by Cambden at Newenden in Kent, 
but that position has long since been abandoned by antiqua- 
ries. Anderida was one of the fortresses to keep a look-out to- 
ward the sea, and the Notitia informs us that it was garrison- 
ed by a company of the Abulci. Newenden, on the other hand, 
never was a sea-port, or useful for such a purpose. More 
modern authorities have been divided between Pevensey, East- 
bourne, and Seaford, and of these the claims of the last men- 
tioned are probably the best. 

Of the eight principal Roman roads, only one entered the ter- 
ritory of the Regni, namely, the Ermin Street, as it was after- 
ward called, one branch of which from Londinium ran to Reg- 
num or Chichester, while the other went through the more east- 
ern parts. 


Among the Belgse we find, 1. Venta Belgarum, the capital 
of the tribe, now Winchester. The Britons are said to have 
called it Caer Givent, or " the White City ;" the Romans 


changed the latter part of the name to Venta, giving it more 
of a Latin form, and the Saxons, who were the next possessors, 
called it Wintanceaster, which has now become Winchester. 
This termination of -Chester, applied to many cities in En- 
gland, is a corruption of the Latin term castra, as applied to a 
military station or encampment. Under the Anglo-Saxons it 
took the form of Ceaster, and has now become -cester or 
-Chester, indifferently. Winchester in Latin deeds, and by the 
modern Latin writers, is called Wintonia. This place appears 
to have flourished under the Romans, and the massy walls, 
composed of flints and mortar, which inclose the city, are con- 
sidered to have been originally built by them. In 519 it was 
conquered by Cerdic the Saxon, who afterward made it the 
seat of his government, and it continued to be the capital of 
the West Saxon kings till Egbert, the first king of the whole 
Heptarchy, was crowned there ; and then it may be said to 
have become the metropolis of England. It only fell from its 
high rank after the reign of King Stephen. 

2. Clausentum, to the southwest of the preceding, and about 
a mile to the northeast of the present Southampton, on the east- 
ern bank of the River Itchin. The precise spot is now occu- 
pied by Bittern Farm, where are still to be seen the traces of 
a fosse and vallum, which defended the place on the land side. 
The town of Southampton itself is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and 
is said to have been the scene of the memorable rebuke which 
Canute administered to his courtiers. 3. Vadum Arundinis, 
now Redbridge. 4. Brige, to the northwest of Clausentum, 
and the site of which is near what is now Broughton Farm. 
5. Sorbiodunum, to the northwest of the preceding, and now 
Old Sarum. Its name, derived from the Celtic words Sorbio, 
" dry," and Dun, " a hill," leads to the conclusion that it was 
originally a British post. It was probably one of the towns 
taken by Vespasian when engaged in the subjugation of this 
part of the island under the Emperor Claudius. The number 
of Roman roads that meet at Old Sarum, and the mention of 
Sorbiodunum in the Antonine Itinerary, shows that the place 
was occupied by the Romans, but the remains present little re- 
semblance to the usual form of their posts. New Sarum, which 
arose early in the thirteenth century, is now Salisbury. 

6. Edlandunium, now Wilton. 7. Ischalis, to the south- 


west of Sorbiodunum, now Ilchester or Ivelchester, from the 
River Ivel or Yeo, on which it stands. Ptolemy makes this 
one of the chief towns of the Belgae. It was surrounded by the 
Romans with a wall and deep ditch, and the Roman road, sub- 
sequently called the Foss Way, passed through it from north 
to south. Various remains of antiquity have from time to time 
been discovered here. Under the Saxons, who called the place 
Givel-ceaster, it was also a city of note. 8. Aquce Solis, to the 
northeast of the preceding, now Bath. Ptolemy calls it "Tdara 
deppa, whence some form another Latin name, Aquce Calidcc. 
Richard of Cirencester calls the place Thermce, and the river 
on which it stands Abona, a name evidently identical with the 
Avon, on which Bath is situated. This city was a Roman sta- 
tion, and has always been famed for its natural hot springs, 
whence the Roman name is derived, as well as the Greek ap- 
pellation given by Ptolemy. It appears from inscriptions dug 
up here, that Sulis was the tutelary goddess of Bath, and hence 
some think that the name Aquce Solis, as found in the Anto- 
nine Itinerary, is a blunder for Aquce Sulis. In the Notitia 
this place is not mentioned. It was intersected by the an- 
cient Roman road leading from Londinium into Wales, and by 
the road called afterward the " Foss Way." No city in En- 
gland can produce such a collection of local Roman remains as 

9. Abone, called by Richard of Cirencester Ad Abonam, and, 
according to the best modern authorities, now Britton in Glou- 
cestershire. 10. Ad Sabrinam, now Portishead or Portbury, 
west of Bristol. 11. Avalonia, to the southeast, now Glaston- 
bury. 12. Ad Aquas, called, also, Belga Uvella, and, at a lat- 
er period, Theodorodunum, now Wells. 


Among the Durotriges we find, 1. Durnovaria, now Dor- 
chester, called by Ptolemy bovvtov (Dunium), and, in the Peu- 
tinger Table, Ridunum. It was the capital of the tribe. The 
Saxons are said to have called the place Dornceaster, whence 
the modern name arose. It was situated on the Via Icenia, 
called, subsequently, " Ickenild Street," and must have been a 
place of some importance in the time of the Saxons, as two 
mints were established here by King Athelstane. 2. Vindo- 


cladia, called by Richard of Cirencester Vindelia, placed by 
some at Wimbourne, but more correctly by others at Gussage, 
between Blandford Forum and Cranbourne. 3. Ibernium, 
mentioned by the Ravenna geographer, and corresponding to 
the modern Sere Reg-is. 


Among the Damnonii we find, 1. Isca Damnoniorum, now 
Exeter. The best modern antiquaries are agreed as to the site 
of this place. The earlier antiquaries (Horsley, &c.) were mis- 
led by what is now admitted to be a corrupt reading in the An- 
tonine Itinerary. Exeter is supposed to have been a settlement 
of the Britons before the Roman invasion. It was then, as is 
thought, called Caer Isc, and also Caer Rydh, the former de- 
rived from its situation on the Isc, called by the Romans Isaca, 
and now the Ex, and the latter from the red soil on which the 
castle is built. The Romans called it Isca Damnoniorum, to 
distinguish it from Isca Silurum, now Caerleon, in Wales. 
In the reign of Alfred it was called Exan-ce aster, " Castle on 
the Ex" whence its present name. 2. Moridunum or Muri- 
dunum, which is placed by the best modern authorities at Sea- 
ton, on the coast, but by others, less correctly, at Hernbury, < * 
near Honiton. 3. Ad Durium, to the southwest of the pre- 
ceding, and answering, in all probability, to the modern Tot- 
ness. It marked the Roman station on the Durius or Dorva- 
tius, the modern Dart. 4. Tamara, to the west of the pre- 
ceding, and probably at Tamerton Folliot, on the sestuary of 
the Tamara, now the Tamer, some miles above Devonport. 
5. Termolus, to the northwest of Isca, and coinciding, as is 
thought, with Holland, where there is a large ancient cairn, 
and to which a number of roads on all sides point. 6. Moste- 
via, supposed to have been near Hartland Point, the ancient 
Herculis Promontorium. 

Atrebdtii or Atrebdtes. 

In the territory of the Atrebatii we have, 1. Calleva Atreba- 
tum, now Silchester, on the northern borders of Hampshire. 
Cambden seeks to identify it with Vindomis, but this latter lay 
more to the southwest, and its site is to be found at Finckley 
Farm. Calleva was a station of importance, and its remains 


are among the most entire in the kingdom. At a short dis- 
tance northeast of the walls are the ruins of an amphitheatre. 
2. Spince, to the northwest of the preceding, now Speen, the 
only Roman station in Berkshire the site of which has been sat- 
isfactorily settled, and yet, what is remarkable, no Roman re- 
mains appear to have been discovered here ; none, at least, suf- 
ficient to show the existence of such a station. 3. Bibracte, to 
the east of the preceding, and fixed by Whitaker at Bray, 
though the distance between Londinium and Bibracte differs 
so much from that between London and Bray as to occasion 
great difficulty. 4. Ponies. According to Horsley, Old Wind- 
sor ; but others prefer Staines in Middlesex. 5. Cunetio, to 
the west of Spinae, now probably Maryborough, on the River 
Kennet. 6. Verlucio, to the southwest of the preceding, now, 
according to some, Leckham, on the Avon, while others fix its 
site at Sandy Lane. 


In the territory of the Trinobantes we have, 1. Londinium, 
now London, on the Tamesis or Thames. Londinium was 
most probably a British town, that is, a large inclosure, pro- 
tected by a rarnpart and fosse, previous to the invasion of the 
island by Caesar, in whose time a considerable traffic was car- 
ried on between the Britons and the Gauls. But, though Caesar 
crossed the Thames, he makes no mention of the place. The 
first notice of Londinium occurs in Tacitus (Ann., xiv., 33), 
where it is spoken of as not then honored with the name of a 
colonia, but still as a place much frequented by merchants, and 
as a great depot of merchandise. In the revolt of Boadicea 
(A.D. 62), Suetonius, the Roman commander, abandoned Lon- 
dinium to the enemy, who massacred all the inhabitants that 
did not leave it with Suetonius ; a circumstance which leads 
us to infer that it was then chiefly occupied as a Roman sta- 
tion. If any conclusion can be drawn from the brief notice of 
Tacitus, Londinium was then incapable of making any defence, 
and had probably no wall that could resist the enemy, though 
that historian mentions the want of soldiers as the cause of its 
being abandoned by Suetonius. It does not appear from Tac- 
itus whether the place was then destroyed by the Britons. At 
a later date, Londinium appears to have been made a colonia 


under the name of Augusta, or, more fully, Augusta Trino- 
bantum. The ancient wall of London, ascribed to Theodosius, 
governor of Britain, began at a fort near the present site of the 
Tower, and continued along the Minories to Cripplegate, New- 
gate, and Ludgate. The walls are said to have inclosed an 
area of somewhat more than three miles in circumference, and 
to have been guarded by fifteen towers. The Praetorium and 
its adjuncts are supposed to have occupied the site of the pres- 
ent Poultry and Cornhill, as tesselated pavements have been 
discovered there. With regard to Anglo-Saxon London our 
information is as scanty as it is with respect to the Roman city ; 
but we may easily conceive that it must have fallen off greatly 
in appearance during the barbarous period that succeeded the 
final departure of the Romans from the island, when it was al- 
ternately attacked and ravaged by the Picts and Scots, the Sax- 
ons and Angles. In the sixth century it became the capital of 
the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Essex. 

2. Sulloniacce, a Roman station to the northwest of Londin- 
ium, and the site of which is generally fixed at Brockly Hill, 
between Edgware and Elstree. 3. Durolitum, another station, 
to the northeast of Londinium. Cambden fixes its site at Ley- 
ton, near Romford. This does not, however, accord with the 
distances of the Itinerary. 4. Ccesaromagus, to the northeast 
of the preceding. It was situate in the vicinity of the present 
village of Widford, which lies about a mile to the southwest 
of Chelmsford. 5. Canonium, to the northeast of the preced- 
ing, and near the modern Kelvedon. 6. Camulodunum, the 
capital of the Trinobantes, and the most important Roman sta- 
tion in their territory. The first Roman colony was established 
here in the reign of Claudius, consisting of veterans. There 
has been much difference of opinion with regard to the position 
of Camulodunum, and three different sites have been proposed, 
namely, Walden, Maldon, and Colchester. For Walden little 
seems to be urged except the pleasantness of the situation, an 
attribute which Tacitus ascribes to Camulodunum. For Mai- 
don there appears to be little evidence except the resemblance 
of the name, and the opinion of Cambden ; while abundance of 
Roman antiquities, the pleasantness of its situation, the agree- 
ment of its distance from London with that given in the An- 
tonine Itinerary, and the termination of its name, -Chester, a 



usual indication of a Roman station, agree in supporting the 
claim of Colchester. 

Iceni or Simeni. 

In the territory of this tribe we have, 1. Vent a Icenorum, 
the name of the tribe being added to distinguish it from several 
other British towns, to which the name of Venta was common. 
It was the capital of the tribe, and corresponds to the modern 
Caister St. Edmund's, about three miles south of Norwich. 
There are still some remains of the ancient city on the right 
bank of the Taes, which joins the Yare. The Romans made 
Venta their principal post on this side of the island. 2. Brano- 
dunum, now Brancaster, to the northwest of the preceding, on 
the shore of the Metaris JEstuariumfor The Wash. It was 
one of the stations of the cavalry under the Comes Liloris Sax- 
onici (" Count of the Saxon Coast"). There are some remains 
of this place. The station was just at the foot of the declivity 
that overlooks the marshes : the area was about eight acres. 
Numerous relics of antiquity have been dug up here. 3. Gari- 
annonum. This was another of the posts of cavalry under the 
same officer. Its position, however, has been much disputed. 
Spelman proposed to fix it at Caistor, at the northern end of 
the " denes" or flats along the shore by Yarmouth, from which 
town Caistor is distant about two miles. But, although the 
name would lead us to fix a Roman post here, yet it is unlikely 
to have been a post for cavalry, or the chief station for the dis- 
trict. Burgh Castle, in Suffolk, has been fixed upon by most 
antiquaries ; but, though the remains show it to have been a 
fortification of importance, it could hardly have been suited, 
situated as it then was on an island, for a post of cavalry. An- 
other locality has consequently been proposed, namely, Wheta- 
ere or Whitaker Burgh, on the Norfolk side of the Waveney, 
on the extreme point of the peninsula formed by the two great 
branches of the aestuary, now the valleys of the Waveney and 
the Yare. 

4. Iciani, now probably Ickburgh, four miles east of Meth- 
wold. 5. Ad Taum, to the south of Venta, now Taesburgh. 
6. Sitomagus, to the southeast of the preceding, and on the 
coast, now Dunwich. Others, less correctly, seek to identify 
it with Thetford. 7. Cambretonium, to the southwest of the 


preceding, now Grundesburgh. 8. Camborlcum, to the north- 
west of Camulodunum, now Cambridge. The distances given 
in the Antonine Itinerary and by Richard of Cirencester do not 
indeed exactly suit here, but these have probably been corrupt- 
ed. Camboricum was situate on the great Roman road called 
Via Devana, which connected Camulodunum with Deva, now 
Chester, on the western side of the island, at the mouth of the 
Deva, now the Dee. 9. Durolipons, to the northwest of the 
preceding, now Godmanchester, on the same great Roman road. 


In the territory of this tribe we have, 1. Verulamium, close 
to the present St. Albarfs, being separated from it by the small 
River Ver, a feeder of the Coin. Verulamium was probably 
at first a British town, and then a municipium under the Ro- 
mans. The Roman road, called by the Saxons the Watting 
Street, was also styled by them Werlaem Street, because it 
first went direct from Londinium to Verulamium, passing close 
under its walls. This place was the scene of dreadful slaugh- 
ter in the great revolt under Boadicea, who destroyed here and 
at Londinium, as well as other places, about 70,000 Roman 
citizens and their allies. The town was, however, restored, 
and continued to be a principal Roman station while that peo- 
ple possessed the island. Here an eminent citizen, Alban, is 
said to have suffered martyrdom in the persecution under Dio- 
cletian ; and from him the modern town derives its name, a 
monastery for one hundred Benedictines having been erected 
here in his honor by Offa, king of Mercia, A.D. 793. Veru- 
lamium is commonly, though erroneously, supposed to have 
been the capital or stronghold of Cassivellaunus, which was 
stormed by Ceesar. 

2. Forum Diance, to the northwest of the preceding, now 
Dunstable. Some make Dunstable correspond to the ancient 
Durocobrivce, but the site of this last-mentioned place is rather 
to be sought at Maiden Bower, a short distance further on. 
Both these places were on the Watling Street. 3. Magiovin- 
ium, to the northwest of the preceding, and on the same Ro- 
man road. It is now Fenny Stratford. 4. Lactodurum, to 
the northwest, following the same road. Cambden seeks to fix 
the site of this place at Stony Stratford, but more modern an- 


tiquaries make it coincide with Towcester in Northamptonshire, 
and this is the preferable opinion. 


In the territory of this tribe we have, 1. Durocornovium, 
called, also, Corinium Dobunorum, the capital of the tribe. 
The latter name was changed by the Saxons into Corin ceas- 
ter, whence the modern appellation Cirencester. It was situ- 
ate on the River Corinus, now the Churn, one of the feeders 
of the Thames. Durocornovium was a place of considerable 
importance during the Roman occupation of Britain, and three 
Roman roads meet here, namely, the Foss Way, the Ermin 
Street, and the Ickenild Way. Its walls, of which partial tra- 
ces still exist, were, during Roman times, two miles in circum- 
ference. 2. Glevum, now Gloucester, on the Sabrina or Severn, 
and in a northwestern direction from the last-mentioned place. 
The origin of this city is generally attributed to the Britons, 
by whom it was called Caer Gloew, which, according to Camb- 
den, means "the Fair or Beautiful City," but, according to 
other authorities, from Gloew, the name of the chief or original 
founder. Shortly after the invasion of the country under the 
Emperor Claudius, AJ). 44, this place became subjected to the 
Romans, who established a colony here as a check upon the 
Silures, or inhabitants of South Wales, and called it Colonia 
Glevum, and also Claudia Castra. It fell subsequently into the 
hands of the Saxons, about A,D. 577, and by them was called 
Gleau ceaster, whence its present name, is derived. 3. Brano- 
genium or Branovium, to the north of the preceding, and now 
Worcester. It was situate on the Sabrina or Severn. Of its 
history while under the Roman sway, little is accurately known. 
During the Heptarchy it was the principal Mercian see, and 
the inhabitants of the district were under ecclesiastical govern- 
ment. The etymology of the name " Worcester" is with some 
plausibility deduced from " Wyre - Cestre" (corrupted from 
Ceaster), i. e., the Camp or Castle of Wyre, under which name 
a considerable forest still exists in the neighborhood of Bewdley. 


In the territory of this tribe we have, 1. Venta Silurum, now 
Caerwent, a Roman station of considerable importance, but 


now an inconsiderable village. The place appears to have been 
of British origin, and to have been called Caer Gwent, or " the 
White City," out of the latter part of which the Romans formed 
their name Venta, as in the case of Venta Belgarum, or Win- 
chester. 2. Blestium, to the north of the preceding, now Mon- 
mouth. After Roman times, the Saxons occupied and fortified 
this place, to maintain their conquests between the Severn and 
the Wye, and to prevent the incursions of the Welsh. 3. Arico- 
nium, to the north, now Weston, according to the best author- 
ities, although its position has been much disputed. 4. Magnce, 
to the northwest of the preceding, now Kentchester. The po- 
sition of this place also has been much disputed. 5. Gobannium, 
to the west of Blestium, and now Abergavenny. The ancient 
name is derived from that of the River Gobannius, now the 
Gavenny. 6. Burrium, to the southeast of the preceding, now 
Usk, on the river of the same name, anciently called the Isca. 

7. Isca Silurum, to the southwest of the preceding, now Caer- 
leon. It was the station, under the Romans, of the second le- 
gion, and hence the name of Legio Secunda Augusta also giv- 
en to the place, whence arose the modern name Caer Leon, or 
"the City of the Legion." It was situated on the Isca, now 
the Usk. Caerleon is mentioned in the legends of King Ar- 
thur as a place of great splendor and importance. A descrip- 
tion of it, at a later period, the twelfth century, by Giraldus 
Cambrensis, gives a lively picture of its former consequence. 

8. Bomium or Bovium. The site of this station is fixed by 
some at Boverton, a village a few miles south of Cowbridge, 
and not far from the sea. Others, however, more correctly, 
place it at Ervenny, near Bridgend, being induced by Roman 
remains discovered here. Neither place, however, accords ex- 
actly in respect of distance from Nidum, the next station, with 
the existing copies of Richard of Cirencester. Nidum may be 
safely identified with Neath, situate on the River Nedd or 
Heath, the ancient Nidus. 


In the territory of this tribe we have, 1. Maridunhm, now 
Caermarthen. In the time of Julius Frontinus, A.D. 70, a Ro- 
man station is said to have been founded here, the site of which 
is supposed to be that subsequently occupied by the castle and 


its outworks. The form of the camp is still marked by vestiges 
of stone and earth works. The remains of another camp, sup- 
posed to have been the castra (estiva, or summer camp of the 
soldiers on the station, are still visible in a field on the north- 
ern side of the town. This place was afterward the residence 
of the princes of South Wales. 2. Ad Vigesimum, to the west 
of the preceding, now Castle Flemish. 3. Menevia, to the 
west of the preceding, called, also, Menapia, now St. David's. 


In the territory of this tribe we have, 1. Mediolanium, as Ptol- 
emy calls it (MedioXdviov), or Mediamanum, as it is named by the 
Ravenna geographer. The exact site df this place has not been 
ascertained, although it is thought by the best antiquaries to 
have been in Montgomeryshire. It is generally supposed to have 
been on the banks of the Tanad, and to coincide with the mod- 
ern Clawdd Goch. 2. Seg-cmtium, near Caernarvon. The 
remains of the station itself, which consist of some fragments 
of the wall, are known by the name of Caer-seiont, and are 
about a mile from Caernarvon, on the banks of the Seiont. 
The island of Mona, now Anglesey, lay opposite. A Roman 
road from Maridunum to Segontium may still be traced. It is 
now called Sarn Helen, or Sam y Heng, and is supposed to 
mean " the Road of the Legion." 3. Conovium, to the north- 
east, on the River Toisobius or Conway. Some antiquaries 
have proposed to fix the site of this place at the city of Conway ', 
but the general opinion identifies Conovium with Caer-Rhun, 
five miles higher up the river. 4. Varce, to the east of the pre- 
ceding, at or near Bodfari, in the latter part of which name the 
Roman designation may be traced. 5. Bovium, to the south- 
east of the preceding, at or near Bangor, on the River Deva, 
now the Dee. 


In the territory of this tribe we have, 1. Deva, now Chester, 
on the River Deva, now the Dee. It was the station of the 
twentieth legion, and its modern name (a corruption of castra) 
has reference, as usual, to the fact of its having been a Roman 
military post. This place was evidently the most considerable 
one in a large tract of country in Roman times, and so contin- 


ued when the Romans had withdrawn their forces, and its pos- 
session became an object of importance to both the Saxons and 
the Britons. In the Saxon chronicle we are told that Ethel- 
frid, king of Northumbria, took it from the Britons in A.D. 
607. After that date it was again in the hands of the Britons ; 
and finally, in A.D. 830, it fell under the power of Egbert. 
2. Condate, to the east of the preceding. Its site is marked by 
a field called Harbor-field, in the parish of Kinderton. 3. Me- 
diolanum, to the southeast of the preceding, now Chesterton. 
4. Rutunium, now Rowton, ranked by some among the cities 
of the Ordovices. It lay in a southwest direction from the pre- 
ceding. 5. Uriconium or Viroconium, one of the principal Ro- 
man stations among the Cornavii, situate on the Sabrina or 
Severn, and about sixty miles to the southeast of the present 
city of Shrewsbury. It is now Wroxeter. 6. Salopia, so called 
in the " Notitia," and now Shrewsbury. It has been supposed 
that when the Britons found Uriconium fully in possession of 
the Romans, they established this place in its vicinity as a 
stronghold. Its Welsh name was Pengwern. On the conquest 
of the town by the Anglo-Saxons, it received the appellation 
of Scrobbes-byrig, importing that it was a town in a scrubby 
or brushy spot, and of this the modern " Shrewsbury" is a cor- 

7. Pennocrucium, to the northeast of Uriconium. The site 
of this place seems to be best fixed on the River Penk, near Stret- 
ton. This position accords tolerably well with the distances, 
in the Itinerary, from Uriconium and Etocetum, and does not 
require the corrections which are necessary if Pennocrucium is 
fixed, as some have proposed, at Penkridge. 8. Etocetum, to 
the southeast of the preceding. The site appears to have been 
at Wall, near Lichfield. 9. Manduessedum, to the southeast 
of the preceding, now Mancester. 


In the territory of this tribe we have, 1. Tripontium. The 
site of this place is fixed, by the best authorities, at Dovebridge 
or Dowbridge, on the Watling Street. 2. Venonce, to the north- 
west, at or near High Cross, where the Watling Street and 
the Fosse Road intersect. 3. Ratce, as written in the Itinera- 
ry, or 'Pare, as given by Ptolemy, now Leicester. This place 


is said to have been called by the Britons Caer Leirion, mean- 
ing " the city on the (river) Leire," which is now the Soar. 
The Saxons altered this name to Lege-ceaster or Legeo-ceaster, 
whence the present name. Geoffrey of Monmouth says it was 
called Caer-Leirion from the fabulous Leir, its founder, the son 
of Bladud, and the Lear of Shakspeare. 4. Verometum, to the 
northeast of the preceding, near Willoughby, on the road from 
Leicester to Newark. 5. Derventio, to the northwest, on the 
DarventuSj now Derivent. Its site is marked by the present 
hamlet of Little Chester. 6. Ad Pontem, to the northeast of 
the preceding, and on the River Trent. Its site has been fixed 
near Southwell. 7. Margidunum, a little to the southwest of 
the preceding, probably near East Bridgeford, on the south 
bank of the Trent, between Nottingham and Newark. 8. Lin- 
dum, to the northeast of the preceding, now Lincoln. It was 
a British town before it became a Roman station, and it stood 
at the intersection of the two great roads in this quarter, name- 
ly, the eastern branch of the Ermin Street and the Foss Way. 
The station was on the hill now occupied by the Cathedral and 
the Castle : its form was that of a parallelogram, the sides 
nearly facing the four cardinal points, and on each side was a 
gate. The walls have been almost entirely levelled with the 
ground, and the gates, with one exception, have been long since 
demolished. The remaining gate, now called " Newport Gate," 
is one of the most remarkable Roman remains in the kingdom. 


Beginning from the wall of Hadrian, and proceeding in a 
southern direction, we have, on the eastern side of the territory 
of the Brigantes, the following places : 1. Corstopitum, near 
Corbridge, on the River Fine. 2. Vindomara, to the south- 
east, at Ebchester. 3. Epiacum, to the southeast of the pre- 
ceding, now Lanchester. 4. Vinovia, to the southeast of the 
preceding, now Bincester. 5. Caturactonium, to the southwest 
of the preceding, now Catterick. 6. Isurium, to the southeast 
of the preceding, now Aldborough. 7. Eboracum, to the south- 
east of Isurium, now York. The British appellation of this 
place was most probably Eburac or Eborac, a name of Celtic 
origin, and supposed to signify " a town or fortified place on the 
banks of a river, or near the confluence of waters." It stocd 


on the banks of the Ouse. This place was converted into a 
military station by Agricola, or one of his generals, during the 
second campaign of that commander in Britain, about A.D. 79, 
when he marched through and subdued the whole country of 
the Brigantes ; its original Celtic appellation being retained in 
the Latinized form of Eburacum or Eboracum. It appears to 
have very soon become the principal Roman station of the north, 
and even of the whole province of Britain. Here, too, was the 
post of the sixth legion, whence the name Legio Sexto, Victrix, 
sometimes given to the station. This legion came into Britain 
in the time of Hadrian, and Eboracum remained its head-quar- 
ters until the Romans departed from the island. The ninth 
legion, which came over with the Emperor Claudius, had pre- 
viously been stationed here, and of course continued here after 
its incorporation with the sixth. From the time of Septimius 
Severus, if not earlier, it was the residence of the emperors 
when they visited the province, and, in their absence, of the 
imperial legates. Here the emperors Severus and Constantius 
Chlorus died ; and here, according to common belief, Constan- 
tino the Great was born ; but this belief rests on very insuffi- 
cient evidence. For its pre-eminence among the Roman sta- 
tions in Britain, Eboracum was indebted, it is probable, to its 
situation on the banks of a navigable river, in the midst of a 
remarkably extensive and very fertile plain, in the heart of the 
large district which lay between that part of the province of 
which the Romans had almost undisturbed possession, and that 
which they never could subdue, with the fierce hordes of which 
they were compelled to wage unceasing and doubtful warfare. 
Similar circumstances contributed to maintain the distinction 
which York enjoyed during many successive centuries. 

8. Derventio, to the northeast of Eboracum, and the site of 
which is supposed to be near Stamford Bridge. 9. Bdgovitia, 
to the southeast of the preceding, near Millington. 10. Prceto- 
rium^ to the northeast, on the coast, now Flamborough. These 
three last-mentioned places were in the territory of the Parisii. 

In the interior of the country of the Brigantes, we have the 
following places : 1. Luguvallum, just south of the wall of Ha- 
drian, now Carlisle. It is supposed to have been of British 
origin. The modern name is said to be derived from the word 
Luel, a corruption of Luguvallum, to which the British word 


Caer, "city," is prefixed. The place appears to have been 
first fortified about the time of Agricola. The Danes destroyed 
it about the end of the ninth century, and it remained desolate 
till after the Norman conquest. Its restoration and the erec- 
tion of the castle are attributed to William Rufus. 2. Voreda, 
to the southeast of the preceding, near Plumpton Wall. 3. Bro- 
c&vum, to the southeast of the preceding, fixed by Horsley and 
others at Brougham. 4. Brovonacce, to the southeast, made 
by some to correspond to Brough, but more correctly placed by 
Horsley at Kirby Thore. 5. Verterce, to the southeast, now 
Brough. 6. Lutuddrum, mentioned by the Ravenna geogra- 
pher, is supposed to correspond to the modern Leeds. It is 
highly probable, indeed, that Leeds wafc a Roman station, for 
Roman remains have been found in various parts of the town. 
7. Mancunium, now Manchester. Aldport, the original of Man- 
chester, is supposed to have taken its rise in the reign of Titus. 
It seems that originally there was a British town in this quar- 
ter, called Mancenion, or " the place of tents." On the site of 
this town the Romans erected a military station, the name of 
which they made, by a slight change, Mancunium ; and in the 
vicinity of this station Agricola induced the Britons to erect a 
new town, answering to what was subsequently Aldport, and 
eventually Manchester. This last-mentioned name arose from 
Man, the initial syllable of Mancunium, with the usual ter- 
mination of cester or Chester. 

On the western side of the territory of the Brigantes we have 
the following places: 1. Glanaventa, now Ellenborough, at the 
western termination of Hadrian's wall. 2. Galava, to the south- 
east of the preceding, now Keswick. 3. Alone, to the southeast, 
now Ambleside. 4. Galacum, to the southeast, near Kendal. 
5. Bremetonacce, to the southeast, near Tunstall. 6. Ad Alpes 
Penninas, now Broughton. 7. Coccium, called, also, Rigo- 
dunum, now Ribchester. It was the head-quarters of the twen- 
tieth legion. 


I. THE old chroniclers give this name to four principal an- 
cient highways, which they suppose to have been either origi- 
nally formed by the Romans in Britain during their occupa- 
tion of the country, or, at least, to have been completed and 


perfected by that people upon lines of road for the greater part 
already traced and used by the former inhabitants. 

II. The names, however, by which the four highways are 
distinguished appear to be Saxon in form, although they may 
be Roman or British in etymology, namely, Watting Street, 
Ikenild Street, Ermin Street, and Foss Way. 

III. Watting or Gathelin Street, which is said to have been 
so called from a functionary of the name of Vitellianus (in Brit- 
ish, Guetalin), to whom the care of it was committed (a most 
unsatisfactory and improbable etymology), is held to have ex- 
tended from Dover to Chester ; or, according to another hypoth- 
esis, to Chester-le-Street in Durham, passing through Canter- 
bury, London, and Verulam (St. Alban's), from which last- 
mentioned town it had also the name of Werlaem Street. Its 
remains, or supposed remains, are still known in various places 
by the names of High Dyke, High Ridge, Ridge Way, and 
Forty-foot Way. 

IV. There has been much controversy, however, as to wheth- 
er Watling Street did actually pass through London. Stuke- 
ly, in particular, contends that it crossed what is now called 
the Oxford Road at Tyburn, and proceeded to the west of West- 
minster, through Hyde Park and St. James's Park to the 
Thames, which it crossed at Old Palace Yard. The common 
opinion, however, is, that it passed along the line of what is still 
called Watling Street, in the city, meeting the other three great 
roads at the central milliarium in Cannon Street, pointed out 
by the site of London Stone, and crossing the river at Dowgate 
to what is still called Stony Street on the Surrey Side. The 
northward course of Watling Street, after leaving London or 
its neighborhood, is supposed to have been over Hampstead 
Heath to Edge ware, and hence through Verulam (or St. Al- 
ban's), and Dunstable in Bedfordshire, to Stony Stratford in 
Northamptonshire, whence it skirted Leicestershire on the west 
to Bosworth. From this point its course is disputed, some 
making it proceed in a northwestern direction to Chester, oth- 
ers carrying it due north to York, and thence to Chester-le- 
Street ; whence some imagine it to have been latterly extended 
to Lanark and Falkirk in Scotland, or even as far as to Caith- 
ness, at the extremity of the island. 

V. Ikenild or Ichenild Street is said to have been so called 


from its commencing on the eastern side of the island, in the 
country of the Iceni, of whom mention has already been made. 
On the supposition, however, of the London Stone having been 
the central milliarium, where all the great roads of the country 
met, a branch of the Ikenild must have extended to this point. 
It is supposed to have passed through Aldgate, and to have been 
otherwise known by the name of the Vicinal Way. 

VI. The course of the Ikenild to the westward is extremely 
obscure. Nearly all that has been conjectured even on the sub- 
ject is, that it crossed Watling Street at Dunstable, and thence 
extended in the direction of Staffordshire to the western coast. 
It seems most probable that, while Watling Street ran directly 
north to Chester-le-Street, the Ikenild ^crossed it obliquely to 
Chester ; but the scanty remains of the one road have been 
confounded with those of the other. 

VII. Ermin or Hermin Street derived its name most probably 
from the Saxon Herrmann, " a warrior," signifying that it was 
a military road. It is conjectured by some to have extended 
from St. David's, at the southwestern extremity of Wales, to 
Southampton, on the southern coast ; by others to have stretched 
more directly across the country to London, which it may have 
entered by what is now called Holborn. 

VIII. The Foss Way is supposed to have derived its name 
from the circumstance of its having had a ditch (fossa) on each 
side ; and it appears from a Roman milliare, or mile-stone, 
found by its side near Leicester, to have been formed, or at 
least improved, by the Romans in the reign of Hadrian, and 
probably at or about the time of that emperor's visit to Britain. 
It has retained its name among all classes of people better than 
any other of the Roman roads. This road is supposed to have 
taken its course from southwest to northeast, beginning near 
Totness in Devonshire, and passing through Bristol, Cirences- 
ter (near which place it seems to have crossed Ermin Street), 
Chipping, Norton, Coventry, Leicester, and Newark, to Lin- 
coln. If it was carried thence to London, it probably proceed- 
ed through Bishop's-gate Street. 


I. THE object of these erections was to prevent the incursions 
of the barbarous Scottish tribes into the Roman province of 


Britain. Of these, which were five in all, Agricola erected 
two, and Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Severus one each. 
With the exception, however, of the wall of Severus, the other 
works ought rather to be called mounds than walls, since they 
consisted principally of a bank and ditch, with a range of forts 
or stations at unequal distances. 

II. The first of these works was constructed by Agricola, the 
celebrated Roman commander, in A.D. 79, between the Ituncu 
JEstuarium, now Solway Frith , and the mouth of the River 
Tina, now the Tine. The second was constructed by the same 
in A.D. 81, considerably to the north of the first, between the 
Glotce JEstuarium, now Frith of Clyde, and the Bodotrice or 
Boderice JEstuarium, now the Frith of Forth. These two 
works, however, appear to have been insufficient to restrain 
the progress of the barbarians after the departure of Agricola 
from the island, A.D. 85, and accordingly, in A.D. 120, the 
Emperor Hadrian planned and executed a much stronger and 
more important work. 

III. Hadrian selected the same part of the island along which 
the first wall or mound of Agricola had been drawn, namely, 
the tract of country between Solway Frith and the mouth of 
the Tine. He dug an additional and much larger ditch, and 
raised a higher rampart of earth, making his new works run in 
nearly parallel lines with the old ones of Agricola. It began 
from Tunocelum, now Boulness, on the Itunce ^stuarium, now 
Solway Frith, near Lug-uvallium, now Carlisle, on the west- 
ern coast, and was continued almost in a direct line to Seg-e- 
dunum, now Cousin's House, beyond Pons JElii, a distance of 
rather more than sixty-eight English, or seventy-four Roman 

IV. Hadrian's work consisted of a principal agger, or vallum, 
that is, a rampart of earth, about ten or twelve feet high ; a 
ditch, on the north of this vallum, nine feet deep and eleven 
feet wide ; an agger twenty feet on the north side of this ditch ; 
and an agger, without a ditch, five feet on the south of the prin- 
cipal agger, and nearly of as large dimensions. This work was 
garrisoned by soldiers, stationed at proper intervals in forts. 

V. Twenty years after this, A.D. 140, Lollius Urbicus, un- 
der the Emperor Antoninus Pius, having reconquered the Msea- 
tae, restored the second wall of Agricola, which is commonly 


called the " Wall of Antoninus," or Vallum Antonini. This 
work consisted of a ditch about twelve feet wide, the principal 
agger, or vallum, on the south brink of the ditch, the founda- 
tions of which are twelve feet thick, but the height is unknown, 
and a military way on the south of the vallum. There were 
forts or stations along the line, amounting in all to nineteen, the 
mean distance between station and station being rather more 
than two English miles. In the position of the forts, the Ro- 
mans, both here and in their other works of a similar kind, al- 
ways chose a high and commanding situation, whence the coun- 
try could be discovered to a considerable distance, contriving, 
as far as circumstances would admit, that a river, morass, or 
some difficult ground, should form an^ obstruction to any ap- 
proach from the front. Forts were also placed upon the passa- 
ges of those rivers which crossed the general chain of communi- 
cation. A very considerable proportion of this intrenchment 
may still be traced. The modern name is Grimes Dyke, the 
word Grime, in the Celtic language, signifying " great," or 
" powerful." 

VI. But the greatest work of all was that of the Emperor 
Septimius Severus. It was begun A.D. 209, and finished the 
next year, and was only a few yards to the north of Hadrian's 
wall. This great work consisted of a ditch, the dimensions 
of which are not known, except that it was in all respects lar- 
ger and wider than that of Hadrian, and on its south brink 
stood the wall, not a mere mound of earth like the rest, but 
built of solid stone, and cemented with the strongest mortar. 
The height of this wall was twelve feet, besides the parapet, 
and its breadth eight feet, and it was defended at intervals by 
fortresses of three different kinds. Those called stationes were 
very strong garrisons, the least of them being capable of con- 
taining six hundred men, and having a town without their 
walls. The number of these was not less than eighteen, at an 
average distance of four miles from each other, but placed with 
some irregularity, according to the nature of the surrounding 
country and the exigency of defence. Besides these, there were 
very strong forts, called castella, in the intervals of the stations, 
eighty-one in number, and at the distance of about seven fur- 
longs from each other. - These were exactly sixty-four feet 
square. Lastly, between every two castella were four turres, 


or turrets, twelve feet square, three hundred and twenty-four 
in number, and three hundred yards distant from each other. 
These were used as watch-towers, and, being within reach of 
each other, communications could be made with the utmost fa- 
cility. For convenience of relieving guards, there was a mili- 
tary way, made of square stones, the whole length of the wall 
on its south side, and communicating with each turret and 
castle ; and at some distance south of this was another large 
military way, paved, also, with square stones, communicating 
from s'tation to station. The whole body of forces employed to 
garrison this stupendous work was not less than ten thousand 
men, sixteen hundred of whom were cavalry, and six hundred 
mariners, at the points where the ramparts communicated with 
the shore. 

SEVER us. 

THESE stations lie in Northumberland and Cumberland, and will now be briefly 
enumerated: 1. The first station, Segedunum, is generally fixed at Cousin's 
House, Wall's End, between Newcastle and Tynemouth. There are no re- 
mains. 2. The second station, Pans JElii, was, in the opinion of most antiqua- 
ries, at Newcastle ; but Cambden was induced by the name to fix it at Ponteland, 
which is north of the wall, on the River Pont, seven and a half miles northwest 
of Newcastle. 3. The third station, Condurcum, is fixed at Benwell Hill, an emi- 
nence two miles or two and a half miles from Newcastle. There are very dis- 
tinct traces of this station above the village of Benwell. 4. The fourth station, 
Vindobala, is fixed at Rutchester or Rouchester. The ramparts of this station, 
which was large, are very visible. 5. The fifth station, Hunnum, was at Halton- 
Ckesters. 6. The sixth station, Cilurnum, was at Walwick-Chestcrs, close on 
the right or west bank of the north Tyne. The ground within the vallum is 
crowded with the ruins of stone buildings, which formed apparently two streets 
from east to west, and a third cross street from north to south. 7. The seventh 
station, Procolitia, was on an open, elevated spot at Carraw-lurgh. 8. The 
eighth station, Borcovicus, is fixed at House Steads. This is the most perfect, 
and the grandest station of the whole line. It is on an elevation, with a steep 
or precipitous descent toward the north, and a gentler declivity toward the south. 
It comprehended fifteen acres, and had a large suburb on the south side. As 
many as twenty streets may be counted. 9. The ninth station, Vindolana, is 
generally placed at Little Chesters. The ramparts of this station are visible, 
but the ditch is nearly filled up. 10. The tenth station, JEsica, is at Great Ches- 
ters. The trenches and ramparts are well preserved. 1 1 . The eleventh station, 
Magna, is fixed at Carvoran, close to the borders of Cumberland. 12. The 
twelfth station, Amboglanna, is fixed at Burdoswald. Traces of many Roman 
buildings are found here. The whole station is surrounded by a foss, and all 
the entrances are plainly seen. 13. The thirteenth station, Petriana, is now 
Camberk Fort. 14. The fourteenth station, Aliallaba, is fixed at Watch Cross. 
15. The fifteenth station, Congavala, is fixed at Stanwicks. There are here only 


some traces of the ditch. 16. The sixteenth station, Axellodunum, is fixed at 
Burgh. 17. The seventeenth station, Gabrosentum, is fixed at Drumburgh, four 
miles from the termination of the wall. The site of the station is here perfectly 
plain. 18. The eighteenth station, Tunnocelum, is fixed at Boulness. Nothing 
is left of this station but the spot which marks it, upon a rock on the verge of 
Solway Frith, thirteen miles west of Carlisle. 


I. THE appellation Britannia Barbara was at first given by the Romans to all 
that part of the island which lay to the north of Hadrian's wall. When, how- 
ever, Britannia Romana became more extended toward the north, and the new 
province of Valentia was formed, comprehending all the country between the 
wall of Hadrian or Severus and that of Antoninus, and embracing the territories 
of the Otadeni, Gadeni, Selgova, Novanta, and Damnii, an alteration took place 
in the mode of naming, and the appellation of Britannia Barbara was now given 
to that part of the island merely which lay to the north of the wall of Antoninus. 

II. The Romans made three several attempts *> establish themselves in Bri- 
tannia Barbara, but without success. Hence the little information which we 
have respecting this part of the island. With the coast they were better ac- 
quainted, a Roman fleet having circumnavigated Britain in the time of Agricola. 

III. In considering this part of the island, we will take the name of Britannia 
Barbara in its earlier sense, as embracing all the country north of the wall of 
Hadrian. Our enumeration will necessarily be a brief one. 

Cities, fyc., of Britannia Barbara. 

In the territory of the Novanta, we have, 1. Leucopibia or Casa Candida, now 
Wigton. 2. Rerigonium, now Strathnaver. 3. Novantum Portus, now Port Pat- 

In the territory of the Selgova we have, 1. Carbantorigum, now Kircudbright. 
2. Corrfa, now Old Cumnock. 3. Uxellum, near Drumlanrig. 4. Trimontium, 
near Lougholm. 

In the territory of the Damnii we have, 1. Colanica, now Lanark. 2. Vando- 
gara, now Paisley. 3. Coria Damniorum, now Castle Gary. 4. Victoria, now 
Kinross. 5. Lindum Damniorum, one of the stations of the rampart of Antoni- 
nus, now Kirkantulloch. 

In the territory of the Otadeni we have, 1. Bremenium, now Rhichester. 2. Ad 
Fines, now Chew Green. 3. Curia, now Borthwick Castle. 


1. NAMES, &c. 

I. THE Greeks give us the earliest name of this island, namely, Hierne ('lepvrj). 
The Romans, on the other hand, called it either Hibernia or Juverna. Ptolemy 
names it 'lovepvia. 

II. The Romans never coveted the possession of this island, and hence, like 
the Greeks, they derived all their information respecting it from traders, who 
had sought its coasts for the sake of traffic. Ptolemy gives, nevertheless, some 
pretty correct notions in relation to this island ; he only errs in placing it six 
degrees too far toward the north. 

OBS. 1. In the various names of Ireland, as known to the classic writers, Iris, lernis, Juvernis, 
Hibernia, &c., the radical Ir, or Eri, by which it is still known to its own natives, is plainly trace- 
able. It is customary among the Irish to indicate a country by the affix Hy or Hua, sometimes 

HlBERNIA. 209 

written O, as in the case of proper names, signifying literally " the (dwelling of the) sons or fam- 
ily o" such as Hy-Mania, Hy-Tuirtre, Hy- Brazil, &c. In adding this affix to names beginning 
with a vowel, it is optional to insert a consonant hi order to prevent the concurrence of open 
sounds, Hy-v-Each, meaning the country of the descendants of Each or JEacus. Again, this affix 
requires the genitive, which in Eri is Erin, and thus in all variations of the name, from the Iris 
of Diodorus Siculus, and the Ir-land and Ireland of modern times, to the lernis (Hy-Ernis) of the 
Orphic Poems, and tlneHibernia (Hy-b-Ernia) of the Latin writers, would seem to be accounted for. 
2. The name Scotia does not appear to have been applied to Ireland till about the end of the 
third century, from which time till the beginning of the eleventh it continued to indicate that 
country exclusively. 


I. THE Scoti, who were in possession of Ireland at the time of the introduc- 
tion of Christianity, appear to have been, to a great extent, the successors of a 
people whose name and monuments indicate a close affinity with the Belgae of 
southern Britain. A people also called Cruithne by the Irish annalists, who are 
identifiable with the Picts of northern Britain, continued to inhabit a portion of 
the island, distinct from the Scoti, until after the Christian mission ; and it is 
observable that the names of mountains and remarkable places in that district 
still strikingly resemble the topographical nomenclature of those parts of north 
Britain which have not been affected by the Scotic conquest. 

II. The monuments and relics which attest the presence of a people consid- 
erably advanced in civilization at some period in Ireland, such as Cyclopian 
buildings, sepulchral mounds, containing stone chambers, mines, bronze instru- 
ments and weapons of classic form and elegant workmanship, would appear to 
be referrible to some of the predecessors of the Scoti, and indicate a close affin- 
ity between the earliest inhabitants of Ireland and that ancient people, by some 
incorrectly referred to a Phoenician origin, whose vestiges of a similar kind 
abound throughout the south and southwest of Europe. 

III. The Scoti were not builders in stone, at least in their civil edifices, nor 
did they use bronze implements. Their own tradition is, that they came orig- 
inally from Scythia, by which is meant the northeastern part of central Europe, 
which appears to be confirmed by the fact that the ancient topography of the 
country, in districts where the Scotic invasion has not wholly obliterated it, 
points at the Welsh language as the nearest representative of that spoken by 
the predecessors of the Scoti, and that the chief distinctions which at present 
exist between the Irish and Welsh languages are referrible to a Gothic or north- 
ern European source. 

IV. The general conversion of the Irish Scots to Christianity took place in 
the earlier and middle portion of the fifth century. ' The principal instrument in 
effecting the change was St. Patrick (Patricius), who landed in Ireland on this 
mission in the year 432. Before this time Christianity had made some prog- 
ress, but the mass of the people were heathens. 

V. A considerable advance in civilization followed the introduction of the new 
religion. Greek and Roman literature got some footing among the clergy, and 
an improved system of architecture became requisite for religious edifices. The 
Irish round towers are now generally ascribed to an ecclesiastical origin, and 
are supposed to have been erected during the sixth, seventh, and eighth centu- 
ries, which form, perhaps, the most prosperous epoch in the history of the coun- 
try. From the end of the eighth century till the coming of the English in A.D. 
1170, the disputes of the petty princes of the island, and the frequent depreda- 
tions of the Danes, and other northern pirates, render the annals of Ireland a 
melancholy series of feuds and disasters. 




THE principal promontories of Hibernia are as follows : 1. Boreum Promonto- 
rium (Bopeiov 'A/tpwrjyptov), now Malin Head, in the county of Donnegal. 2. Vt- 
nicnium Promonlorium (OveviKviov 'AnpuTTipiov), to the southwest of the preced- 
ing, now Bloody Foreland, in the same county. 3. Rhobogdium Promonlorium, 
to the southeast of Boreum Promontorium, now Fair Head, in the county of 
Antrim. 4. Isamnium Promontorium, on the eastern coast, now Killard Point. 
It lies facing the Isle of Man, the ancient Mona or Monarina. 5. Sacrum Prom- 
ontorium ('lepov 'AKpuTqpiov), at the extremity of the eastern coast, now Grenore 
Point. 6. Notium Promontorium (Noriov 'A/cpur^piov), at the southwest extrem- 
ity of the island, now Mizen Head or Cape Clear. 


1. Vidaa (Ovidova), now the Foyle, forming at its mouth the aestuary of Lough 
Foyle. 2. Argita, now the Bann. 3. Logia, now^he Lagan, running into Bel- 
fast Bay. 4. Vinderius, now the Newry, emptying into Carlingford Bay. 5. Bu- 
binda (Bovfiivda), now the Boyne. 6. Libinius, now the Li/y. 7. Oboca ('O66na), 
now the Avoca. 8. Modonus (M6<5oi;0f), now the Slancy. Mannert erroneously 
makes this the Liffy. 9. Birgus (Bipyoc), called, also, Brigus, though perhaps 
the true form of the name is Bargus. It is now the Barrow. 10. Dabrbna 
(badpuva), now the Lee, running into Cork Harbor. 11. Ivernus, now Kinmore 
River. 12. Dur (Aoi)p), running into what is now Dingle Bay. 13. Senus (Sr/vof), 
now the Shannon. 14. Ausoba (A.vo66a norauo^), the aestuary now called Gal- 
way Bay. 15. Ravius ('Paovios), apparently the extended line of Lough Erne 
(mistaken for a river), which empties into Donnegal Bay. 


ON the eastern and southern sides of the island we have, 1. Darini (bapivoi) 
or Darni, dwelling around the River Logia, now the Lagan, in the southern part 
of Antrim, and the northern parts of Down and Armagh. 2. Voluntii (Ovohovv- 
TIOC) or Usluntii (Ovohovvrtoi), to the south of the preceding, and dwelling around 
what is now Dundalk Bay, in the county of Louth. 3. Eblani (' Efoavoi) or Blanii, 
to the south of the preceding, in the counties of Meath and Dublin, and the north- 
ern part of Kildare. 4. Cauci (KavKoi), to the south, in the southern part of 
Kildare, and in part of Wicklow. 5. Menapii, to the south, in part of Wicklow 
and Wcxford. 6. Coriondi, to the south and southwest of the preceding, in the 
southern part of Wexford and of Kilkenny. 7. Brigantes, to the southwest of 
the preceding, in Waterford and part of Ttpperary. 8. Usdia (OvoMai) or Vodiee, 
according to the common text of Ptolemy, to the southwest, and occupying part 
of the county of Cork. 9. Juverni ('\ovspvoi), less correctly called by some 
Uterni, in the southwestern corner of the island, and occupying a part of the 
counties of Cork and Kerry. 

On the western side we have, 1. Velibori (OveMtopoi), or, as they are called by 
some, Utellabri (OvrtAhaGpot), in part of the county of Kerry. 2. Gangani 
(Tayyavoi), north of the Shannon, in the county of Clare. 3. Autiri (AvTeipoi), 
to the north of the preceding, in the county of Galway. 4. Magnate. (Mayvurat), 
to the north, in the county of Mayo. 5. Erdlni ('Epdivoi), to the northeast of 
the preceding, in the counties of Sligo and Antrim. 

On the northern side we have, 1. Venicnii (Ovevlicvioi), in the county of Don- 
negal. 2. Rhobogdii ('Po66y6iot), to the east of the preceding, and occupying 


the county of Londonderry, the northern part of that of Antrim, and a small por- 
tion of that of Tyrone. 


ON the eastern coast we have, 1. Ebldna ('E6Aava), now Dublin. Mannert 
incorrectly places the site of this ancient city in the neighborhood of Dundalk. 
Dublin, in fact, appears to have been known by something approaching nearly 
to its present name in the second century, since it is found written Eblana in 
the geography of Ptolemy. The name is given in historical documents as 
Dublin,, Dyvelin, &c., being all varieties of the Irish Dubh-linn, or " Black 
Pool," which appears to be the true etymology. It is also called, and is still 
generally known among the Irish by the name of Athdiath, which may be ren- 
dered Hurdle-ford, from the causeway laid on hurdles which formerly led to the 
channel of the river across the ooze at either side. 2. Menapia, now Wexford. 
Some less correctly consider the modern Ferns to correspond to Menapia. The 
ancient inhabitants of this quarter, namely, the Menapii, are supposed to have 
derived their origin from the people of the same name in Belgic Gaul, most 
probably through the Belgae of Britain, and to be the people called by the Irish 
annalists Fir-Bolgs, which means " Viri Belgici," or Belgians. 

On the western coast we have, 1. Juvernis or lernis, corresponding, as is 
thought, to the modern Dunkenon. It was the capital of the Juverni. 2. Regia, 
to the northeast of the preceding, now Limerick. There were two places of 
this name in Ireland, one on what is now the River Culmore, in Armagh, and the 
other that which we are at present considering. Hence Ptolemy, in naming 
the latter, calls it 'Ere'pa 'Prj-yia, " the other Regia," or, as it is marked on the 
maps in Latin, Regia Altera. Mannert regards Regia in both cases as a Latin 
term (Graecized by Ptolemy) to denote the residence of a prince or leader. 
3. Magndta, to the north of the preceding, and the chief city of the Magnatae. 
It is supposed to correspond to the modern Castlebar, in the county of Mayo. 


(A.) Islands in the Oceanus Britannicus (or English Chan- 
nel) and the Fretum Gallicum (or Straits of Dover). 

I. Vectis Insul& (Ovfjitris), now the Isle of Wight, on the southern coast of 
England, and separated from the mainland of Hampshire by a channel called the 
Solent Sea, and which Bede Latinizes by Pelagus Solvens. The modern name 
of the island is most probably a mere contraction of the ancient one, this last 
being pronounced Wectis or Ouectis, from which Wect was formed by contrac- 
tion, and this became gradually changed into Wight. In the Domesday Book 
it is spelled Wect, Wict, and Wiht. Suetonius and Eumenius call the island 
Vecta, while Diodorus Siculus styles it Ictis. This island was known to the Ro- 
mans long before the conquest of Britain, and their acquaintance with it was 
obtained through the Massilians, who visited it in prosecuting the tin trade. It 
was reduced under the Roman sway by Vespasian, during the reign of Claudius, 
A.D. 43. In 493 it was conquered by Cerdic the Saxon, who destroyed the 
original inhabitants, and replaced them by his own countrymen. 

II. Tanetos or Tandtis, now Thanet, a part of the coast of Kent, insulated by 
the two arms of the River Sturius, now the Stour. 


(B.) Islands in the Oceanus Hibernicus (or Irish Sea). 

I. Mona, now the Isle of Man. This island has various ancient names. It is 
the Mona of Caesar, the Monapia of Pliny, the Monarina (or, according to another 
reading, Monaoeda) of Ptolemy, the Menavia of Orosius and Bede, and the Eu- 
bonia of Nennius. The name is probably derived from the British word mon, 
which means " isolated." 

II. Mona (Mdva), now the Isle of Anglesey, to the south of the former, and ly- 
ing off the territory of the Cangi, or modern Caernarvonshire, from which it is 
separated by the Menai strait. It is the Mona of Tacitus, as the Isle of Man is 
the Mona of Caesar. The modern name Anglesey (Angles' ey, i. e., English- 
man's Island), was given to it by the Saxons. This island had, in early times, 
the names of Ynys-Dowell, "the shady or dark island," Ynys-Fon, "the farther- 
most island," and Ynys-y-Cederin, "the island of heroes." It was a great seat 
of Druidical superstition. Suetonius Paulinus, the Roman commander, landed 
here A.D. 61, in spite of the resistance of the natives, and the terrors which 
the Druids sought to strike into the hearts of the ^hvaders. He cut down the 
sacred groves, and gave a blow to the Druidical superstition from which it 
never recovered. The island was abandoned by the Romans for a time, in con- 
sequence of the great revolt under Boadioea, and again conquered by Agricola, 
A.D. 76. 

(C.) Islands in the Oceanus Occidentalis (or Atlantic Ocean). 

Ebuda ('E6ov6ai\ now the Hebrides, or Western Islands of Scotland. Pliny 
calls them Hebudes, and makes them thirty in number. They amount, howev- 
er, in fact, to the number of nearly two hundred, but more than one half of them 
are so small or so sterile as not to be inhabited. 

(D.) Islands in the Oceanus Deucaledonius (or North Sea). 

I. JEmoda, as Mela calls them, or Acmoda, as they are termed by Pliny, now 
probably the Shetland Isles. Antiquaries have long disputed whether the an- 
cient Romans saw the Shetland Isles when they circumnavigated Britain, and 
much learning has been advanced to connect the Thule of Tacitus, mentioned 
in the life of Agricola, with Shetland. The prevailing opinion now is, that 
Thule is a corruption of, or intended for Foula, one of the Shetland Isles, and 
the only one of them which, from the altitude of its hills and its detached po- 
sition, can be seen from the seas immediately to the north of Orkney. Many, 
however, seek to identify the Thule of Tacitus with Mainland, the largest of 
the Shetland group. Thule was called ultima, " farthest," by the Roman writ- 
ers, on account of its remote situation, and its being regarded as the limit of 
geographical knowledge in this quarter. 

The Thule spoken of by Pytheas, the Greek navigator, must not be confound- 
ed with the Thule of Tacitus. The relation of Pytheas is singularly exaggera- 
ted in some of its particulars, as, for example, when he states that its climate 
was neither earth, air, nor sea, but a chaotic confusion of these three elements. 
From other parts of his narrative, however, many have been led to suppose that 
his Thule was modern Iceland or Norway. Mannert declares himself in favor 
of the former of these opinions, but D'Anville opposes it. Ptolemy places the 
middle of this Thule in 63 of north latitude, and says that, at the time of the 
equinoxes, the days were twenty-four hours, which could not have been true, 
however, at the equinoxes, but must have referred to the solstices, and therefore 
this island is supposed to have been'in 66 30' north latitude, that is, under the 


polar circle. The Thule of which Procopius speaks, D'Anville makes to cor- 
respond to the modern canton of Tylemark in Norway. The details of Proco- 
pius, however, seem to agree rather with the accounts that have been given of 
the state of ancient Lapland. 

II. Orcddes ('Op/caoef ), now the Orkney Islands, to the north of the northeast- 
ern extremity of Scotland. They are supposed to have been first discovered by 
the fleet of Germanicus, when driven in this direction by a storm. Agricola 
afterward made the Romans better acquainted with their existence as islands, 
separate from the main land of Britain, when he circumnavigated the northern 
coast of that country. Mela, following the oldest accounts, makes the number 
of these islands to be thirty, and this statement is received by subsequent writ- 
ers, with the exception of Pliny, who gives forty as the amount. Orosius, in a 
later age, would seem to have had more recent information on this point, since 
he makes twenty of the group to have been inhabited, the number inhabited at 
the present day being twenty-seven. To the Orkney group belong Ptolemy's 
two islands of Ocetis ("OitrjTie) or Scutis (S/eurtf ) now probably South Ronaldsha, 
and Dumna (Aoiymz), now probably Hay. 

(E.) Islands in the Oceanus Verginicus (or 'St. George's 

CassiterUes (Kaaairepidetf, or " Tin Islands," now the Stilly Isles, but under 
the ancient name must also, for the reasons given below, be included the west- 
ern extremity of Cornwall. The Cassiterides were famous for their connection 
with the tin trade of antiquity, which the Phoenicians monopolized for so long 
a period, obtaining from this quarter their principal supplies of this metal. The 
name of these islands is derived from the Greek KaactTepoc, "tin." 

OBS. 1. The Sanscrit name for tin is kastira, from kdsh, " to shine," " to be bright ;" and since 
much tin is found in the islands on the coast of India, it is supposed that the Phoenicians first got 
the name with the metal from this quarter, and subsequently applied it to the Scilly Isles and 
Cornwall when they began to procure tin from this part of the world also. From the Phoeni- 
cian or Sanscrit term the Greeks formed their KaacirepoS and KaooiTepiSes- 

2. Diodorus Siculus distinguishes between the Cassiterides and Britain, and speaks of tin aa 
brought from both. Strabo also distinguishes between the Cassiterides and Britain. But it 
seems probable that the western extremity of Cornwall must be included in the term Cassiteri- 
des, and that the chief supply of tin was derived from it, for there are no traces of workings in 
the islands sufficient to countenance the opinion that much tin was ever obtained from them. 
The inaccuracy of the ancient writers may perhaps be accounted for by the two different chan 
nels by which the Cornish tin trade was carried on. One part of the metal was sent by sea to 
Spain : this was probably the most ancient course of the trade opened by the Phoenicians and 
their colonists in Spain and Africa. The merchants who carried it on knew of no other part of 
Britain than the western, to which they gave, with the Scilly Isles, the general designation of 
Cassiterides ; hence Strabo and Diodorus both describe these islands by their position relative to 
Spain, instead of their situation with regard to the much nearer island of Britain, of the proximi- 
ty to, and, indeed, identity of which with the Cassiterides they appear to have had no idea. An- 
other part of the metal was conveyed over land by the Britons themselves, and thence, as Diodo- 
rus relates, to the opposite shore of Gaul, and on horses, overland, through Gaul to Massilia and 
Narbo : this tin, .though from the same district as the other, was reputed to come from a differ- 
ent quarter, namely, from Britain. If the island Ictis (*!KTIS) of Diodorus, which was the empo- 
rium of the Gallic tin trade, and beyond which the merchants from Gaul do not seem to have 
gone, was the same as the OiJjKrij of Ptolemy, or the modern Isle of Wight (and of this there 
appears to be little, if any doubt), the remoteness of this from the tin country, to which the mer- 
chants of Spain went, will account fqr the two classes of traders not having fallen in with each 
other, and for their not having ascertained that their supposed different sources of supply were 
really one and the same. 

3. It has been supposed, and with much probability, that the Cassiterides are the same with 
the Oestrymnides of Avienus. Dionysius Periegetes also speaks of them under the name of the 
" Befiperides, where is the origin of tin," f EcTreptdaS, r6Qi Kaaoirepoio yvi8\i) (v. 563). The con- 


quest of Sonth Britain by the Romans must have led to the discovery of the proximity of the 
Cassiterides to Britain, if not of their identity with it. But neither Ptolemy nor Pliny the elder 
appears to have examined into the matter, for both describe the Cassiterides as being opposite 
to Spain, and do not notice them in their account of Britain. We gather from Pliny that the 
maritime or Hispano-Phoenician tin trade had ceased, for he speaks of the account of that metal 
being sought in certain islands of the Atlantic, and brought in wicker boats covered with leather, 
as a mere fable (H. N., xxxiv., 47). Indeed, he gives no intimation of any tin being found in 
Britain, though he speaks of the lead that was obtained there. It is not unlikely that the confu- 
sion caused by the Roman conquests in Gaul, Spain, and Britain had, for the time at least, put 
an end to both the working and sale of the metal. 

4. From the time of the Romans, who used them occasionally as a place of banishment, there 
is no notice of these islands in history until their conquest by Athelstan, king of England, who 
expelled the Danes about A.D. 938. 

Having now completed our sketch of the Ancient Geography of Spain, Gaur, 
and Britain, we will take the Danube for a base-line, and will divide the countries 
of Europe that remain to be considered into two great classes, namely, those 
lying ta the north of the Danube, and those to the south of the same stream. 


THESE consist of the six following countries, proceeding from west to east, 




4. DACIA. 





I. THE name Germania was used in a twofold sense by the Roman writers> 
the first as indicating Germania Cisrhenana, or that part of Gaul lying immedi- 
ately south of the Lower Rhine, which was occupied by German tribes that had 
crossed over, and the second as referring to Germania Transrhenana, or Ger- 
many Proper, called, also, Germania Magna, and of which we are now to treat. 

II. Germania Magna (Tepfiavia rj peyuZu) was bounded as follows : on the north 
by the Mare Suevicum or Baltic Sea, on the west by the Oeeanus Germanicus OP 
German Ocean and the River Rhine, on the south by the Rhine and the Danube, 
especially the latter, and on the east partly by the Monies Sarmatici or Carpa- 
thian Mountains, and partly by the River Vistula. 

III. To the north, therefore, Germania included the modem Denmark and the 
neighboring islands. Its boundaries on the east, however, must be regarded as 
merely nominal. How far, in fact, Germany extended toward the east is diffi- 
cult to determine, since, according to Strabo, Germanic tribes dwelt nearly as 
far as the mouths of the Borysthenes or Dnieper. 

2. NAME. 

I. ACCORDING to the account given by Tacitus, the name Germani is the Latin- 
ized form of the appellation assumed by the Tungri, the first German tribe that 
crossed the Rhine ; and they gave themselves this name, as is said, in order to 
strike terror into their Gallic opponents. 

II. Various etymologies have been given of the term in question, but the one 
most commonly received derives the name from the old German word Werr r 
"tear," and Mann, " a man," ao that Germani will be the same as Werrmdnner r 
that is, "war-men" or "warriors," the Roman alphabet, in consequence of its 
not having any w, converting this letter of the German alphabet into a & 


OBS. The etymology just given is exceedingly doubtful. Von Hammer, the eminent German 
Oriental scholar, makes his countrymen to have been originally a Bactriano-Median nation, and 
the name Germani, or Sermani, in its primitive import, to have meant those who followed 
the worship of Buddha ; and hence the Germans, according to him, are that ancient and primi- 
tive race who came down from the mountains of Upper Asia, and, spreading themselves over the 
low country more to the south, gave origin to the Persian and other early nations. Hence the 
name Dschermania, applied in early times to all that tract of country which lay to the north of 
the Oxus. The land of Erman, therefore, which was situate beyond .this river, and which cor- 
responds to the modern C/torasin, is made by Von Hammer the native home of the Germanic 
race, and the Germans themselves are, as he informs us, called Dschermani, their primitive name, 
by the Oriental writers, down to the fourteenth century ( Wien. Jahrb., vol. ii., p. 319). 


I. MODERN inquiries, as just remarked, have traced the descent of the Ger- 
manic race from the inhabitants of Asia, since it is now indisputably established 
that the Teutonic dialects belong to one great family with the Latin, the Greek, 
the Sanscrit, and the other languages of the Indo-European chain. 

II. The Greeks and Romans had very little knowledge of Germany before the 
time of Julius Caesar, who met with several German tribes in Gaul, and crossed 
the Rhine more than once, rather with the view of preventing their incursions 
into Gaul than of making any permanent conquests. His 'acquaintance was, 
however, limited to those tribes which dwelt on the banks of the Rhine. 

III. Under the early Roman emperors many of these tribes were subdued, and 
the country west of the Visurgis, now the Weser, was frequently traversed by 
the Roman armies. But at no period had the Romans any accurate knowledge 
of the country east of this river ; and it is therefore difficult to fix with certainty 
the position of the Germanic tribes, particularly as the Germans were a nomad 

IV. Tacitus divides the Germans into three great tribes : 1 . Ingavones, bor- 
dering on the ocean. 2. Herminones, inhabiting the central parts. 3. Istavones, 
including all the others. Pliny makes five divisions : 1. Vindlli, including Bur- 
gundiones, Varlni, Carlni, Guttones. 2. Ingavones, including Cimbri, Teutoni, 
and Cauci. 3. Istavones, near the Rhine, including the midland Cimbri. 4. Her- 
miones, inhabiting the central parts, including the Suevi, Hermunduri, Catti, and 
Cherusci. 5. Peucini and Bastarna, bordering on the Dacians. 

V. The following list gives the positions of the principal tribes, as far as these 
can be ascertained. 

1. TRIBES ON THE SEA- COAST. Between the Rhenus or Rhine, and the Ami- 
sia or Ems, we find the Frisii. Between the Amisia and the Albis or Elbe, we 
have the Cauci, divided into Cauci Majorca and Cauci Minores. East of the 
Albis we have the Saxones and Angli. The peninsula of Jutland, in this quar- 
ter, was anciently called the Cimbrica Chersonesus, from an erroneous impres- 
sion that the Cimbri once dwelt there. The real country, however, of this race 
lay probably on the northeast side of Germany, and they appear to have been, 
not a German, but a Celtic race. 

2. TRIBES ON THE RIGHT BANK OF THE RHINE. Between the Frisii and the 
Luppia, now the Lippe, and bounded on the east by the Visurgis, now the Weser, 
we have the Bructeri, Chamdvi, Marsi, Dulgibini, and Usipii or Usipetes. Be- 
tween the Luppia and the Manus, now the Main, we have the Sigambri or 
Sicambri, Tencteri, and Mattiaci. South of the Mcenus were the Alemanni. 

Danube and the Erzgebirge and Riesengebirge we have the Hermunduri, Narisci, 
Quadi, and Marcomanni, which last tribe dwelt in the districts previously inhab- 
ited by the Boii, but who had been driven out by them. 


4. TRIBES IN THE CENTRAL PARTS. The most powerful of these were the 
Suevi, who occupied the greatest part of Germany, and were subdivided into 
several tribes. They extended from the Erzgebirge and Riesengebirge as far 
north as the Baltic, and included the Semnones, Langobardi, Aviones, Varlni, 
Encloses, Suardones, and Nuithones. To the southeast of the Cauci were the 
Angrivarii, and to the south of these the Cherusci and Chasudri, and to the south 
of the Chasuari were the Catti. The Marsigni, Osi, Gothini, and Burii lay to 
the east of the Catti, and are supposed to have inhabited part of Prussian Silesia. 
The Burgundiones and Lygii dwelt on the banks of the Vistula, bounded on the 
south by the Carpathian Mountains, and on the west by the Riesengebirge. 

OBS. Our information concerning the geography of ancient Germany is very scanty and un- 
certain. The Greek and Roman writers, from whom our knowledge of it is derived, knew very 
little about it themselves. A knowledge of the German Ocean and the northern parts of Europe 
had been acquired first by the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, who procured tin from the Cassi- 
terides or from Britain, and amber from the shores of the Baltic ; and in B.C. 400 by Himilco, 
the Carthaginian, whose voyage has been described by the poet Avienus (Plin., H. N., ii., 67) ; 
in B.C. 330, by Hecataeus and Philemon (Plin., H. N., iv., 13, or 27) ; and, about the same time, 
by Ephorus and Clitarchus (Strab., vii., 2, 1, p. 293) ; by Timjpis, Xenophon of Lampsacus, So- 
tachus, Nicias, Xenocrates, Mithradates, and especially Pytheas of Massilia, who, in the year B.C. 
320, sailed to Thule, and thence into the Baltic. (Strab., i., 4 ; ii., 3, 4 ; iii., 2 ; iv., 4, 5. Plin v iv., 
16, or 27, 30 ; xxxvii., 2, or 11.) The knowledge which the Romans possessed of Germany and 
the western parts of Europe was derived principally from the expeditions of Ca3sar, Drusus 
Germanicus, Germanicus, and Ahenobarbus. Drusus Germanicus, the brother of Tiberius, made 
four expeditions into Germany, and dug the canal between the Rhine and the Isala (Yssel). 
He was the first who navigated the German Ocean, but did not advance further than the mouth 
of the Amisia (Ems), in the territory of the Cauci. Germanicus, the son of Drusus (A.D. 14-16), 
made four expeditions into Germany, and advanced still further ; he was shipwrecked on the 
territory of the Frisii (Ann., i., 49-52, 55-59, 60-71 ; ii., 5-2f, 41-46). L. Domitius Ahenobarbus 
crossed the Elbe, and penetrated further into Germany than any of his predecessors. (Ann., 
I, 63 ; iv., 44. Suet., Ner., iv.) Tiberius advanced to the Arctic Sea (Ann* ii., 26, 47 ; xii., 39. 
Dio, Iv., 6, 8, 28 ; Ivi., 25. Suet., Tib., 9, 17, 18, 20. Veil., ii., 97, 104-110, 120). This expedition 
of Tiberius, however, Strabo (vii., 1, p. 291), ana Tacitus himself (c. 34), attribute to Drusus Ger- 
manicus. On the south side of Germany the Romans made no conquests beyond the Danube ; 
but they obtained some geographical knowledge through the journeys of the traders who pro- 
cured amber from the shores of the Baltic, and from their wars with the Daci, Marcomanni, and 
other tribes on this frontier. Strabo wrote in the age of Tiberius, when the Romans possessed 
a more accurate knowledge of Germany than at any other time, through the expeditions of 
which we have just spoken. After this period the Romans were almost entirely shut out of Ger- 
many. Strabo, however, is exceedingly careless. He did not read even Csesar's Gallic war 
with sufficient attention to understand it, and confuses almost every thing which he extracts from 
the accounts brought home by Pytheas. Our difficulties are, moreover, increased by the inac- 
curacy of the text. Pomponius Mela is worth nothing. Pliny, likewise, was very careless, as 
we see, even in what he says of Italy ; we can not, therefore, look for much accuracy in his ac- 
count of Germany. His work is principally valuable for the proper names. The imperfect char- 
acter of the geographical knowledge which Tacitus possessed of Germany is manifest from his 
work upon the subject. Ptolemy has ventured to give a map of Germany, and to lay down the 
latitudes and longitudes of a number of towns and mouths of rivers. The greater part ot these 
he never visited himself; and who, in that age, could have furnished him with the requisite in- 
formation ? Indeed, his map bears but a faint resemblance to the actual shape and features of 
Germany ; and, in the majority of instances, it can with difficulty be determined whether the 
towns he mentioned existed at all. There is this additional disadvantage in his book, that he 
defines positions by numbers, which, of all things, are the most liable to alteration through the 
mistakes of the transcribers. One of the most valuable geographical monuments of antiquity, 
Antoninus's Itinerary, compiled under the direction of J. Csesar and Antony or Augustus, is avail- 
able only for a few roads on the frontier. The Peutingerian Table is frequently of use in mak- 
ing maps, since, though the countries are excessively distorted, the distances between the towns 
laid down on it are given ; but it is of scarcely any service in the case of Germany. Inscriptions 
and coins, again, which afford some of the best means of defining the situations of places, are of 
rare occurrence in Germany. But, in addition to all these difficulties and disadvantages, the wan- 
dering and unsettled character of the Germans themselves renders it totally impossible to lay 
down a map which should represent the relative positions of the tribes at any one period, or for 


any length of time, though we can generally determine the position which individual tribes oc- 
cupied at some time or other. This is seen from the wide discrepancies between Tacitus and 
his contemporaries, and Ptolemy, and from such glimpses as history affords us of the migrations 
of several of the tribes. 


I. THE Teutonic or German race come in from the east, and drive the Celtae, 
who had preceded them, farther toward the west. 

II. The Romans first become acquainted with them in B.C. 113, when, in 
conjunction with the Cimbri, and under the general name of Teutones, they ap- 
pear on the confines of the Roman dominion, and defeat the consul Papirius 
Carbo. After this they make successive attacks on the frontiers, but are re- 
pelled by Marius, who defeats them in conjunction with the Ambrones, a Gal- 
lic tribe, at Aqua, Sextiae, now Aix, in Southern Gaul, B.C. 102. 

III. Julius Caesar, having, at a subsequent period, subjugated Gallia, and pen- 
etrated to the Rhine, becomes acquainted with a nation then designated by the 
name of Germans. Ariovistus, a leader belonging to this nation, attempts to 
establish himself in Gaul, but is defeated by Caesar, and compelled to flee be- 
yond the Rhine. 

IV. Caesar twice crosses the Rhine in order to secure Gaul from the inroads 
of the Germans. He takes some of the latter into his army, and employs them 
against the Gauls, and afterward against Pompey. He himself is only acquaint- 
ed with the tribes of the Ubii, Sigambri, Usipetes, and Tencteri. He is told that 
the remaining part of Germany is inhabited by the Suevi, who possess a hund- 
red districts, every one of which yearly sends out one thousand men on preda- 
tory expeditions. 

V. The civil wars which divide the Romans withdraw their attention for 
some time from Germany, and the Sigambri ravage Gaul with impunity. After 
they have defeated Lollius, the lieutenant of Augustus (B.C. 15), that ernperor 
himself hastens to the defence of Gaul, and, in order to oppose the inroads of 
the Germans, he erects several fortresses on the Rhine, and gives his step-son 
Drusus the command of the forces stationed on the banks of that river. 

VI. Drusus makes several successful expeditions against the Germanic na- 
tions, and penetrates as far as the Elbe. On his death (B.C. 9), his brother 
Tiberius commands for two years the legions stationed on the Rhine, employ- 
ing, however, policy rather than force against the Germans. He engages many 
of them to enter the Roman service, and being again intrusted (A.D. 4) with 
the same command, he penetrates as far as the banks of the Elbe. 

VII. Germany now bids fair to become a Roman province, but the impru- 
dence of Quintilius Varus, the successor of Tiberius, destroys all the advant- 
ages already gained. The violent measures which he adopts to change the 
manners and institutions of the Germans, cause a general conspiracy against 
the foreign invaders. Arminius, who has been educated at Rome, and has 
served in the Roman armies, is at the head of this conspiracy. The legions of 
Varus are attacked by the Germans in the forest of Teutoberg (A.D. 9), and en- 
tirely destroyed. 

VIII. This defeat of the Romans is followed by the loss of all their conquests 
beyond the Rhine, and the Germanic nation of the Cherusci, among whom Ar- 
minius was born, become the most powerful people in Germany. Four years 
after this time, Germanicus restores for a period the fortunes of the Roman 
arms, but without regaining the former acquisitions. 

IX. From this period the Romans seem to have abandoned the idea of ex- 
tending their conquests in this direction, and to have contented themselves 


with repelling the inroads which the Germans occasionally make on their fron- 
tiers. The Germans are also prevented from making any serious attempts 
against the Romans by the internal wars which distract them for many years. 
They again attack the Roman empire under Domitian, Nerva, and Trajan, the 
last of whom entirely defeats them. 

X. From this time the attacks of the Germans on the Roman empire become 
more frequent and more formidable, and their history now becomes blended 
with that of the decline of the Roman empire, on the ruins of which they es- 
tablished several new states. These will be alluded to in the accounts given 
of individual tribes. 


THE principal mountain chains in Germany mentioned by the ancient writers 
are seven in number, namely, 

1. Abnoba Mons, 3. Taunus Mons, 5. Melibocus Mons, 

2. Alba Mons, or Alpes, 4. Rhetico Mons, 6. Asciburgius Mons, 

7. Sudeti Monies. + 

I. Abnoba Mons, a name given to that part of the Black Forest where the 
Danube commences its course, and which lies opposite the city of Augst, the 
ancient Augusta Rauracorum. Ptolemy incorrectly makes it extend from the 
Mcenus, now the Main, to the sources of the Amisia, now the Ems. Tacitus 
and Pliny give its true position. Strabo and Mela make no mention of it. 

II. Alba Mons, called also Alpes, a mountain range, now the Rauhe Alp, and 
extending from the sources of the Danube, along its northern bank, as far as 
the mouth of the Licus, now Lech. It separates the waters that flow into the 
Neckar, the ancient Nicer, from those that run into the Danube. 

III. Taunus Mons, a mountain range to the northwest of Frankfort, and ex- 
tending between Wiesbaden and Hamburg. It is now called the Hohe, or the 
Heyrich. The Taunus range sinks with a steep descent toward the Main and 
Rhine, but gradually toward the Lahn on the north. 

IV. Rhetico Mons, a mountain range now called the Rothhaargebirge, stretch- 
ing off from the Siebengebirge, near Bonn, but on the opposite side of the Rhine, 
and extending to the sources of the Eder, the Lahn, and the Ruhr. Mela says 
(iii., 3), " Montium altissimi Taunus et Rhetico." 

V. Melibocus Mons (TO M^Atfo/cov opof , as Ptolemy calls it), the range of the 
Hartz Mountains, in the most extensive sense of the appellation ; not, as some 
think, the Brocken merely. 

VI. Asciburgius Mons, the modern Riesengebirge, between the Elbe and the 
Oder. Ptolemy places this range too far to the north. 

VII. Sudeti Monies, now the Fichtelberg, the Erzgebirge, together with the 
Thuringer Wald and the Lausitzer Gebirge. Ptolemy calls them TO. Zovdijra opij. 


I. WHEN the Romans became acquainted with the interior of Germany, they 
found a large portion of it covered with primitive forests. These were either 
comprehended under one general name, as Hercynia Silva, Hercynius Saltus, 
Hercynium Jugum, or received special appellations, as Bacenis Silva, Gabreta 
Silva, &c. 

II. Hercynia Silva. This was the general name of the large mountain chain 
which separates the interior of Germany from the tracts adjacent to the Dan- 
ube, commencing with the Schwartzwald, or Black Forest, running northward 
till it .crosses the Main, then eastward, comprising what are now called the 


Spessart Wald and Franken Wald, through Bohemia and the north of Hungary. 
The ancient writers, however, do not all agree in their description of it. Ptol- 
emy assigns much narrower limits to the name than Caesar does, and applies 
it to the ridge between the Gabretan Forest and the Sarmatian Mountains which 
unite the Carpathian and Sudetan Mountains. Caesar's account was derived 
from report. At a later period, the Romans, in their wars with Maroboduus, 
whose possessions lay along the Bdhmer Wald Mountains, became personally 
acquainted with it. Different names, as already remarked, were afterward 
given to different parts. Thus, 

II. Bacenis Silva was that part of the Hercynian Forest which lay between 
the Cherusci and Catti, extending from the northern bank of the Main, or the 
western part of the Thiiringerwald, as far as the Fulda Wald. 

III. Marciana Silva was the Schwartzwald or Black Forest. This name be- 
came known to the Romans in their war with the Alemanni. The Helvetii 
had dwelt here in early times, but were expelled by the wandering Suevi. 

IV. Gabreta Silva was a part of the eastern Thiiringerwald, lying to the south 
of the Sudeti Monies. 

V. Saltus Teutobergiensis, in the bishopric of Paderborn, between the Lippe 
and the Ems. Memorable as the scene of the overthrow of Varus. 

VI. Casia Silva, now Haserwald, between the Lippe and the Yssel 

VII. Lucus Semnonum, now the Sonnewald and Finsterwald, between the El- 
ster and the Spree. This was a sacred forest, in which human sacrifices were 
accustomed to be offered, and where general assemblies used to be held of del- 
egates from all the Suevic tribes. 

VIII. Luna Silva, on each side of the River Marus, now March. It answers 
now to Manhartsberg, a name which is the same as Mond- Wallberg, the word 
man signifying " moon" (mond) in early German. 


I. Danubius (Aavovfoof), the Danube, called by the Germans the Donau. 
Strabo and Pliny make it rise in the chain of Mount Abnoba, a part of the Black 
Forest. According to modern accounts, it originates on the eastern declivity 
of the Black Forest, about twenty-four miles from the banks of the Rhine. It 
falls into the Black Sea, the ancient Pontus Euxinus, after a course of about one 
thousand seven hundred and seventy miles, and it receives sixty navigable 
rivers, the largest of which is the CEnus, now the Inn, and one hundred and 
twenty smaller streams. The Danube was known to the early Greek writers 
under the name of "larpoc, (Istros), which the Romans changed to Ister, and 
which appears to have been the genuine name of this river after it had received 
the Savus, now the Save. The Romans, on the other hand, learned the name 
Danubius from the natives on the upper part of the stream, with whom they 
were brought into contact by commerce and by conquest. Herodotus, in his 
fourth book (chap. 48, &c.), has transmitted to us all that was known in his 
time of the Danube and its tributaries in the middle and lower part of its course. 

II. Rhenus ('P^voc), the Rhine, rising, according to Strabo and Ptolemy, in 
Mons Adula, a name given to a collection of summits answering at the present 
day to a part of the Lepontine Alps. The sources of the Rhine are in this part 
of the Alps, a little to the east of Mount St. Gothard, in the country of the Ori- 
sons. Its whole course is about nine hundred miles, of which six hundred and 
thirty are navigable from Bale, the ancient Basilia, to the sea. The Romans 
first became acquainted with the Rhine by the conquests of Caesar in Gaul, 
who crossed it twice against the Germans. He knew, however, nothing of the 


northern or southern part of the river except from report, and appears never to 
have gone himself farther north than the Scaldis, the modern Scheldt, though 
his cavalry, on one occasion, reached the country where the Rhine and the 
Mosa meet. The campaigns of Drusus and Tiberius in Raetia and the north- 
western parts of Germany gave the Romans a more accurate knowledge of the 
course of this river. Ancient writers differ respecting the number of mouths 
by which the Rhine fell into the ocean. Caesar says that there are several, but 
most other writers speak only of two or three. According to Tacitus, who 
makes the number to be two, the western was called Vahalis till its union with 
the Mosa, when it took the name of the latter river, while the eastern, which 
formed the boundary between Gaul and Germany, preserved the name of Rhe- 
nus. Pliny, Ptolemy, and other writers say that the Rhine fell into the sea by 
three mouths, of which the eastern, according to Pliny, was called Flevum, and 
the western, formed by the union with the Mosa, Helium; while the middle 
one, which was only a stream of moderate size, retained the name of Rhenus. 
The channel called Flevum is supposed to have been formed by the canal which 
Drusus dug to connect the Rhine with the Isala, and by means of which he and 
Germanicus sailed to the ocean. The Isala, increased by the waters of the 
Rhine, flowed northward into a great lake called Flevo, on issuing from which 
it became a river again, and fell into the ocean after forming an island of the 
same name. In course of time the sea made great inroads upon the land round 
the mouth of the River Isala, till at length it submerged that part of the coun- 
try, and became united with the Lake Flevo, thus forming the modern Zuider 
Zee, or " Southern Sea." 

At the present day the Rhine divides into two arms near the village of Pan- 
nerden, which is within the territories of Holland ; of these arms the southern 
is called the Waal, the ancient Vahalis, while the northern preserves the name 
jf Rhine. Nearly two thirds of the volume of water run into the Waal. The 
Waal runs westward, and the Rhine northwest. The Rhine divides again twelve 
miles lower down, above Arnheim, into the Yssel, the ancient Isala, which runs 
to the north, and the Rhine, which runs off to the west. The Yssel falls into 
the Zuider Zee. The Rhine, on the other hand, running westward, divides for 
the third time about thirty miles lower down, at Wyck, by Duurstede. The 
southern arm is called the Leek, and the northern goes by the name of Kromme 
Rhyn, " Crooked Rhine." The Leek is the larger river. The Crooked Rhine 
runs northwest to Utrecht, the ancient Trajectus Rheni, where it divides for the 
fourth and last time. The arm which runs northward is called the Vecht, the 
ancient Vidrus, and falls into the Zuider Zee ; the other, whose name is changed 
into that of Oulde Rhyn, " Old Rhine," continues westward through the marshes 
of Holland, where the waters are used for feeding numerous canals. It passes 
through Leyden, the ancient Lugdunum Batavorum, and formerly did not reach 
the sea, being prevented by some sandy dunes which line the shores of this part 
of Holland ; but in 1807 a canal was made through them, and the river now dis- 
charges a small quantity of water into the sea at Katim/ck, northwest of Leyden. 
The Leek, or middle branch of the Rhine, was originally also a canal, made by 
the Roman general Corbulo ; and it existed as such to A.D. 829, when the bed 
was greatly enlarged by an inundation, and thus it became the principal river, 
while the true Rhine was reduced to insignificance. It runs from Wyck, by 
Duurstede, westward for about fifty miles, when it is joined from the south by 
a branch of the Maas or Meuse, the ancient Mosa, called the Merwe or Merwede. 
On approaching the sea, another arm of the Maas, called the Oulde Maas, " Old 
Maas," joins it, and from this point to its mouth the wide sestuary of the river 
is called the Maas. 


III. Unsingis, now the Unse, passing by the modern Groningen, and falling 
into the German Ocean. At its mouth was Ptolemy's M.avapfj.avlf ^.tu^v, which 
still retains the name of Marna. 

. IV. Amisia, now the Ems, rose in the Saltus Teutoburgiensis, and emptied 
into the German Ocean. Strabo calls it the 'Auaaia, and Ptolemy the 'Auuaioc. 
Mela gives it the name of Amisius. On this river Drusus defeated the Bructeri 
in a naval encounter. 

V. Visurgis, now the Weser. This river is formed by the junction of the 
Werra and the Fulda, and their united streams take the name of Weser, which 
is supposed to be only a corruption of the original name of the Werra ( Wisaraha, 
Wesara, Wirraha). The Weser is known in Roman history by the expeditions 
of Drusus and Germanicus against the Cherusci and their confederates. Ptol- 
emy calls it Owaovpyte, and Strabo Biaovpytf . 

VI. Albis, now the Elbe, rising in the Riesengebirge chain, or Giant Mountains 
of Bohemia. This was the easternmost stream of Germany with which the 
Romans were acquainted, and they knew it, moreover, only in the northern part 
of its course. The first Roman commander who reached it in a military expe- 
dition was Drusus, B.C. 9. The only Roman, however, who crossed it with an 
army was L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, B.C. 3. The last Roman general in this 
quarter was Tiberius, A.D. 5. The name of this river is said to be derived from 
the old northern term elf or elf a, which in the early German became Alba or 
Elba, and means " a river." 

VII. Viadrus, now the Oder. Ptolemy writes the name Ovtadoc (Viadus), 
but the more correct form, it is thought, would have been Oviadpo^, Viadrus, 
as we have here given it. According to the same ancient writer, the river was 
called OviaSoc only at its mouth, and received, in the interior of the country, the 
appellation of 'ladova. Reichard makes the Viadus coincide with the modern 
Wipper, and the ladua with the Thue. An argument in favor of identifying the 
Viadrus with the Oder, and also tending to confirm the orthography which we 
have adopted, may be obtained from the Old We ndo- Slavonic name of the Oder, 

VIII. Vistula, now called by the Germans the Weichsel, by the Poles the Wisla, 
by English writers the Vistula. It rises at the foot of the Carpathian Mountains. 
Ptolemy calls it Oviarovhae. Ammianus Marcellinus styles it the Bisla, which, 
giving the initial letter a vowel sound, will agree with the Polish name. On 
the right bank of the Vistula the amber region began, along the shore of the 
Mare Suevicum or Baltic Sea. 


(A.) Tributaries to the Danube, on its left bank, in Germania 


1. The Alemannus or Alemo, now the Altmuhl. The course of this river shows 
frequent traces of Roman military lines, which sometimes intersect its bed. 
In the Middle Ages it was called the Almona. Charlemagne endeavored to ef- 
fect a continuous navigation between the Rhine and Danube by uniting the 
waters of the Alemannus with those of the Radantia, now the Rednitz. 2. The 
Nablis, called, also, the Bac ; now, according to Reichard, the Naabe. 3. The 
Reganum, now the Regen. 4. The Cusus, now the Waag. 5. The Marus, called, 
also, the'-Mbn^y, now the March. This stream became well known to the Ro- 
mans in their war with Maroboduus, king of the Marcomanni. 6. The Granua, 
now the Gran, in the land of the Quadi. 


(B.) Tributaries to the Rhine , on its right bank, in Germania 


1. The Nicer or Niger, now the Neckar. 2. The Manus or M&nus, now the 
Main. 3. The Logana or Lohana, now the Lahn. 4. The Sigum, called, also, 
Sega or Segaha, now the Sieg. This river, like the one immediately preceding, 
is only mentioned in the Middle Ages. 5. The Luppia, now the Lippe ; called 
by Ptolemy the Aovniae 6. The Elison ('E&aruv), now the Alme. On this river 
stood the Roman castellum called Aliso, where the modern Elsen is now situa- 
ted, and which was the key to the passes of the Saltus Teutoburgiensis. 7. SaU 
Bructerorum, called, also, the Isala, now the Yssel, of which mention has already 
been made in the account givemof the Rhine. 

9. LAKES. 

I. Estia Lacus, mentioned by Mela, and, according to the best authorities, an- 
swering now to the Dammersee in the kingdom otHanover. 

II. Flevo Lacus, in the country of the Frisii, from the union of which with the 
waters of the ocean, by an irruption of the latter, arose the present Zuider Zee. 
This has already been alluded to in the account of the Rhine. 

III. Lacus Brigantinus, now the Lake of Constance ; called, also, the Bodensee, 
from the ancient castle of Bodmann, and likewise the Lake of Costnitz. Its 
ancient name Brigantinus is given to it from the Brigantii, who dwelt on its 
shores. Mela calls it Lacus Venetus, or rather gives this name to that part of 
the lake from Constanz to Radolfzell, now called the Unterzellersee, or Lower 
Lake. Tiberius built a fleet on this lake in order to attack the Vindelici. Pliny 
expressly assigns it to Raetia ; others reckon it part of Vindelicia. As the 
Rhine passes through it, we have preferred making mention of it under the head 
of Germany. 


I. THE Roman writers draw very unfavorable pictures generally of the soil 
and climate of ancient Germany. Mela, for example, describes the surface of the 
country as cut up by a multitude of rivers, made rugged by numerous mountain 
chains, and in a great measure impracticable for travellers by reason of the for- 
ests and marshes that covered it. Tacitus also speaks of it as rough with for- 
ests or deformed by fens. He admits, indeed, that it was productive for grain, 
and kindly to fruit-trees, and that it also abounded in cattle ; but he makes these 
last to have been, for the most part, diminutive in size. 

II. Tacitus, however, does not appear to have known much of the interior of 
Germany, although it is true that numerous forests were scattered over the 
country. The marshes, moreover, of which he speaks, refer principally to the 
country of East Friesland, the coast of the German Ocean, at the mouth of the 
Ems and Weser, and to some parts of Westphalia and Lower Saxony. It would 
seem, from other accounts, that Germany was by no means an unproductive 
country. Caesar, for example, speaks of the fertility of the country around the 
Hercynian Forest ; Commodus laid the Marcomanni under a tribute of corn ; 
the cultivation of oats is mentioned by Pliny, and even Tacitus himself speaks 
elsewhere of barley, out of which a fermented liquor was made. 

III. As regards the animals of the country, especially the cattle, Tacitus wishes 
to convey the idea that they are stunted by the severity of the climate. This, 
however, is an error. Some of the quadrupeds of ancient Germany the urus 


(auerochs), for example were remarkable for their size. The smallness of the 
cattle must have been, owing rather to want of care in feeding them, in protect- 
ing them from the ordinary inclemencies of winter, and in improving the breed 
by mixtures. 


I. OUR principal information on this subject is derived from Tacitus, who wrote 
a separate treatise on the manners and customs of the German tribes. Occa- 
sional notices and scattered hints are also found in the works of other ancient 
authors, particularly in the Gallic Commentaries of Caesar. 

II. The Germans are described as tall and robust of frame, with light blue 
eyes and deep yellow hair ; as inured to cold and hunger, but not to heat and 
thirst ; as warlike, yet friendly and hospitable, even to utter strangers ; as 
scorning every restraint, considering independence as the most valuable of pos- 
sessions, and therefore ready to give up life rather than freedom. 

III. Unacquainted with the arts of civilized life, the German, when not engaged 
in warfare, lived amid his forests and pastures, supported by the chase, and the 
produce of his flocks and herds, or by the culture of the ground, though this last 
occupied comparatively little of his attention. The warrior, however, during 
these same seasons of peace, led a life of total inaction, given up to sleep, to 
the pleasures of the table, and to gaming. A beverage prepared with little art 
from barley or wheat indemnified them for the absence of the juice of the grape, 
while they carried their love of gaming to such an extent as even to stake on 
the final throw, when every thing else was lost, their personal freedom itself. 

IV. The form of government in most of the German states was the demo- 
cratic. The public assemblies, consisting of all able to bear arms and belong- 
ing to the same tribe, were summoned either at fixed periods or on sudden 
emergencies. The free vote of the members of these councils decided on pub- 
lic offences, the election of magistrates, on war or peace ; for, though the lead- 
ers were allowed to discuss all subjects previously, yet the right of deciding 
was vested solely in the people at large. In some of the communities, partic- 
ularly those dwelling more to the north, a monarchical form of government pre- 
vailed ; but even here checks were imposed upon the power of the monarch, and 
democratic features were visible. 

V. In times of danger or war a leader was chosen, and the most valiant was 
selected for this purpose ; but even then they led their countrymen more by their 
example than by any authority. As soon as the danger or war was over, his 
authority ceased. In times of peace, no other superiors were known than the 
chieftains, who were chosen in the assemblies to distribute justice, or to com- 
pose differences in their respective districts. Each of these chieftains was at- 
tended by one hundred companions, who acted both as a council of advice and 
a means of enforcing authority. 

VI. To leaders of approved valor the noblest youths voluntarily devoted them- 
selves, and as the former vied with each other in assembling around them the 
bravest companions, so the latter contended by their zeal and prowess for the 
favor of their leaders. It was the duty of the leader to be foremost in the hour 
of danger, and the duty of each companion not to be inferior in prowess and 
daring to his chief. To survive the fall of their leader was an indelible dis- 
grace to the companions, for it was their most sacred duty to defend his person, 
and to heighten his glory by their own achievements. The leader fought for 
victory, his companions for their leader. 

VII. The primitive nations of Germany attached something of a sacred and 


prescient character to the female sex. Hence the importance which they at- 
tached to their counsels and responses, and hence, too, the reverence with which 
they regarded certain females of their nation, who were supposed to be gifted 
with prophetic powers. Polygamy was only permitted to the chieftains as a 
means of extending their family connections and influence. Adultery was con- 
sidered an inexpiable crime, and was, therefore, of very rare occurrence. The 
punishment of the offence, when committed, was given over into the hands of 
the husband. 

VIII. The religious notions of the race were necessarily rude and imperfect, 
but still bore manifest traces of an Oriental origin. Their chief deity was Odin, 
the Budha of the East, but whom the Romans assimilated to their own Mercury, 
and on stated occasions they sought to propitiate him even by human sacrifices. 
The god of battles, Thor, the Rojnan Mars, was also, as might be expected, an 
object of peculiar adoration. Some of the Suevic tribes also paid adoration to 
the moon, or, as Tacitus miscalls it, the goddess Isis. Their temples were 
groves and forests, rendered sacred by the veneration of many generations, and 
in the dark recesses of these were preserved thair sacred standards. Among 
the nations bordering on the Baltic Sea, the goddess Hertha (Earth) was partic- 
ularly worshipped. Her temple was a sacred grove in the Isle of Rugen, and 
her rites strongly remind us of those of Cybele among the Romans, Phrygians, 
and other nations of the ancient world, as well as those of Baghawadi among 
the Brahmins of India. 



(A.) Tribe betiveen the Rhine and Ems. 

FRISII. The Frisii were divided into the Frisii Majores and Frisii Minorcs. 
The Frisii Minores inhabited the tract north of the Insula Batavorum, comprising 
Oberyssel, Gelders, Utrecht, and the greater part of the province of Holland. 
The Frisii Majores dwelt between the Yssel, the Ems, and the country of the 
Bructeri, in West Friesland and Grdningen. The Frisiabones, mentioned by 
Pliny, probably formed part of the same race, and seem to have dwelt in the 
islands of the Zuider Zee. From their first acquaintance with the Romans, the 
Frisii long continued their most zealous friends in this part : they rendered Dru- 
sus the most active service, and not only supported Germanicus themselves by 
their advice and immediate aid, but brought over the Cauci also. The cause 
of this friendship is probably to be found in the hostility which existed between 
them and the Cherusci, against whom all these enterprises of the Romans were 
directed. It was interrupted, however, in consequence of the Romans building 
forts in their territory, and attempting to levy tribute. They rose upon the Ro- 
mans, massacred the soldiers who were among them, and destroyed most of 
their strongholds. Corbulo, the Roman general, proceeded against them, but 
the jealousy of Claudius Caesar stopped his conquests, and he was obliged to 
withdraw to the left bank of the Rhine. From this time forward the Romans no 
more entered their country. In the fourth and fifth centuries we hear of them 
as members of the Saxon league ; and by this time they had greatly extended 
their possessions. On the east they reached to the Weser, and along the coast 
they held some posts as far as the Elbe ; on the west their name appears more 
than once in the Batavian Islands, on the Meuse and Scheldt, and on the whole 
coast of Flanders. They accompanied the Saxons in their invasion and con- 
quest of Britain. Their descendants, who still retain their name of Frisians, are 
settled among the small islands on the western coast of the Duchy of Schkswig, 


The following geographical positions may be mentioned among the Frisii; 

1. Burchdna, called by Strabo Bovpxavie, an island answering to the modern 
Borkum. Pliny calls it Fabaria, from a species of wild bean growing there. 

2. Austeravia, now the island of Ameland. It was also called Glcssaria, from 
the amber found here by the Roman soldiers. 3. Corbulonis Monumentum. The 
fortress erected by Corbulo to keep the Frisii under proper restraint. It gave 
rise subsequently to the modem city of Grdningen. 4. Cruptoncis Villa, now 
Hem Ryh, in Oysterlande. It was here that four hundred Roman soldiers slew 
themselves to prevent their falling into the hands of the Frisii. 

(B.) Tribe between the Ems and the Elbe. 

CAUCI. This tribe dwelt along the ocean, from the Amisia, now Ems, to the 
Albis, now Elbe, and reached southward somewhat below what is now Ostfries- 
land, Oldenberg, and Bremen, although along the Weser these boundaries often 
changed. Pliny and Ptolemy divide them into the Greater and the Less, and 
though Tacitus does not make this distinction in his " Germany," he alludes to 
it in his Annals. According to Ptolemy, the Cauci Majorcs dwelt between the 
Visurgis and Albis, and the Cauci Minores between the Amisia and Visurgis. 
Tacitus says that their country was extensive and thickly settled, and that 
they were a people distinguished among the Germans for their love of justice and 
peace ; powerful and yet unambitious, they did not provoke war, and yet were 
always ready to resist aggression. They were at one time friends to Rome, 
and furnished auxiliaries to Germanicus in the war against the Cherusci. But 
here again the Romans roused the enmity of their allies by pursuing the same 
policy as in the case of the Frisii. Under Gannascus they crossed the Rhine, 
and made incursions into the Roman province of Germania Inferior, but were 
repulsed by Corbulo, and Gannascus was slain. They afterward joined in the 
revolt of the Batavian chief Civilis. Ptolemy mentions, as their towns, 1. Pha~ 
biranum, now Brema or Varel. 2. Lcuphana, now Lunelerg, according to some. 

3. Tuliphurdum, now Verden or Ddhlbergen. 4. Siatutanda, now Utende. 5. Teu- 
dcrium, now Dctcern. Their name is still preserved in that of their harbor, 

(C.) Tribes immediately East of the Elbe. 

. I. ANGLI. We find the earliest record of this tribe in Tacitus. But this au- 
thor only mentions their name, states a few particulars relative to their re- 
ligion, and intimates that they were a branch of the Suevi. He appears to have 
known very little about them. They are not mentioned in the expeditions of 
Drusus and Tiberius, and therefore probably at that time were on the east of 
the Elbe. Ptolemy places them on the west, in what is now Magdeburg. D'An- 
ville has in his map assigned them the same district which they occupied in the 
fifth century, before their emigration to England, and parts of which the modem 
Angles still occupy. He allots to them the greatest portion of modern Schleswig 
and some part of Holstein, making the German Ocean their western boundary, 
the Saxons their nearest neighbors on the south, the Varini on the southeast, 
and the Jutes on the north. About the middle of the fifth century (449), a large 
body of Saxons and Angles, led by Hengist and Horsa, sailed over to England, 
and established permanent settlements in the island. The Angles, however, 
seem to have prevailed in numbers or influence, for it was they that gave the 
name to their new country, Angel-land, Anglia, though it was sometimes called 
Saxonia Transmarina. The name Anglo-Saxons, which comprises both Angles 
and Saxons, was invented by later historians for the sake of convenience. 



II. SAXONES. The earliest writers who mention the Saxons describe them 
as neighbors of the Danes, south of the Cimbric Chersonese. Ptolemy also 
speaks of the islands of the Saxons, which were probably the modern islands of 
Eiderstcdt, Nordstrand, Wicking Harde, and Buking Hardc. Orosius says that 
they inhabited a marshy country, which was almost inaccessible to strangers. 
Toward the southwest they seem not at first to have extended beyond the Elbe. 
The similarity of their language to that of the Persians and ancient Indians af- 
fords reason for believing that the Saxons were of Eastern origin, and hence 
some have derived their name from that of the Sacae on the Indus. Others, 
however, trace it to the word " sasscn," that is, "settled.," in contradistinction 
from those German tribes who led a sort of nomadic life. When, during the 
migration of the barbarians, the neighboring tribes changed their countries and 
migrated toward the south, the, Saxons likewise began to extend in the same 
direction, and at last we find them occupying the country between the Elbe, the 
Rhine, the Lippe, and the German Ocean. This extensive tract of land is called 
by Anglo-Saxon writers " Old Saxony," to distinguish it from " New Saxony'' or 
England. In the third century the Saxons often ^tended on the coasts of En- 
gland and France, and ravaged the maritime districts, until, about the middle of 
the fifth century, a portion of them joined the Angli, and made a permanent set- 
tlement in England. Those Saxons who remained in Germany moved gradu- 
ally toward the interior of Germany, and gradually abandoned their piratical 
and plundering mode of life, to become an agricultural people. 

III. CIMBRI. A nation commonly, but erroneously, placed on the Cimbric 
Chersonese, or modern Jutland. The accounts of the ancients respecting their 
seats abound in uncertainties and contradictions. The writers who place them 
on the Cimbric Chersonese are Pliny, Tacitus, and Ptolemy. But, upon exam- 
ination, it does not appear that they ever inhabited these parts. The Greeks 
first became acquainted with them under the name of Cimmerii, on the northern 
coast of the Euxine. They were driven from this quarter, and disappeared from 
the knowledge of the Greeks, who fabled that they dwelt on the shores of the 
Northern Ocean, in a land shrouded by perpetual night. Pytheas, who circum- 
navigated the greater part of the northwest of Europe, saw a large peninsula, 
where the long nights and the intense cold in winter seemed to agree with the 
poetical descriptions of the land of the Cimmerii, and so assigned this country 
as their abode. In this he was followed by most of the geographers. No men- 
tion is made of the Cimbri in the expeditions of Drusus and Germanicus ; and, 
though the fleet of the hitter discovered the Cimbric Chersonese of Pytheas, 
they found no Cimbrians dwelling in it, nor did it bear a name derived from that 
people. Ptolemy places them at the extremity of it, merely to fill up a gap, as 
he has no other tribe to fix in this locality Their real country lay probably on 
the northeast side of Germany. It was on this side that they invaded Germany, 
and were opposed by the Boii, at that time the inhabitants of Bohemia. To- 
gether with the Teutones they entered Gaul, where they were joined by the 
Ambrones. With their combined forces they then invaded Spain, but were re- 
pulsed by the Celtiberi. The Teutones and Ambrones then proceeded through 
Gallia Narbonensis, with the view of making an irruption into Italy, but were 
defeated by Marius at Aquae Sextiae, now Aix. The Cimbri. on the other hand, 
having marched into Helvetia, were there joined by the Tigurini, and having 
made an irruption into Italy, drove back Catulus, but were at last routed by the 
combined forces of Marius and that commander, B.C. 101. From this time lit- 
tle or no mention is made of the Cimbri in history, but tradition says that the 
remnant of them settled in the central valleys of Helvetia, and the inhabitants 


of the Waldstdtten and of the Bernese Olerland are supposed to be their descend- 
ants. The Cimbri appear to have been a Celtic, not a German race. Their 
name may still be traced in Cymry, the national appellation of the Welsh. 

IV. TEUTONES or TEUTONI, a name given to a tribe said to dwell on the east 
of the Albis ; but more probably we have here merely a general appellation for 
the whole German race. The word Teuton or Teutones contains evidently the 
same root with the modern national term Deutsche or Teutsche. 


(A.) Tribes between the Frisii and the River Luppia, and 
bounded on the East by the Vimrgis. 

I. BRUCTERI. This tribe, in all their wars with the Romans, never changed 
their seats. Toward the west they reached to the Vccht ; toward the south to 
the Luppia or Lippe ; toward the east almost to the Weser ; and toward the north 
they bordered upon the Frisii and Cauci. They were divided into the Bructeri 
Majores, who dwelt on the east of the Ems, and the Bructeri Minores, who dwelt 
on the west of that stream. Tacitus says that they were extirpated by the 
Chamavi and Angrivarii ; but this is an error, since we find them engaged in 
hostilities with the Roman general Spurinna in the reign of Trajan ; and at a still 
later period they appear as a powerful people among the members of the Frank 
league. Their principal towns were, 1. Mediolanium, now Meteln. 2. Stercon- 
tium, now Stcinfurt. 

II. TUB ANTES. Confederates of the Cherusci, and settled at first between the 
Rhine and the Yssel. They retired subsequently from these territories to the 
southern side of the Lippe, and, finally, after the overthrow of the Marsi by the 
Roman arms, established themselves in the territory of this last-mentioned tribe. 

III. CHAMAVI. This tribe originally occupied the tract which extended north- 
ward to the Vecht, eastward to the Ems, southward to the Lippe, and westward 
to the eastern mouth of the Rhine. At a later period they lived between the 
Weser and the Hartz Mountains. In the third century they are again found on 
the Rhine as members of the Frank league, and in the next century they spread 
themselves along the Waal. Tacitus has most probably committed a mistake 
in placing them in the country of the Bructeri. 

IV. MARSI. This tribe, according to the most correct opinion, had their set- 
tlements in the neighborhood of the Logana, now the Lahn. 

V. DULGIBINI. Ptolemy places this tribe on the eastern bank of the Weser, 
but Tacitus assigns them a position in the rear of the Chamavi and Angrivarii, 
in what was once the territory of the Bructeri. They belonged to the race of 
the Cherusci, and were probably driven eastward by the same irruption of the 
Cauci as that which expelled the Angrivarii. 

VI. USIPII or USIPETES. This tribe is generally named in connection with the 
Tencteri. They frequently changed their settlements. When driven from their 
original seats by the Catti, they wandered for three years in Germany, and hav- 
ing at length come to the Rhine, they crossed the river and seized upon the 
lands of the Menapii, Eburones, and Condrusi, between the Rhine and Moselle. 
They were defeated by Caesar, and many perished in attempting to recross the 
Rhine. The remnant of the nation, after this, took refuge with the Srgambri. 
In the time of Claudius and Nero, they are found dwelling between the Sieg and 
the Lahn, and they were still living here in the time of Tacitus. In Ptolemy's 
time they occupied the northern part of the Black Forest. They became eventu- 
ally mixed up with the Alemanni. 


(B.) Tribes between the Luppia and M&nus. 

I. SIGAMBRI or SICAMBRI, the most powerful tribe of the Istaevones. Their 
original seats were on the River Sicg or Sig, and extended from this river to 
the Lippe. The Romans finally conquered them under the leading of Drusus. 
Tiberius subsequently transferred a large part of them to the left or southern 
bank of the Rhine, where they appear under the name of Gugerni. At a sub- 
sequent period they became incorporated into the league of the Franks. 

II. TENCTERI. These have already been alluded to in the account given of 
the Usipii. They lived south of the Lippe, in the region opposite Cologne and 
Bonn. At the time of the expeditions of Drusus and Tiberius they had removed 
eastward ; but they returned after the overthrow of Varus, and in the age of 
Tacitus their possessions extended northward to the Lippe, where they bordered 
upon the Bructeri, and southward to the Sieg. 

III. MATTIACI. Probably a branch of the Catti, dwelling on the right bank 
of the Rhine, in Wctterau and Hesse Darmstadt, the tract possessed by the Ubii 
before they crossed the Rhine. In the war of th* 1 Batavi, they, together with 
the Usipii and Catti, besieged Magontiacum, now Mayence. After their terri- 
tories were occupied by the Alemanni, their name was almost extinguished. 
Their capital was Mattium, the site of which is most probably to be fixed at 
Maden. Another of their towns was Aqua Mattiaca, now Wisbaden. 

(C.) Tribe south of the Manus. 

ALEMANNI. A powerful German people, the limits of whose settlements at 
first were the Rhine, the Danube, and the Main. In subsequent ages their ter- 
ritory extended toward the Alps and the Jura Mountains. The first notice of 
them in history occurs in A.D. 214, when a large number of them were treach- 
erously massacred by Caracalla. From that period they were engaged in al- 
most constant hostility with the Romans, and made frequent incursions into 
Gaul, down to the reign of Constanttne the Great, when they were defeated in 
a bloody battle at Langres. After this they remained until A.D. 337, when 
they again invaded Gaul, during the reign of the sons of Constantine. Julian, 
however, in 356-361, not only drove them out of this country, but even made 
several expeditions into their German domains. We find them, however, even 
after this, frequently coming into collision with the Roman arms. Their 
strength was finally broken in the bloody battle gained by the Frankish king 
Chlodwig, at Tolbiacum, now Zulpich, in A.D. 496. 


Tribes between the Danube and the Erzgebirge and Riesen- 


I. HERMUNDURI. This tribe occupied what is now Saxony and Anhalt, be- 
tween the Saale and the Elbe. In the fifth century they appear in this same 
quarter under the name of Thuringi. In the name Hcrmunduri, Hermun is 
probably not an essential part, but merely marks that they belonged to the Her- 
minones. Duri seems to have been their real name, and this root appears, 
with a German ending, in Thur-ingi. Among their towns, as enumerated by 
Ptolemy, we may mention, 1. Segodunum, now Wurccburg ; 2. Bergium, now 
Bamberg ; 3. Menosgada, now Baruth. 

II. NARISCI. This tribe dwelt at the foot of the Fichtelgebirge. Ptolemy 
calls them Varisti (QvapioToi), and Dio Cassius, Nariscce. 


III. QUADI. This powerful tribe always appear in the closest connection 
with the Marcomanni. The Romans first became acquainted with them after 
the conquest of Pannonia. Their most ancient settlements on the Danube 
reached eastward to the Tibiscus, now the Theis, where they bordered on the 
Getae. They afterward withdrew westward. The Quadi carried on wars with 
M. Aurelius, Commodus, Caracalla, Gallienus, Aurelian, Constantine, Julian, 
and Valentinian I., &c., until the fifth century, when they appear to have coa- 
lesced with other nations. 

IV. MARCOMANNI. We first hear of this tribe in the army of Ariovistus. At 
a subsequent period we find them dwelling between the Danube and the Drave, 
in Austria and Hungary, till the Romans conquered Pannonia and the Noric 
Alps, when they withdrew to the opposite side of the river, into the country 
occupied by the Boii, whom they expelled. This they did under the guidance 
of Maroboduus, who had been educated at Rome, and who raised his people to 
a high pitch of prosperity. In the reign of Domitian, hostilities broke out be- 
tween the Marcomanni and the Romans, and continued almost uninterruptedly 
till the fall of the Roman empire. After the death of Attila, in whose army 
they served, the Marcomanni are no longer heard of. 

V. Bon. This tribe may be here mentioned, because originally settled with- 
in the limits which we are considering. The settlements of this once power- 
ful tribe are found in Gaul, and along both sides of the Danube from its source 
eastward, probably as far as the mouth of the Enns ; toward the south they 
stretched to the mountains which separate Tyrol from Bavaria. The eastern 
part of Suabia, with the whole of Bavaria and Bohemia, which took their names 
from them (Bavaria having been originally Boiaria), belonged to them. They 
also occupied part of Moravia. From Bohemia they were expelled by the Mar- 
comanni, and settled in Noricum and Bavaria, where Boiodurum, now Innstadt, 
took its name from them. At some period or other, but when is uncertain, 
they crossed the Alps, and established themselves in Italy, between the Tarus, 
the Silarus, and the Apennines. They were subdued by the Romans under 
Scipio Nasica, and afterward removed to the banks of the Drave. After this 
they were greatly weakened in wars with the Getae, and an extensive tract in 
this part was called Deserta Boiorum. Some of the Boii accompanied Brennus 
in his invasion of Greece and Asia Minor, and settled in Galatia. Others join- 
ed the Helvetii when they migrated into Gaul, and were allowed by Caesar to 
settle among the yEdui. Bohemia takes its name from Boiemum or Boihemum, 
which means, probably, "the home (heim, heimath) of the Boii." 


I. SCEVI. A powerful German tribe, who, according to Tacitus, possessed 
all the land from the banks of the Danube northward to the Baltic Sea, between 
the Elbe and the Vistula. Caesar gives their name to the Catti. After the time 
of Tacitus the name appears to have been lost. The tribes included under the 
general name of Suevi were the Semnones, Langobardi, Avidnes, Varini, Eu- 
doses, Suardones, and Nuithones. Of these, the only ones deserving of a par- 
ticular mention are the Semnones and Langobardi. 

II. SEMNONES. This tribe lived between the Elbe and the Oder, inhabiting 
the tract which comprises what is now Mecklenburg and Brandenburg, with part 
of Saxony, Bohemia, Lusaf.ia, Silesia, and Poland. The Romans first came into 
contact with them in the expeditions of Tiberius, and in the wars against Ar- 
minius (to whom, together with the Langobardi, they went over from Marobo- 
duus), and then again irr the time of Domitian, when a king of theirs, whom 


they had driven out, came to Rome. Mannert contends that Scmnones was not 
the name of any particular tribe, but a common one, like that of Suevi, and 
that it was applied to the northern branches of the latter people. 

III. LANOOBARDI. This tribe frequently changed their settlements. At first 
they dwelt in the neighborhood of the Lower Elbe, in the tract called Barden- 
gau, between Magdeburg, Luncberg, and Hamburg, where the town of Bardwick 
stands. Here they were subdued by Tiberius, who moved them beyond the 
Elbe. They then advanced more into the interior of the country, to the neigh- 
borhood of the Semnones, and, together with these, revolted from Maroboduus, 
under whose dominion they then were, to Arminius. Afterward, on the de- 
cline of the power of the Cherusci, they extended themselves to the Rhine; 
and here they are placed by Ptolemy, between the Bructeri and Tencteri. 
They did not, however, remain here long ; the Saxon league drove them back 
to the Elbe. In the fifth century they established themselves in Pannonia. 
Then, at the invitation of Narses, and led by Alboinus across the Alps (A.D. 
568), they settled in Lombardy, which took its name from them 

IV. ANGRIVARII. This tribe dwelt on the east of the Wescr, between the 
Cauci and Cherusci, and extended over a part of Luncberg and Caicnberg to the 
Steinhudcr See, which formed the boundary between them and the Cherusci, 
and on both sides of the River Aller. Traces of their name are still found near 
the Elbe in Angern, Engcrn, Engcrshauscn, &c. 

V. CHERUSCI. The possessions of this tribe lay in the Hartz Mountains, and 
on both sides of them, but chiefly on the south, where the northwest part of 
the Thuringcr Wald separated them from the Catti. They were at first in al- 
liance with Rome, and Arminius commanded a squadron of German cavalry in 
the Roman army, and so far distinguished himself that he was made a Roman 
knight. Afterward, however, roused by this leader, the Cherusci joined the 
Catti and others in the well-known attack upon Varus. They were subsequent- 
ly defeated by Germanicus. The Cheruscan league included the Dulgibini, 
Ansibdni, Chasudn, Chamdvi, Tubanles, Marsi, &c. These and other small 
tribes are frequently called Cherusci. With Arminius fell the power of the 
Cherusci ; their league was speedily dissolved, and a considerable portion of 
their territory was wrested from them by the Langobardi, and they were driven 
from the west of the Thuringcr Wald by the Catti. 

VI. CHASUARI. This tribe belonged to the nation of the Cherusci. Ptolemy 
places their settlements on the western side of the Wcscr, in what is now Os- 
naburg and Paderborn. They subsequently appear among the Franks, on the 
western part of the Lower Rhine, in the dukedom of Gueldres. 

VII. CATTI. This tribe were separated from the Cherusci by the Forest of 
Bacenis, or the western part of the Thuringcr Wald. Their territory compre- 
hended that of the modern Hessians, Fulda, the earldoms of Hanau and Isen- 
berg, so much of Franconia as lies north of the Main to the mouth of the Saalc, 
part of Nassau, and the eastern portion of the duchy of Westphalia. Their 
name, allowing for the difference of sound in Latin and German, is the same as 
that of the Hessians. The Catti were defeated by Drusus, but some time after- 
ward they took part with the Cherusci in the slaughter of Varus and his legions. 
In the reign of Tiberius, Germanicus overran their country; but they contin- 
ued in arms against the Romans for many years after, and aided the revolt of 
the Batavi in the reign of Vitellius. They were also engaged in war with the 
Hermunduri, by whom they were nearly extirpated. 

VIII. GOTHINI. This tribe are supposed by some to have lived in Cracow, ot 
on the banks of the Marus, now the March. Others place them on the south 


of the Danube, where there are several iron mines, in Styria. Tacitus speaks 
of the iron mines in their country. 

IX. GOTONES. The name Gotones is synonymous with that of TvOuvec as giv- 
en by Ptolemy, or Goths. They were often erroneously confounded with the 
Getse and Scythians. Pytheas is the first who mentions them, when they lived 
on the right bank of the Vistula, and on the coast of the Baltic, on the borders 
of Silesia and Poland, and afterward a part of them in Scandinavia, where their 
name appears in Gothland, Gothenburg, Codanus Sinus, and Gedanum. They 
first appear under the name of Goths in the time of Caracalla. Somewhere 
about the middle of the second century they seem to have wandered from the 
Vistula to the neighborhood of the Dnieper and Dniester, and incessantly har- 
assed the province of Dacia. In the time of Gallieuus they devastated Thrace 
and Macedonia, and a portion of them penetrated into Asia Minor, and burned 
the temple of Diana at Ephesus. About this period they spread eastward along 
the northern coast of the Euxine. In the year 269 they were defeated by Clau- 
dius in Mresia. Shortly afterward Aurelian abandoned Daeia to them, and they 
were now divided into Ostro-Goths, or Eastern Goths, inhabiting the shores of 
the Euxine, and Visi- Goths, or Western Goths, who occupied Dacia. The Bo- 
rysthenes formed the boundary of the two divisions. About the year 375, the 
Huns, under Attila, drove the Ostrogoths upon their western neighbors, who re- 
tired before them, and were allowed by the Emperor Valens to settle in Mcesia. 
Here disputes arose between them and the Romans, and Valens was killed in 
attempting to oppose them. In the reign of Honorius, Alaric, at the head of 
the Visigoths, invaded Italy, but was defeated by Stilicho. He soon returned, 
however, and made himself master of Rome. His successor, Ataulph, made 
peace with the Romans, and withdrew to the south of Gaul, from which country 
the Visigoths afterward withdrew to Spain, where they maintained their ground 
until they were conquered by the Moors. After the death of Attila the Ostro- 
goths emancipated themselves from the dominion of the Huns, and, under The- 
odoric, defeated Odoacer and subdued Italy, A.D. 489. But their dominion here 
was overthrown by Narses, the general of Justinian, in 554, and the remnant 
of their race became amalgamated with the other inhabitants of Italy. 

X. BURGUNDIONES. Pliny numbers this race among the branches of the great 
Block of the Vindili or Vandals ; Ptolemy places these Vindili upon the lower 
Vistula. They first came into contact with the Romans during the reign of 
Probus. They invaded Gaul at different periods with various success : but in 
the reign of Honorius that emperor ceded to them part of Gaul, near the banks 
of the Rhine, and from this cession arose the kingdom of Burgundy. 

XL VANDALII or VINDILI. A German tribe, who lived at first on the shores 
of the Baltic, between the Albis and Vistula, in what is now Pomerania and part 
of Poland ; but, being forced to evacuate their possessions in their wars with 
Aurelian and Probus, they first settled in Dacia and Sarmatia, then in Pannonia 
and Gallia, and in the year 406, together with the Alani, they migrated to Spain. 
Being afterward overpowered by the Goths, they took refuge in Africa, and 
were there subdued by Justinian in the year 534. 


BEFORE leaving the subject of Germany, we may allude briefly to the Decu- 
mates Agri. This name was applied by the Romans to certain lands conquered 
by them, and in which, for the sake of security, that no hostile tribe might dwell 
close to their borders, they allowed Gauls or Roman soldiers to settle, who were 
charged with the payment of a tithe (decima) to the Romans. The situation of 


these lands is variously laid down. Some authors place them on the banks of 
the Neckar, others hetween the Lahn and Main, and on the banks of the Dan- 
ube, opposite the province of Rsetia, or within the Roman vallum, reaching from 
Magontiacum to the Danube, near the source of which lay the territories of the 
Marcomanni, which the Romans took possession of after Maroboduus removed 
to Bohemia. Drusus Germanicus, having built a fort on Mount Taunus, seem* 
to have laid the first foundation of the lines, inclosing the Decumates Agri, which 
was gradually advanced, especially by Trajan and Hadrian, and fortified. 
Though the occupation of these lands depended on the will of the emperor, 
towns gradually sprang up in them. There are still remains of a Roman wall 
running from Ingolstadt, on the Danube, to the River Main. Toward the end 
of the third century, these lands were wrested from the Romans by the Ale- 
manni, whom Julian and Valentinian in vain endeavored to expel. 


I. THE ancient Scandinavia answered to the modern Sweden and Norway. 
The ancients, however, had a very imperfect knowledge of what they called 
Scandinavia, believing it to be either one large island of unascertained dimen- 
sions, or a collection of several islands. 

II. According to Pliny, the only part of Scandinavia known in his time wa 
occupied by the Hilleviones, a numerous nation, who inhabited five hundred 
pagi or districts. Tacitus, in a later age, when enumerating the tribes of Ger- 
many, speaks of the Suiones and Sitdnes as living in the remote north. By the 
Suiones are probably meant the inhabitants of Sweden, and by the Sitones those 
of Norway. 

III. According to the ancient error, which divided Scandinavia into many isl- 
ands, there are found in Pliny the names of Bergi and Nerigos, as indicating 
two of these islands. It is thought by the best geographers that the former 
of these appellations points to Bergen, one of the principal towns in Norway, and 
that the latter, which was given to what the ancients deemed the largest island, 
refers to the country of Norway itself, called in Swedish Norrigc, and in Danish 
Norge. The Sevo Mons of Pliny has already been alluded to (page 11). 

IV. The Thulc described by Procopins is supposed to have been different from 
the island of that name already referred to by us (page 212), and the modern 
canton of Tele-mark or Tyle-mark retains, as is thought, evident traces of the 
ancient appellation. 

V. In connection with Scandinavia maybe mentioned the country of Finnin- 
gia, or the modern Finnland. Pliny makes it an island. The first mention of 
its inhabitants under the denomination of Finns (Fcnni) occurs in Tacitus, who 
describes them as a savage race, without arms, horses, or iron ; their arrows 
were pointed with bone, and their principal occupation was hunting. The Finns 
at the present day call themselves, not Finns, but Suomilins, which means 
"dwellers among swamps." 

VI. The Scrito-Fmni mentioned by Procopius were so called, according to 
Paulus Diaconus, from the lightness and swiftness of their course over the 
snows and ice, which they pursued on a species of snow-shoes or skates. 

DACIA. 233 


I. THE lazyges were a people of Sarmatian origin, and their native seats 
were on the northern shores of the Euxine and Palus Maotis. Being driven 
from these, about A.D. 51, by the Rhoxolani, as it is thought, they settled in 
the country between the Danube and the Tibiscus, now the Thciss, after driving 
out the Dad, and carried on for a short time hostilities with the Romans. They 
are frequently mentioned by subsequent writers as dangerous neighbors to the 
provinces of Pannonia and Mcesia. 

II. Ptolemy calls them Metanasta (Meravucrrtu), to indicate their having left 
their original seats, and being " wanderers" from home. 



I. Dacia was the ancient name of a country bounded on the north by Euro- 
pean Sarmatia, on the south by the Danube, on the east by the Euxine, and on 
the west by the Tibiscus, now the Thciss. 

II. It comprehended, therefore, the modern Transylvania, Wallachia, Molda- 
via, and Bessarabia. 


I. Dacia derived its name from the Dad, whose earlier appellation, according 
to Strabo, was Dai (Adot)- The country, however, was occupied, in fact, by 
two communities, the Dad and Gcta ; but as they both spoke the same language, 
they must be regarded, of course, as portions of the same race. The Dad oc- 
cupied the part toward Germany and the sources of the Danube, the Getae the 
part toward the east and the Euxine. The Getae were better known to the 
Greeks in consequence of their frequent migrations to the banks of the Danube. 
The Latin name Daci, however, included the Getae. 

II. The first expedition of the Emperor Trajan was against the Daci, headed 
by their king Decebalus, and the war, which lasted nearly five years, ended in 
their submission to the Roman power. In A.D. 250, Dacia was overrun and 
conquered by the Goths, to whom it was subsequently resigned by the Emperor 

III. While prosecuting the conquest of Dacia, Trajan constructed, with the 
aid of the architect Apollodorus, his celebrated bridge over the Danube, the 
largest work of this kind mentioned by the ancients. According to Dio Cassius, 
it consisted of twenty piers, one hundred and fifty feet high, sixty wide, and 
one hundred and seventy apart ; the piers were united by wooden arches. The 1 
whole length of it has been calculated at four thousand seven hundred and sev- 
enty Roman feet. If the statement of Dio Cassius be true, this bridge seems 
not only to have served for the passage of the river, but the immense height 
of the pillars, of which scarcely more than seventy feet can have been under 
water, leads to the supposition that it was at the same time a strong fortifica- 
tion destined to command the navigation. At a height of eighty feet above the 
water, soldiers were protected against the missiles of the Dacian ships, while 
the fleet of the enemy, in passing that bridge, ran the risk of destruction. This 
bridge was either at Szernecz in Hungary, or five leagues above the junction 
of the Oil with the Danube, in Wallachia, nut far from Nicopolis, where ruins 
of the Roman colonies Romula and Castro. Nova, and a Roman road, which is 
pretty well preserved, still exist. 



I. AFTER the reduction of Dacia into a Roman province, it was subdivided 
into, 1. Dacia Riparia or Ripcnsis. 2. Dacia Mediterranca. 3. Dacia Alpensis. 

II. Dacia Riparia or Ripensis was so called because it lay along the banks of 
the Danube ; Dacia Mediterranca because situate in the midland parts ; and Dacia. 
Alpensis because lying in the immediate vicinity of the Carpathian Mountains, 
or, as they were sometimes less correctly called, the Bastarnic Alps. 

III. For an account of what was afterward called Dacia Aurdiani, consult the 
geographical sketch of Mresia, page 245. 


I. Carpatcs Mons (KapTrdrrjg tipof), now the Carpathian Mountains, separating 
Dacia on the north from Sarmatia Europcea. This range was sometimes called 
Alpes Bastarnica, though, more correctly perhaps, the latter were merely a 
branch of the former. Caesar makes the Carpathian Mountains a continuation 
of the Hercynia Silva. Strabo and Pliny both^peak of it, but without giving 
any appellation to the chain. The name Carpatcs (KapTruTijc.) first occurs in 

II. Serrorum Monies, mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus, and being that 
part of the Carpathian chain which separates Transylvania from Wallachia. 


THE main stream is the Danube, Danubius or Istcr, which has already been 
described under the head of Germany. All the other rivers are tributaries 
of the Danube, and the most important of them are the following: 1. Ti- 
biscus, now the Thciss. Pliny calls it Partliissus, and Jornandes Tisianus or 
Thysia. Into the Tibiscus falls the Marisus or Marisia, now the Marosch. 

2. Apusj now the Nera. 3. Rhabon, now the Syl. It is supposed to have been 
the same with the Sargelia of Dio Cassius, and the GilJU of Jornandes. 4. Alula, 
now the Olt. 5. Ordcssus, now the Sercth. 6. Naparis, now the Ardschisch, 
according to Mannert, but, according to D'Anville, the Proava. 7. Agarus, 
now the Berda. 8. Hierasus, called by Herodotus Poras, now the Pruth. 


WE will merely enumerate a few of the more important places, commencing 
on the west. 1. Arcidava, near the modern Slatina. The Roman ruins in this 
quarter are yet plainly visible. 2. Centum Putca, to the north. The ancient 
name points to the Roman origin of the place, and the numerous excavations 
made in its neighborhood for springs. The site is near the modern Oraviza. 

3. Tibiscum or Tiviscum, on the western side of the River Temesz, at its junc- 
tion with the Bistra. It was a municipium, and a place of importance. The 
ruins lie near the modern Cavaran. 4. Sarmizcgethusa, to the southeast, the 
residence of King Decebalus. Subsequently a Roman colony was sent to this 
place by Trajan, and the name of the city was changed to Ulpia Trajani, or Co- 
Ionia Ulpia Trajana Augusta. It then became the capital of the whole province, 
and was adorned with an amphitheatre, aqueducts, &c., and protected by a 
strong wall. Its ruins are found near Varhcly. 5. Apulum, to the northeast, 
on the Marisus or Marusch. It was a Roman municipium, and a place of great 
importance. The ruins are found near Carlsburg. It was also called Alba Julia 
Colonia. 6. Returning to the Danube we find Zerna, an important Roman col- 
ony a short distance east of the Pans Trajani. In the Pandects the place is 


called Colonia Zernensium. The name of the town is evidently connected with 
that of the neighboring river Czerna or Tzerna. 7. Drubetts or Druphegis, to 
the southeast, on the Rhabon or Syl, in the vicinity of what is now Crajova. 



I. ACCORDING to Ptolemy, the name Sarmalia was applied to all that tract of 
country which lay between the Vistnla on the west, and the Rha, now the Wol~ 
ga, on the east. This was divided into two parts by the River Tanals, now the 
Don, and the western portion was called Sarmalia Europaa ; the eastern, Sarma- 
tia Asiatica. 

II. European Sarmatia was bounded on the north by the Oceanus Sarmaticus, 
another name for the southern part of the Mare Suevicum or Baltic, and the Terra 
Incognita ; on the west by the Vistula and the Monies Sarmatici ; on the south by 
Dacia, the Euxine, the Tauric Chersonese, and the Palus Mceotis ; and on the east, 
as before stated, by the Tanals. It corresponded, therefore, to part of Russia, 
Poland, Lithuania, Prussia, &c. 


I. NEITHER Herodotus nor Strabo makes mention of the European Sarmatians. 
The Sauromatae of Herodotus dwelt to the east of the Tanals, and inhabited a 
tract of country extending northward from the Palus Maoris equal to fifteen 
days' journey in length. Herodotus also says that the Sauromatae sprang from 
the intercourse of a body of Scythians with some Amazons who came from the 
River Thermodon in Asia Minor, and that their language was a corrupted form 
of the Scythian. Strabo likewise places the Sauromatae between the Tanais 
and the Caspian, and speaks of the people west of the Tanais as Scythians. 

II. European Sarmatia therefore comprehended the Scythia of Herodotus, 
which may be said, in general terms, to have comprised the southeastern part 
of Europe, between the Carpathian Mountains and the River Tanais. 

III. The principal nations in European Sarmatia were, 1. The Vcneda or 
Venedi, on the Baltic. 2. The Peucini or Bastarna, in the neighborhood of the 
Carpathian Mountains. 3. The lazyges, Rhoxoldni, and Hamaxobii, in the south- 
ern part of modern Russia. 4. The Alauni or Alani Sr.ythce, in the central part 
of Russia, in the neighborhood of Moscow. The knowledge which the ancients 
possessed of these people was very limited. They are universally represented 
as a nomade race with filthy habits. The Venedi appear to have been of Ger- 
man origin. They were occupied particularly with the carrying trade of amber, 
that substance being found in great abundance along their shores. At a later 
day they were called Winidi or Wendi, and many have supposed that the Veneti 
in Italy were a branch of this people. 

The Scythians will be more particularly mentioned under the head of Asia. 
It will be sufficient here to state that they were in all probability a Mongolian 
race. The European Scythians, according to the account of Herodotus, were 
originally from Asia, and were driven from their settlements to the north of the 
Araxes by the Massagetae. After crossing the Araxes they descended into Eu- 
rope, and drove out the Cimmerians from the country which was afterward 
called Scythia. The date of their migration into Europe may be determined 
with tolerable accuracy, if the irruption of the Cimmerians into Lydia in the 
reign of Ardys (about B.C. 640) was the immediate consequence of their defeat 
by the Scythians. 



(A.) Rivers flowing into the Oceanus Sarmaticus. 
1. Vistula. Already mentioned in the geography of Germany. 2. Guttalus, 
now the Pregcl. 3. Chronus, now the Nicmen. 4. Turuntus, now the Windau, 
according to Mannert and Gosselin. 5. Rftubon, now probably the Duna. 

(B.) Rivers flowing into the Pontus Euxinus. 

1. Danastrus (or Danaster), called by Ptolemy the Tyras (Tvpaf), now the Dnies- 
ter. 2. Hypdnis ("Tiravif), now the Bog. 3. Borysthenes (BopvaOevrjc,), called, 
also, the Danapris, now the Dnieper. 4. Hypacaris, now the Canikschak, falling 
into the Sinus Carcinitcs, near the city of Carcine. Ptolemy calls this river the 

(C.) Rivers flowing into the Palus Mceotis. 

1. Lycus (Au/cof), now probably the Kalmius. 2. Tanals (Tdvai'f), now the 
Don, rising in the Valdai hills, in the government of Tula, and having a course 
of about eight hundred miles. Herodotus appeal* to have confounded it in the 
upper part of its course with the Rha or Wolga. As regards the root of the 
name Tanals, &c., consult Obs. 2, page 10. 


1. Sarmdticus Oceanus (2ap//an/cof 'ft/ceavof), a name given by Ptolemy to the 
southern part of the Marc Sucvicum or Baltic Sea, lying along the coast of East 
Prussia, West Prussia, and part of Pomcrania. At its eastern e^akremity was 
the Venedicus Sinus, now the Gulf of Riga. Immediately adjacent to the Sar- 
maticus Oceanus was the Clylipenus Sinus, now the Gulf of Finnland. What 
Ptolemy calls the island of Baltia in the Sarmatic Ocean, other names for which 
island were Basilia and Abalus, appears to have been, not an island, but the 
southern extremity of Sweden. 

2. Pontus Euxinus (UovToc, Eufavof), now the Euxine or Black Sea. This sea 
had various names, such as Mare Cimmcrium, Mare Ponticum, &c. Its ordina- 
ry name Euxinus has already been explained (page 10). The Euxine was nav- 
igated at an early period by the Greeks. The discovery of the channel which 
leads to it from the Archipelago is probably indicated by the fable of Phrixus 
and Helle, and the first voyage into it by the expedition of Jason. At a later 
period the Greeks, and more especially the Ionian Greeks of Miletus, formed 
numerous establishments along its shores, from which they exported slaves, 
cattle, and corn in great quantities. The ports of the Crimea and the region 
near the Borysthenes exported large quantities of grain to Athens and the Pel- 
oponnesus, which trade we find mentioned in Herodotus (vii., 147) as existing 
at the time of the invasion of Xerxes, B.C. 480. Under the Romans the shores 
of the Euxine became pretty well known, and a " Periplus," or kind of survey 
of this sea, is among the works attributed to Arrian. In the times of the By- 
zantine emperors, Constantinople drew from it a considerable part of its provi- 
sions, and in the twelfth century the Genoese formed some establishments on 
its northeastern coast, and carried on a very active commerce overland with 
India ; but, when Constantinople was taken by the Turks, the commerce and 
navigation of the Black Sea were nearly annihilated, their policy being averse 
to permitting foreign vessels to pass the Straits of Constantinople. Thus the 
Black Sea remained closed to the seafaring nations for two centuries, until the 
Russian power and commerce arose. For an account of the Bosporus Thraciu* 
and the Bosporus Cimmerius, consult page 9, seq. 


3. Palus Maotis, now the Sea of Azof or Assaw. The term Palus, "lake or 
marsh," appears more applicable to this sheet of water than that of " sea," for 
it is a lake, and a shallow lake too. In the centre, where the depth is greatest, 
it is in a few places seven fathoms and a half, but on an average only between 
six and seven ; and this depth continues to the Strait of Caffa or Feodosia, the 
ancient Bosporus Cimmerius, by which it is united to the Euxine. Toward all 
the other shores its depth decreases to five fathoms, and even four and a half. 
The shallowness of this sea was well known to the Greeks, and it was the pre- 
vailing opinion in the time of Aristotle that it was rapidly filling up by the earthy 
matter brought down by the rivers which empty into it. The same opinion has 
been maintained by some modern travellers ; but we do not possess data by 
which this question can be decided, since we have as yet no means of compar- 
ing the state of this lake at different and remote epochs. 


I. Cities between the Tanais and Borysthenes. Among these we may enumer- 
ate the following : 1. Tanais, to the west of the modern Azof or Assow, an im- 
portant trading place, at the mouth of the River Tanais. 2. Hygris, on the 
northern shore of the Palus Maeotis. 3. Cremni, to the southwest, at the neck 
of the Promontorium Agarum. 4. Carcme, at the mouth of the River Hypacaris, 
and at the head of the Sinus Carcinites, now the Gulf of Perekop. Herodotus 
calls the place Carcinitis (KapKiviritf. 

II. Cities between the Borysthenes and Danapris. Among these we may name, 
1. Serimum, near the modern Ekatcrinoslav. 2. Metropolis, the same place, in 
all probability, with Olbia. Mannert thinks that it is a corruption of Miletopolis, 
one of the names of Olbia. 3. Olbia or Olbiopolis, on the left bank of the Hypanis, 
not far from the junction of this river with the Borysthenes. Hence it was 
also called Borysthenis, from its proximity to the latter stream. According to 
Herodotus, it was the central point of the Greek maritime settlements in Scythia. 
Olbia, according to Strabo, was founded by a colony from Miletus in Ionia, and 
hence was called also Miletopolis. It was a place of great trade, and strongly 
fortified against the neighboring barbarians, and it was adorned also with nu- 
merous public buildings, temples, &c. Hence the proud appellation of TO uarv, 
" the City," which it assumed in imitation of Athens. The site is indicated at 
the present day by Kudak, in the government of Kiew. 



I. Chersoncsus Taurica, "Tauric Chersonese," was the ancient name of that 
peninsula which juts out southward from European Sarmatia, between the Pon- 
tus Euxinus or Black Sea, and the Palus Maeotis, or Sea of Azof or Assow. It is 
now called the Crimea. 

II. The isthmus which connects it with the main land was called Taphros or 
Taphrce. On the west of this isthmus was the Sinus Carcinites, now the Gulf 
of Perekop, and on the east the shallow waters then, as now, called "The Pu- 
trid Sea or Lake" (# SaTrpu M^vr), Palus Putris). The southeastern point of 
the peninsula was the Promontorium Parthenium, which is either the modern 
Cape Chersonese, or another promontory farther south in the neighborhood of 
the town of Sviatoi Gheorghi. The southern promontory was called Criu-Meto- 
pon (Kpiov Me'TWTtov), now Ajadagh or Kandjes Borun, and either the southeast- 
ern or the eastern point of the peninsula was called Corax Promontorium, now 


Cape Kirkinos-Burnu. On the east the peninsula was divided from the coast of 
Asia by the Cimmerian Bosporus. 


I. THE earliest inhabitants of this peninsula appear to have been the Cimme- 
rians, some of whom remained in it after the great body of the nation had been 
driven from their seats around the Palus Maeotis by the Scythians. Clear tra- 
ces of this people remain in the names of Cimmerion, one of the cities of the 
peninsula, the Cimmerian Bosporus, the Cimmerian Chersonese (as the penin- 
sula was sometimes called), and in its modern appellations of Crimea and Grim 

II. In the earliest notices of the Chersonesus by Greek writers, we find the 
mountainous region of the south and southeast inhabited by a piratical people, 
called the Tauri, from whom the peninsula was called Taurica, and whose name 
remains in that of the modern Russian province of Taurida, in which the Crimea 
is included. Who these Tauri were is a question of some difficulty. Strabo 
calls them a Scythian people, but Herodotus ctearly distinguishes the Tauri 
from the Scythians, as being a different nation. 

III. It seems probable, from various circumstances, that the Tauri were a 
remnant of the old Cimmerian inhabitants, who had maintained themselves in 
the mountains against the Scythian invaders. The name Tauri is supposed to 
be derived from an old root, " Taw," meaning a mountain. The Tauri were re- 
puted by the Greeks to be inhospitable and cruel to strangers. They were said 
to offer human sacrifices, especially of shipwrecked mariners, to a virgin god- 
dess, whom, according to Herodotus, the Tauri themselves identified with Iphi- 
genia, the daughter of Agamemnon, and whose temple stood on the promontory 
of Parthcnium. 

IV. The Greeks became early acquainted with this peninsula, probably soon 
after the Ionian Greeks, and especially the inhabitants of Miletus, had begun 
to form settlements on the northern shores of Asia Minor, about six centuries 
before the Christian era. Pttnticapaeum is called by Strabo a colony of the Mi- 
lesians. Besides this place, they built Theodosia, now Feodosta or Kaffa, and 
some other places on the peninsula forming the west side of the Strait of Caffa.. 
They preferred this part of the Chersonese from its containing a large tract fit 
for agriculture, and producing very rich crops, Strabo says thirty times the seed. 
It was at one time considered the granary of Greece, especially of Athens, 
whose territory, being of small extent and of indifferent fertility, was unable to 
maintain its great population by its own produce. At one time Athens annually 
imported from the Crimea between 300,000 and 400,000 medimni of grain. 
Strabo says that in one year the Athenians received 2,100,000 medimni from 
Theodosia ; but the text is evidently corrupt. 

V. The Greek colonies in the Chersonese were gradually formed into two 
states, that of Chersonesus, comprehending the smaller peninsula, on the south- 
west, and the kingdom of Bosporus, a narrow slip of low and fertile land, on the 
southeast. These two states were united under Mithradates, who is said to 
have died at Panticapaeum. The kingdom of the Bosporus, with all the neigh- 
boring districts, then fell into the hands of the Romans, who gave it to Pharna- 
ces, the son of Mithradates. Pharnaces, however, having invaded Pontus, and 
exercised great cruelties toward the Roman citizens, was attacked by Julius 
Caesar and defeated. He fled to his kingdom of Bosporus, where he was im- 
mediately murdered, and his throne was given by the dictator to Mithradates 
of Pergamus, about B.C. 47. This kingdom of Bosporus continued under the 


Roman emperors, but is only known to us from the occasional interference of 
the Caesars in the nomination of a king, or in attempts to restore tranquillity. A 
race of half Greek, half barbaric kings continued to possess the Crimea and the 
neighboring coast of the Euxine at least to the time of the Antonines, and the 
kingdom of Bosporus almost survived the Roman empire, and only expired un- 
der the ravages of the Huns. 


1. Taphros or Taphra, on the isthmus connecting the Chersonese with the con- 
tinent. It is now Pcrckop. The name of the isthmus was also Taphros,' and was 
probably derived from a ditch (rctypoc) which ran across it, and which was dug 
and fortified as a defence against the neighboring barbarians of the main land. 
This ditch, however, must not be confounded with that mentioned by Herodotus 
(iv., 320), which appears to have been in the peninsula itself, and at the eastern 
part of it. 2. Eupatoria, on the western coast, founded by Mithradates Eupator 
during a war with the Scythians. It is now Eupatoria or Kaslov. 3. Portus Cte- 
nus (K-evoOf), on what is now the Gulf of Achtiar, succeeds on the northern side 
of a small peninsula terminated by Cape Chersonese, while on the southern side 
of this same peninsula is Portus Symbolorum (SuufidAwi; AI/IT/V), on what is now 
the Gulf of Balaklava. On this peninsula stood the city of Chersonesus, called 
by Mela Cherrone, the full name of which was Chersonesus Heracleotica. It was 
founded by a colony from Heraclea in Bithynia, and was a large and flourishing 
commercial city. Its ruins are to be found near Gurtschi. The peninsula on 
which it stood was sometimes called the Small Chersonesus, and the Chersonesus 
Taurica the Great Chersonesus, to distinguish it from the former. 4. Theodosia, 
on the eastern coast, now Caff a (Kefa) or Feodosia, a colony of the Milesians, 
and a large and flourishing commercial city. In the Tauric dialect it was called 
Ardauda, "the city of the Seven Gods." It was destroyed in the middle of the 
second century, and Old Caffa was subsequently erected on its site. This was 
succeeded by New Caffa, the present city, in its immediate vicinity, and which 
became a place of great trade under the Genoese. 5. Panticapaum, called, also, 
Bosporus, at the eastern end of the peninsula, on the shore of the Bosporus. 
This was also an early settlement of the Milesians, and carried on an extensive 
trade. It had a double harbor. This city was the residence of both the earlier 
and later kings of the Bosporus. The modern Kcrtsch occupies its site, which 
the Russians also call Wospor, a corruption of Bosporus, 6. Cimmcrium, in the 
interior, now Erski Krim, or " Old Krim." There were several other places in 
the interior besides Cimmeriurn, but none of any importance. 


THESE consist of the twelve following countries, beginning from the west, 

1. R^ETIA. 





11. GR^CIA. 



I. R^TIA appears to have comprehended originally the whole country between 
the north of Italy and the Danube, and consequently to have included Vinddicia. 


Dio Cassius, in his account of the conquest of the Raeti and Vindelici by Drusus 
and Tiberius, only mentions the Raeti. Strabo often speaks of them as if they 
were only one people ; and Tacitus, in several passages, appears to include Vin- 
delicia in the province of Raetia. 

II. In the time of Augustus, however, these two countries formed separate 
provinces, of which Raetia was bounded on the west by the Helvetii, on the east 
by Noricum, on the south by Gallia Cisalpina, and on the north by Vindelicia, 
from which it was separated by the Lacus Brigantinus or Lake of Constance, and 
the River CEnus or Inn. It included, therefore, the greater part of the Tyrol, 
and the eastern cantons of Switzerland. 


I. THE Raeti are supposed by Niebuhr to have been an Etruscan people, and 
their country to have been one of the original homes of that race. They are 
first mentioned by Polybius as one of the communities through whose country 
there was a passage across the Alps. They were a brave and enterprising 
race, and for a long time committed constant robberies in Gaul and the north 
of Italy. 

II. Augustus at length sent Drusus against them (B.C. 15), who subdued the 
southern part of the country, and delivered Italy from their depredations. But, 
as they still continued to trouble the province of Gaul, Tiberius also was sent 
against them, who attacked them near the Lacus Brigantinus, and reduced the 
whole of the country. The greater part of their youth were carried away, and 
only sufficient left to cultivate the land. The victories of Drusus and Tiberius 
are celebrated by Horace. 

III. The Raeti were divided, according to Pliny, into many states or tribes. 
Of these the most important were, 1. The Lepontii, in the southwestern part of 
the province. 2. The Tridentini, in the southeastern. 3. The Genauni, whom 
Horace mentions, east of the Lepontii. 4. The Vennones, near the sources of 
the Athesis, now Adigc. 5. The Brixentes, north of the Tridentini. 6. Th 
Brenni or Breuni, north of the Raetian Alps, also mentioned by Horace. 


I. THE great chain of the Alps passes almost through the centre of this prov- 
ince, and bears various names in different parts of it. On the western borders 
are the Alpes Pcnnina, in the northwest are the Alpes Lepontia, and on the north 
are the Alpes Summce, succeeded by the Alpes Raticce. These mountains were 
all inhabited by various tribes of the Rseli. 

II. Several large rivers rise in these mountains, of which the most important 
were, 1. The Rhenus or Rhine, rising in the Lepontine Alps. 2. The Rhodanus 
or Rhone, rising in the same vicinity. 3. The Ticinus or Tesino, a tributary of 
the Po, rising in the same division of the Alps. 4. The Addua or Adda, another 
Italian river, rising in the Raetian Alps. 5. The Athesis or Adigc, rising in the 
same Alps, and flowing into the Adriatic ; and, 6. The CEnus or Inn, a tributary 
of the Danube. 

III. The valleys between these mountains were very fertile, and were partic- 
ularly celebrated for their grapes, from which excellent wine was made. The 
Haitian wine was the favorite wine of Augustus. 

IV. The only place of importance in Raetia was Tridentum, now Trent. 




I. Vindelicia was the ancient name of a tract which contains parts of the 
present countries of Suabia and Bavaria, in Southern Germany. It extended 
from the Lacus Brigantinus, or Lake of Constance, in a northeast direction as far 
as the junction of the CEnus, now Inn, with the Danube, and from the northern 
frontier of Raetia in the south to the Danube in the north. On the east it had 
the province of Noricum. 

II. In the Roman division of the provinces it was at first a part of Raetia, 
but in the time of Augustus it was formed into a separate province. At first 
it was called the province of Ratia Secunda, but this name was gradually 
supplanted by Vindclicia, which is first mentioned by Sextus Rufus (c. 8). 
The name Vindelicia is derived from that of the Vmdetici, a warlike tribe in the 
southern mountainous part of the country ; and it is thought that this tribe had 
its name from the Vindo and Licus, now the Wertach and the Lech, which were 
two of the rivers of the country, between which were their original settlements. 


I. THE original inhabitants of Vindelicia were probably of the same origin with 
the Raeti. The principal tribes were the following: 1. Vindelici, already men- 
tioned. 2. Isarii, on the River Isarus or Isargus, now the Iscr. 3. Licdtes, on 
the Licus, now the Lech. 4. Brigantii, on the Lacus Brigantinus. 5. A large 
number of Boii, who settled between the CEnus, now the Inn, and the Isarus, 
after they had been driven from their homes in Bohemia by the Marcomanni. 

II. From the third century Vindelicia was constantly invaded by German 
tribes, and during the fourth and fifth centuries it was entirely occupied by the 
Alemanni and Boiarii, and the ancient population, among whom were many 
Roman colonists, were either exterminated or else became serfs of the con- 
querors, and were then Germanized. 


1. Danubius, already described. All the others that here follow are tributa- 
ries of that stream. Thus, 2. Vindo or Verdo, now the Wertach. 3. Licus, now 
the Lech. 4. Isarus or Isargus, now the Iser. Not to be confounded with the 
River Isarus, mentioned by Strabo as receiving the Atagis, and emptying into the 
Hadriatic. This latter Isarus is probably the same with the Athesis, now the 
Adige. 5. Guntia, now the Gunz. 6. Ilargus, now the Iller, separating, at the 
present day, Suabia from Bavaria. 


THE Romans founded many colonies in Vindelicia, a great number of which 
still exist, and their present names are generally corruptions of the Roman ones. 
We will enumerate some of these along with other places : 1. Augusta Vindel- 
icorum, now Augsburg, which Tacitus calls " splendidissima Ralia Provincial co- 
lonia." This colony was planted by Augustus about twelve years before the 
Christian era, and became the capital of the whole province. It stood near the 
influx of the Vindo into the Licus, and between the two rivers. 2. Rcg'mum 01 
Castra Regina, to the northeast, on the Danube. It was previously a Celtic 
town called Artohriga, and was converted into a frontier fortress by the Ro 
mans. About the beginning of the seventh century it took the name of Rada* 



pona, and is now Ratislon. 3. Campodunum or Cambodunum, to the southwest 
of Augusta, now Kempten. 4. Guntia, to the northwest of Augusta, now Gunz- 
burg, where Roman inscriptions have been found. 5. Brigantia, to the south- 
west of Campodunum, and on the eastern side of the Lacus Bngantinus. It is 
now Brcaenz. 6. Vemania, to the north of the preceding, now Wangen. 7. Ba- 
tava Castra, now Passau, at the confluence of the Inn and the Danube. 8. Pons 
(Eni, now Muhldorf, on the Inn. This place must not he confounded with 
(Eni Pons or (Enipontum, the Latinized name of Innsbruck in the Tyrol. 



I. Noricum (TO Nupt/coi-) took its name from the tribe of the Norici, who were 
the most celebrated and powerful one in the land. It was bounded on the north 
by the Danube, on the west by Vindelicia and Ratio, on the east by Pannonia, 
and on the south by Illyricum and Gallia Cisalpina. It was separated from Vin- 
delicia by the (Enus, now the Inn, and from Gallia Cisalpina by the Alpes Car- 
niece or Julice, but it is difficult to determine the boundaries between Noricum 
and Pannonia, as they differed at various times. 

II. Noricum may be said, therefore, to correspond to the modern Styria, Ca- 
rinthia, and Salzburg, and to part of Austria and Bavaria. 

III. Noricum was divided into two nearly equal parts by a branch of the Alps, 
which was called the Alpes Norica. These mountains appear to have been in- 
habited from the earliest times by various tribes of Celtic origin, of whom the 
most celebrated and powerful were the Norici. Noricum was conquered by 
Augustus, but it is uncertain whether he reduced it to the form of a province. 
It appears to have been a province in the time of Claudius, who founded the 
colony Sabaria, which was afterward included in Pannonia. From the " Noti- 
tia Imperil" we learn that Noricum was subsequently divided into two provin- 
ces, Noricum Ripense and Noricum Mediterrancum, which were separated from 
each other by the Alpes Noricae. The former, which lay along the Danube, was 
always guarded by a strong military force, under the command of a dux. 

IV. The iron of Noricum was in much request among the Romans, and, ac- 
cording to Polybius, gold was formerly found in this province in great abundance. 


I. IN addition to the Norici already mentioned, Noricum was inhabited in the 
west by the Sevaces, Alauni, and Ambisontii ; but of these tribes we know hardly 
any thing except the names. 

II. Among the cities of Noricum the following were the most important : 

1. Norna, the capital of the Norici, where Carbo was routed by the Cimbri, 
B.C. 113. It was besieged in the time of Caesar by the Boii, and was subse- 
quently destroyed by the Romans. The ancient site is near Newmark in Styria. 

2. Juvdvia or Juvdvum, to the northwest, now Salzburg, a colony founded by 
Hadrian. 3. Ovilia, called subsequently Ovilabis, to the northeast, and which 
took its name from the flocks of sheep accustomed at one time to be fed here. 
It was founded by Marcus Aurelius, and is now Wels, on the River Traun. 

4. Lcntia, to the northeast, on the Danube, now Lenz. It was built by Gratian. 

5. Lauriacum, just below the preceding, now the village of Lohr, near the city 
of Ens, on the Danube. It was the most important place in Noricum Ripense t 
and >' as founded by Marcus Aurelius. There was here an important manufac- 
tory of bucklers. 6. Boiodunum, at the junction of the (Enus and the Danube, 
now Jnnstadt. 

PAN NO NI A. 243 



I. THIS province was bounded on the north and east by the Danube, on the 
south by Illyricum and Mozsia, and on the west by Noricum. It was separated 
from Mcesia by the Savus, now the Save, and from Illyricum by an imaginary 
line drawn a few miles south of the Savus ; but it is difficult to determine the 
boundaries between it and Noricum, as they differed at various times. Under 
the early Roman emperors, Pannonia could not have extended much further 
west than the Arrabo, now the Raab, if Pliny is correct in placing Sabaria in 
Noricum ; but in later times the two provinces appear to have been separated 
by Mons Celius, now the Kahlenberg^ 

II. Pannonia, therefore, according to this last arrangement, would correspond 
to Sclavonia, parts of Hungary, Lower Austria, Styria, Croatia, and those parts 
of Turkish Croatia, Bosnia, and Servia, which immediately touch upon the Save. 

III. The Pannonians are called Paones by some of the Greek writers, but this 
appears to have been clearly a mistake, arising from the similarity of the names. 
The Paeones were probably a Thracian people, while the Pannonians belonged 
either to the Celtic or Germanic race. They were first attacked by Augustus 
(B.C. 35), and were subdued during his reign by Tiberius, and reduced to the 
form of a province. We learn from Tacitus that, at the death of Augustus, 
there were several legions stationed in Pannonia, which was then regarded, 
and continued to be so till the end of the Roman empire, as one of the most 
important of the Roman provinces, on account of its bordering upon the pow- 
erful nations of the Quadi and lazyges. 


UNDER the early Roman emperors Pannonia formed only one province ; it 
was afterward divided, but at what time is uncertain, into two provinces, Pan- 
nonia Superior and Pannonia Inferior, the former comprising the western, and 
the latter the eastern part of the original province. They were separated 
from one another by a line drawn from the point at which the Arrabo flows into 
the Danube, southward to the Savus. A new division of the provinces was 
subsequently made by the Emperor Galerius. The southern part of the two 
former provinces, comprising the country between the Dravus and Savus, was 
formed into a new province, and called Savia or Pannonia Secunda, but the 
northern part was still divided into two provinces as before. The western part 
retained the name of Pannonia Superior or Pannonia Prima ; but the name of 
the eastern province was changed to that of Valeria, in honor of the wife of 
Galerius, who cleared a great portion of the land in the north of Pannonia of 
its woods, and connected the lake of Peiso or Pelso, now the Platen See, with 
the Danube by means of a canal. Pannonia was thus divided into three prov- 
inces, which division appears to have continued till the downfall of the Roman 


]. Mons Cetius, now the Kahlenberg, a chain fifty miles in extent. 2. Mans 
Albius, now Alben or Javornick, a part of the Alpes Julia. 3. Mons Ocra, now 
the Birnbaumer Wald, or that part of the Julian Alps which lies between Gdrz 
and Laybach. 4. Mons Claudius, now the Bacherberg. 



THE principal rivers were, 1. The Arrabo or Narrabo, now the Raab, flowing 
into the Danube. 2. The Driivus, now the Drave, a tributary of the same stream. 
3. The Sdvus, now the Save, another tributary. 


PANNONIA possessed several cities of importance, the inhabitants of which 
appear to have principally depended for their support upon the numerous legions 
which were quartered in different parts of the province. Following the course 
of the Danube, the first city we corne to after leaving Noricum is Vindobona, 
now Vienna, called Vianiomina by Pliny, who places it in Noricum. In Ptole- 
my's time it was called Juliobona, and was the station of a legion. It is called 
by most later writers Vindobona, as first given by us ; but in the " Notitia Im- 
peril" it is written Vindomana. 2. The next city of importance below Vindo- 
bona, on the Danube, is Carnuntum, which in the early part of the Roman em- 
pire was the most important place in the north of Pannonia. It appears from 
the account of Pliny to have been a place of considerable commercial import- 
ance. The amber which was collected in the northern part of Europe was 
brought to this city, and thence conveyed to the different parts of the Roman 
empire. It was the head-quarters of the army of Marcus Antoninus in the war 
which he carried on with the Marcomanni. In the time of Ammianus Marcel- 
linus, that is, in the latter part of the fourth century, it was almost without any 
population. Its ruins are in the neighborhood of Altenburg. 

3. Below Carnuntum, on the Danube, was Brigantium or Brcgcetium, the site 
of which is fixed by Mannert at the village of Szuny, in Lower Hungary. Am- 
mianus Marcellinus calls it Brcgitio. It was the station of a Roman legion, 
and here the Emperor Valentinian I. died, while making preparations for a war 
against the Quadi. 4. Following the course of the Danube, we come next to 
Aquincum or Acincum, now Buda, or, as the Germans call it, Ofcn, a name in- 
dicative of its natural sudatories or hot baths. It was the principal city in the 
province of Valeria, and the station of a legion. In a later age, Attila made it 
occasionally his residence. The Romans had a military station on the other 
side of the river, which was called Contra- Acincum, and the site of which is 
now occupied by the city of Pesth. 5. South of Acincum, on the Danube, in the 
provincb of Savia, was Militia or Milala, afterward called Bononia, and now 
Illok or Ujlak. 6. Below it was Acumincum, now Petcrwardein. 7. And below 
Acumincum was Taurunum, now Semlin, the most easterly town in the prov- 
ince, near the confluence of the Savus with the Danube. 

The most important towns in the southern part of Pannonia were, 1. Siscia, 
now Sziszek. 2. CibaJ.a or Cibalis, now Vinkoucze. 3. Sirmium, now Scha- 
bacz. These three towns were all on the Save. Siscia was on the borders 
of Illyricum, and the most important town in Pannonia in the time of Augus- 
tus. Cibala or Cibalis was situate a considerable distance below the preceding, 
and was memorable for the defeat of Licinianus by Constantine. It was also 
the birth-place of the Emperor Gratianus. Sirmium was below Cibalee, and, 
under the later Roman emperors, was the principal town in Pannonia. It was 
the residence of the emperors when they visited the province, and there was, 
according to Ammianus Marcellinus, an imperial palace in the town. 4. Mur- 
sia : at this place the fleet of the Lower Danube was stationed, and near it 
Magnentius was defeated by Constantius. 

MCESIA. 245 



I. Maesia was the name of a province of the Roman empire, extending north 
of the range of Mount Hamus, the modern Balkan, as far as the Danube, and 
eastward to the Euxine. Its boundaries to the west were the rivers Drinus 
and Savus, now the Drina and the Save, which divided it from Pannonia and 
Illyricum. It corresponded, therefore, to the present provinces of Servia and 

II. Strabo says that the old inhabitants of the country were called Mysi 
(Mvaoi), and were a tribe of Thracians, like their eastern neighbors the Getae, 
with whom they have been confounded, and that they were the ancestors of 
the Mysi of Asia Minor. 

III. The Romans first invaded their country under Augustus, and it was aft- 
erward made into a Roman province, and divided into Moesia Superior, to the 
west, between the Drinus and the CEscus, the modern Esker, and Moesia Inferior, 
extending from the CEscus to the Euxine. 

IV. The conquest of Dacia by Trajan removed the frontiers of the empire 
further north, beyond Mcesia ; but Aurelian having, about A.D. 250, for purpo- 
ses of safety, transplanted the Roman inhabitants of Dacia to the right side of 
the Danube, the name of Dacia Aureliani was given to that part of Mresia which 
was now occupied by them, in contradistinction from Dacia Trajani, as the old 
province of Dacia had been called. This act of Aurelian's doubly strengthened 
the frontier of the empire by rendering the Danube its boundary, and by aban- 
doning a district too distant to be easily defended, and too thinly peopled to de- 
fend itself. Mo3sia thus again became a border province. 

V. At a subsequent period, the Goths, after several attempts, crossed the Dan- 
ube, and occupied Mcesia, during the reign of the Emperor Valens. The Moeso- 
Goths, for whom Ulphilas translated the Scriptures, were a branch of Goths set- 
tled in Mossia. Some centuries later, the Bulgarians and Sclavonians occupied 
the country of Mossia, and formed the kingdoms of Bulgaria and Servia. 


ALL the rivers of Mffisia that are deserving of notice flow into the Danube ; 
such as, 1. Savus, now the Save, which receives the Drinus, now the Drina. 
2. Margus, now the Morawa. 3. Timachus, now the Timak. 4. CEscus, now 
the hker. 5. Escdmus, now the Ozma. 6. latrus or lantrus, now the lantra. 
7. Noes, now the Kara Lorn. 

(A.) Maesia Superior. 

1. Singidunum, now Belgrade. 2. Tricornium, at the junction of the little 
river Moschius and the Danube, now Tricorni. 3. Aureus Mons, near the mount- 
ain of the same name, where Probus planted the vine, A.D. 278, now Crozca. 
4, Margus, on the river of the same name, where Carinus was defeated by Di- 
ocletian, now Pobritzar. 5. Viminacium, now Widdin. 6. Ratiaria, now Arzer- 
Palanca. 7. Naissus, in the interior, to the southwest, now Nezza or Nissa. 
It was the birth-place of Constantine the Great. 8. Ulpianum, south of Naissus, 
embellished by Justinian, and hence called, after this, Justiniana Secunda, now 
Kostendil. 9. Sardica or Ulpia Sardica, in a plain watered by the River CEscus. 
The Emperor Maximian was born in its vicinity, and it was also famous for a 


council held there. It took the name of Ulpia from the inhabitants of Ulpia, in 
Dacia Trajani, having been transferred thither. It is now Triaditza, near Sophia. 
10. Tauresium, to the southeast, Justinian's birth-place, now Giuslendil. 

(B.) Mcesia Inferior. 

1. Nicopolis ad Istrum, at the mouth of the latrus, one of the tributaries of 
the Danube. It was built by Trajan in commemoration of a victory over the 
Dacians, and is now Nicopoli. This place was the residence of Ulphilas. 2. Do- 
rostorum, on the Danube, now Silistria or Sistria, the station of the eleventh 
legion. 3. Axiopolis, now Rassova. Here, according to Ptolemy, the Danube 
changed its name to Ister. 4. Trosmis, to the northeast of the preceding, men- 
tioned by Ovid in his Epistles from Pontus. 5. JEgissus, to the east, Ovid's 
^Egypsus. 6. Tibisca, a fortified post, near the Pans Darii, on the spot where 
Darius Hystaspis constructed his bridge over the Ister. 7. Istropolis, below the 
mouths of the Ister, a Milesian colony, subsequently called Conslantia, and now 
Chiustange. 8. Tomi, to the southwest, Ovid's place of exile, now Tomiswar, 
on the coast of Bulgaria. 9. Odessus, to the soutbj also on the coast, now Var- 
na. 10. Marcianopolis, west of the preceding, a settlement of Trajan's, and 
named after his sister Marcia. It is now called by the Turks Eski Stamboul, by 
the Bulgarians Pristhlara, and by the Greeks Marcenopoli. 

That part of Lower Moesia which lay between the Euxine, the mouths of the 
Ister, and Mount Haemus, and forming, therefore, a considerable tract along the 
shore, was sometimes called Pontus, not to be confounded, however, with Pon- 
tus in Asia Minor. Frequent mention is made of the former in the poetry of 
Ovid, after his exile. Tomi lay in this district, and Ovid's Epistola e Ponio de- 
rived their name from this quarter. 


1. NAME. 

I. THE origin of the name Italia is uncertain. Some of the 
ancient writers derived the term from Italm, a monarch or 
chieftain of the CEnotri ; while others made the word have ref- 
erence to the numerous and fine oxen which the country pro- 
duced, and accordingly deduced the name from the Greek Ira- 
Adf, or its corresponding Latin term vitulus. Niebuhr, how- 
ever, with great plausibility, maintains that Italia means noth- 
ing more than the country of the Italij and is identical with 
Vitalia, the Itali having been also originally called Vitali. 

II. Other names for Italy were Hesperia, Ausonia, Saturnia, 
and (Enotria. The first of these was originally given to it by 
the Greeks, and was subsequently adopted by the Latin poets, 
and means "the Western Land," having reference to the po- 
sition of Italy, as being to the west of Greece. The names 
Ausonia and Saturnia originated with the Latin poets, and the 
former means " the land of the Ausones," an ancient people of 
the country ; the latter, " the land of Saturn," in allusion to 

ITALIA. 247 

the legend of Saturn's having taken up his dwelling-place in 
Italy when driven from the skies. The term (Enotria, or " the 
land of the CEnotri," is of Greek origin, and was applied by 
that nation merely to the peninsula forming the southwestern 
part of Italy, where dwelt the CEnotri, an ancient race. The 
Roman poets, however, extended the appellation to the whole 
of Italy. 

III. The name Italia was originally only a partial denomi- 
nation, and was given at first to that southern extremity of the 
boot which lay below the Sinus Scyllaceus or Scylleticus, now 
Gulf of Squillace, and the Sinus Terinczus or Lameticus, now 
Gulf of St. Euphemia. 

IV. It was afterward extended to all the country south of 
the River Laus, in the west, which empties into the Lails Si- 
nus, and the city of Metapontum in the east, on the coast of 
the Sinus Tarentinus, Tarentum itself being still, as yet, be- 
yond the limits of Italy, and belonging to lapygia. At a still 
later period, when the Greek colonies in the south of the pen- 
insula formed an alliance among themselves for the purpose of 
mutual protection against Dionysius of Syracuse on the one 
hand, and the Lucanians and Bruttians on the other, the name 
Italia comprehended the whole country south of a line drawn 
from Posidonia or Pcestum to Tarentum. 

V. After the war with Pyrrhus, B.C. 278, when the Romans 
had become masters of the whole of southern Italy, the name 
Italia comprised the southern and middle parts of the penin- 
sula up to the River Tiber, including also a part of Picenum. 
Again, about the time of Polybius, the name was used in a 
still wider sense, embracing the whole country to the south of 
the Rubicon, on the upper coast, and the Macra on the lower. 
And finally, in the reign of Augustus, the name Italia was ex- 
tended to the foot of the Alps. 

VI. Previously to this last-mentioned and final extension of 
the name, the country between the Alps and the rivers Rubicon 
and Macra had been called Gallia Cisalpina, or Gaul on this 
(the Roman) side of the Alps, to distinguish it from Gallia 
Transalpina, or Gaul beyond the Alps. So again, when Italy 
extended up to the Rubicon and Macra, it was commonly re- 
garded as being subdivided into two portions, namely, Italia 
Propria and Magna Grcecia, the boundaries between the two 


being the River Silarus, now Sele, on the lower coast, flow- 
ing into the Sinus Pcestanus and the Frento, now Fortore, on 
the upper, near the southern confines of the territory of the 

VII. Hence arose the common division of the peninsula into 
three great portions, namely, Gallia Cisalpina in the north, 
Italia Propria in the centre, and Magna Grcccia in the south. 

OBS. 1. The derivation of the name Italia from tra/l6f or vitulus, is given by 
Festus, " Italia dicta, quod magnos italos, i. e., loves, habct" and also by Aulus 
Gellius (xi., 1) from Varro : " M. Varro, in antiquitalibus rcrum humanarum, tcrram 
Italiam de Gr&co vocabulo appdlatam scripsit ; quoniam loves vcteri lingua Ira'Aoi 
vocitati sint, luccraquc in ea terra gigni pascique solita sint complurima." Both 
of these etymologies are deservedly condemned by Niebuhr. The Oscan name 
of Italy was Vitellium, following the analogy of Latium, Samnium, &c. Servius 
mentions Vitalia as one among the various names ^f the country. (Ad JEn., 
vii., 328.) 

2. The name Hesperia was also applied sometimes to Spain, but then, for dis- 
tinction' sake, this latter country was usually termed Hesperia ultima. (Con- 
sult page 14.) Virgil styles Italy Hesperia Magna. (JEn., i., 569.) 

3. Saturn, according to the legend, concealed himself in Latium, and hence 
the poetic derivation of the name Lathim, from latco, " to lie hid." Compare 
Ovid, Fast., i., 238, seq. There is a singular coincidence between this fable and 
the derivation which some give of the name Saturnus from the Hebrew sathar, 
i. e., " latuit," " sc abscondit." 


I. THE boundaries of Italy, in the reign of Augustus, may be 
given as follows : on the north the Alps, on the south the Mare 
Ionium or Ionian Sea, on the northeast the Mare Superum or 
Hadriaticum, now the Adriatic Sea, and on the southwest the 
Mare Inferum or Tyrrhenum, now the Sea of Italy. 

II. The extreme limit of Italy to the northwest was formed 
in the reign of Augustus, by the Alpes Maritimce or Maritime 
Alps, and the River Varus, now Var, which empties into the 
Sinus Ligusticus or Gulf of Genoa. The limit to the north- 
east, in the time of that same emperor, was at first Tergeste, 
now Trieste ; but when the province of Histria was included 
by Augustus within the limits of Italy, the northeastern limit 
was removed to the little river Arsia, now the Arsa. 

III. We are informed by Pliny that, after Augustus had ex- 
tended the frontiers of Italy to the Maritime Alps and the Riv- 
er Arsia, he divided that country into eleven regions : 1. Cam- 
pania, including also Latium. 2. Apulia, to which was an- 
nexed part of Samnium. 3. Lucania and Bruttium. 4. Sam- 

ITALIA. 249 

ttium, togethe? with the country of the Sabines, Marsi, 

&c. 5. Picenum. 6. Umbria. 7. Etruria. 8. Flaminia, ex- 

tending from the Apennines to the Padus or Po. 9. Liguria. 

10. Venetia, containing Histria and the country of the Carni. 

11. Transpddana, comprehending what remained between Ve- 
netia and the Alps. This division, however, is too seldom no- 
ticed to be of much utility. The following distribution has 
been adopted by most geographical writers, and will be found 
much more convenient, namely : 

1. Liguria ; 2. Gallia Cisalpina ; 3. Venetia, including the 
Carni and Histria; 4. Etruria; 5. Umbria and Picenum; 

6. The Sabini, Mqui, Marsi, Peligni, Vestim, Marrucini ; 

7. Roma; 8. Latium ; 9. Campania; 10. Samnium and the 
Frentdni ; 11. Apulia, including Daunia and Mcssdpia or la- 
pygia ; 12. Lucdnia; 13. Bruttium. 


I. THE greater part of Italy was inhabited in the earliest times 
by Pelasgians, belonging to the same stock as the original in- 
habitants of Greece, and, in all probability, forming part of the 
great Sclavonic race. 

II. The Siculi, about the lower part of the Tiber, the Tyr- 
rheni in Etruria, the Aborigines in the neighborhood of Re ate 
(called, also, Casci, Prisci, and Sacrdni), the Chones and (Eno- 
trians in the west, and the Peucetians in the east of southern 
Italy, appear all to have been branches of this same widely- 
spread race of the Pelasgians. 

III. A second great tribe who inhabited the north of Italy 
were the Umbri, who are called the most ancient inhabitants 
of the country. Their territory seems originally to have been 
very extensive, and it is not improbable that they may have be- 
longed to the same stock as the ancient Siculi ; but the Umbri- 
ans are for us only the name of a great forgotten people. 

IV. The country in the northwest of Italy was inhabited by 
the Ligurians, who in early times seem to have occupied a 
much larger tract of country than afterward : their history, 
however, is unfortunately unknown to us till the time when 
we find their nation in a state of decay and dissolution. 

V. The country between the Tiber and the lower sea, and as 
far north as the Raetian Alps, was inhabited by the Etruscans, 


or, as they called themselves, Rasena. They seem to have in- 
vaded Italy from the north, and to have subdued the Pelasgian 
Tyrrhenians and occupied their country. The Umbrians also 
lost a considerable portion of their territory by the conquest of 
the Etruscans : tradition related that the Etruscans conquered 
three hundred Umbrian towns ; nay, they are said to have even 
carried their conquests as far as Campania ; and Velleius Pa- 
terculus states that the towns of Nola and Capua were founded 
by them about forty-seven years before the building of Rome. 
There can be no doubt that the Etruscans were a mighty na- 
tion. Although their history is involved in the greatest obscu- 
rity, it is manifest that they possessed a high degree of civili- 
zation, and that arts and sciences flourished among them long 
before the foundation of Rome, which derived many of its re- 
ligious and political forms from them. 

VI. The country about Amiternum, in the Apennines, was 
inhabited by the Sabines, who formed the stock to which be- 
longed the Marsi, Peligni, Samnites, and Lucani. These 
tribes, which are now usually called by the generic name of 
Sabellians, produced a complete revolution in central and south- 
ern Italy. The Vestim, Marrucini, and Frentani belonged, in 
all probability, to the Sabellians. 

VII. The Oscans or Opicans inhabited the country to the 
southwest of the Sabellians, from the Tiber to the River Laiis. 
The Ausones or Aurunci formed a distinct branch of this race, 
and the smaller tribes of the Volsci^ Sidiclni, Saticuli, and 
Mqui likewise belonged to it. The Oscan language was spo- 
ken throughout the southwestern part of Italy, and was under- 
stood even at Rome, where Oscan plays were performed and 
understood down to a comparatively late period. 

VIII. The peninsula forming the southwest of Italy was in- 
habited by the (Enotri ; and the districts to the north and east 
of the CEnotri were occupied by the Daunii, ChoncSj Peucctti, 
and Sallentini or Messapii. 

IX. The whole of southern Italy, moreover, from the River 
Silarus in the west, and the Frento in the east, was subse- 
quently called Magna Grcecta (MeydA?? 'EAAdf ), on account of 
the numerous Greek colonies established in that part of the 
peninsula, which formed the connecting link between the civ- 
ilization, arts, and literature of the Italians and the Greeks of 

/ the mother country. 



THE history of ancient Italy resolves itself most naturally into 
that of the different nations inhabiting the peninsula, and in 
particular forms part of the history of Rome. We will, there- 
fore, not dwell upon it here. 

Main Chains. 

I. Alpes, now the Alps. Their name is derived from their 
height, Alp being the old Celtic appellation for a lofty mount- 
ain. The Alps extend from the Sinus Flanaticus or Gulf of 
Carnero, at the top of the Gulf of Venice, and the sources of 
the River Colapis, now Kulpe, to Vada Sabatia, now Savona, 
on the Sinus Ligusticus or Gulf of Genoa. The whole ex- 
tent, which is in a crescent form, is nearly six hundred British 
miles. The Alps have been divided by both ancient and mod- 
ern geographers into various portions, of which the principal 
are the following : 1. Alpes Maritimce or Maritime Alps, ex- 
tending from the environs of Niccea, now Nice, to Mons Vesu- 
lus, now Monte Viso. 2. Alpes Cotlice or Cottian Alps, so 
called from Cottius, a monarch over several Ligurian tribes in 
this quarter during the reign of Augustus, unto whom he was 
tributary. They reach from Monte Viso to Mont Cents, and 
contain Mont Genevre, which Hannibal, according to some, 
crossed on his march into Italy. 3. Alpes Graice or Graian 
Alps, the etymology of which name has already been explained 
(page 159, 7). They reach from Mont Cents to the Little St. 
Bernard, and it was over this last-mentioned mountain, accord- 
ing to the more correct opinion, that the route of Hannibal into 
Italy actually lay. 4. Alpes Pennincz or Pennine Alps, so 
called from the Celtic Pen, " a summit," a name well deserved, 
since they contain the highest summits and most dreadful gla- 
ciers of the whole ridge. This chain bounds the southern side 
of the Valais, and extends from Mont Blanc to the Simplon. 
5. Alpes Lepontice or Lepontian Alps, so called because sepa- 
rating Italy from the Lepontii, in the southwestern angle of 
Rsetia. These are sometimes called the Helvetian Alps, as 
covering western Switzerland, and extend from Mont Rosa, on 
both sides of the Rhine, to St. Gothard. 6. Alpes Reetlcce or 


Raetian Alps, so called because separating Italy from Rsetia. 
They extend from the sources of the Rhone, through the Gri- 
sans and Tyrol, to the Dreihernspitz, on the borders of Salz- 
burg and Carinthia. 7. Alpes Noricce or Noric Alps, so called 
from their running off into and traversing Noricum. They run 
from the last-mentioned point through all Carinthia, Salzburg, 
Austria, and Styria. 8. Alpes Carnicce sive Julice, termina- 
ting in the Mons Albius, on the confines of Illyricum. They 
were called Carnicce from the Carni, who dwelt at their foot, 
and Julice from Julius Caesar, who commenced a road over 
them, which Augustus completed. 

OBS. 1. " How different," remarks Heeren, " would have been the whole his- 
tory of Europe, had the Alpine barrier, instead of being near the Mediterranean, 
been removed to the shores ol the North Sea ! This*boundary, it is true, seems 
of less moment in our time, when the enterprising spirit of Europe has made 
a road across the Alps, as well as a path over the ocean ; but it was cf decisive 
importance in antiquity. The north and south were then physically, morally, 
and politically divided ; that chain long remained the protecting bulwark of the 
one against the other ; and although Caesar, by bursting through these bounda- 
ries, in some measure removed the political landmarks, the distinction still con- 
tinues apparent between the Roman part of Europe and that which never yielded 
to the Romans." 

2. The march of Hannibal across the Alps is one of the most remarkable 
events in ancient history, and has given rise to much discussion among modern 
scholars. The following general results appear to have been sufficiently well 
established: 1. After a careful examination of the text of Polybius, and a com- 
parison of the different localities, his narrative will be found, on the whole, to 
agree best with the supposition that Hannibal crossed the Graian Alps or Little 
St. Bernard, though it can not be denied that there are some difficulties attend- 
ing this line, especially in regard to the descent into Italy. 2. Caelius Antipa- 
ter certainly represented him as taking this route (Liv., xxi., 38) ; and as he is 
known to have followed the Greek history of Silenus, who is said to have ac- 
companied Hannibal in many of his campaigns, his authority is of the greatest 
weight. 3. Livy and Strabo, on the contrary, both suppose him to have crossed 
the Cottian Alps or Mont Genevre. But the main argument that appears to have 
weighed with Livy, as it has done with several modern writers on the subject, 
is the assumption that Hannibal descended in the first instance into the country 
of the Taurini, which is opposed to the direct testimony of Polybius, who says 
expressly that he descended among the Insubrians, and subsequently mentions 
his attack on the Taurini. 4. According to Livy himself (xxi., 29), the Gaulish 
emissaries who acted as Hannibal's guides were Boians, and it was natural that 
these should conduct him by the passage that led directly into the territories 
of their allies and brothers in arms, the Insubrians, rather than into that of the 
Taurini, who were at this very time in a state of hostility with the Insubrians. 
(Polyb., iii., 60.) And this remark will serve to explain why Hannibal chose 
apparently a longer route instead of the more direct one of the Mont Genevre. 
Lastly, i* is remarkable that Polybius, though he censures the exaggerations 
and absurdities with which earlier writers had encumbered their narrative (iii., 

ITALIA. 253 

47, seq.), does not intimate that any doubt was entertained as to the line of his 
march ; and Pompey, in a letter to the senate, written in 73 B.C. (ap. Sallust., 
Hist. Frag., lib. iii.), alludes to the route of Hannibal across the Alps as some- 
thing well known. Hence it appears clear that the passage by which he 
crossed them must have been one of those frequented in subsequent times by 
the Romans ; and this argument seems decisive against the claims of the Mont 
Cenis, which have been advocated by some modern writers, that pass having 
apparently never been used until the Middle Ages. Of the latest historians, it 
may be noticed that Niebuhr (Lect. on Rom. Hist., vol. i., p. 170) and Arnold 
(Hist, of Rome, vol. iii., p. 83-92, note M), as well as Botticher (Gesch. d. Car- 
thagcr, p. 261), have decided in favor of the Little St. Bernard, while Michelet 
(Hist. Romaine, vol. ii., p. 10) and Thierry (Hist, des Gaulois, vol. i., p. 276), in 
common with almost all French writers, adopt the Mont Genevre or Mont Cenis. 
(Smith, Diet. Biog., art. Hannibal ; compare Ukert, Hannibal's Zug uber die Alpen, 
appended to the second part of the second volume of his Geographic d. Griech. 
u. Romer.) 

II. Apenninus Mons, now the Apennines. This chain, branch- 
ing off from the Maritime Alps in the neighborhood of Genua, 
now Genoa, runs diagonally from the Sinus Ligusticus to the 
Hadriaticum Mare, in the vicinity of Ancona ; thence contin- 
uing nearly parallel with the Adriatic as far as the Garganum 
Promontorium, now the Promontory of Gargano, it again in- 
clines to the Mare Inferum, till it finally terminates in the 
promontory of Leucopetra near Rhegium. 

OBS. The Latin writers most commonly employ the singular number in speak- 
ing of this chain. The term is masculine of itself, and not merely on account of 
the addition of Mons, since Polybius also invariably has 6 'A-rrswivo^. The la- 
ter Greeks, and among them Strabo, following the analogy of their own lan- 
guage, first changed the form of expression to the neuter, calling the chain rd 
'knevvtvov opoq, and also in the plural, ra 'Airevviva oprj, and hence the plural 
form has come down to our own times. The name Apenninus contains evi- 
dently the Celtic radical penn, " a summit," " a mountain-top." The true form 
is Apenninus, as we have given it, not Appenninus, nor Apeninus. Compare 
Klotz, Handwdrterb. der Lat. Spr., s. v. 

III. The inferior chains, as well as the individual mountains, 
will be given in the account of the several divisions of Italy. 


THE principal promontories of Italia were twenty in number, 
namely, nine along the lower coast, down to and including Leu- 
copetra ; seven along the southeastern shore, up to and inclu- 
ding the lapygium Promontorium, the lapygum tria Promon- 
toria being reckoned merely as one ; and four along the upper 
coast, as follows : 


1. On the Lower Coast. 

I. Populonium Promontorium^ a lofty cliff on the coast of 
Etruria, running out into the sea like a peninsula, and on which 
was situate the city of Populonium. It is now called Capo di 
Campana. On the summit of it was a tower for watching the 
approach of the tunny fish. From this promontory one could 
plainly see the island of Ilva, now Elba, and even Corsica and 

II. Cossdnum Promontorium, on the coast of Etruria, below 
the preceding, and deriving its ancient name from the city of 
Cossa or Cosa, in its immediate vicinity. There is here also 
a peninsula, forming a double bay, in the midst of which rises 
the Mons Argentarius, now Monte Argentario, which is also 
the modern name of the promontory. 

III. Circceum Promontorium^ on the coast of Latium, below 
Antium, now Monte Circello. This promontory, which is, in 
fact, a bold, projecting mountain, was fabled to have been the 
residence of Circe, the adjacent country being very low, and 
giving the promontory at a distance the appearance of an isl- 
and. Some accidental resemblance in name most probably 
gave rise, in the first instance, to the legend. Homer's account, 
however, of the Isle of Circe, does not at all suit this spot. The 
Homeric island was a low one, whereas this promontory is a 
lofty one. The promontory of Circeii was famed for its oysters 
in the time of both Horace and Juvenal. 

IV. Misenum Promontorium, on the coast of Campania, now 
Capo Miseno, and forming the upper extremity of the Sinus 
Crater , or Bay of Naples. It was so named, according to Vir- 
gil, from Misenus, one of the followers of ^Eneas, who was 
drowned here, and buried at the base of the promontory. The 
harbor of Misenum, or Misenus Portus, became one of the first 
naval stations in the empire, being the station of the fleet ap- 
pointed to guard the coast of the lower sea. The neighboring 
country abounded with marine villas, and there was a celebra- 
ted one on the brow of the promontory itself, overlooking the 
sea, which belonged at one time to Caius Marius, and after- 
ward came into the possession, first of Lucullus, and then of 
Tiberius the emperor, who died here. 

V. Minerva Promontorium, closing the Bay of Naples to the 

ITALIA. 255 

southwest, was so called from a temple of Minerva which stood 
on it, and which was fabled to have been erected by Ulysses. 
It was also called Surrentlnum Promontorium, from the city 
of Surrentum, which stood close by. The modern name of the 
promontory is Punta della Campanella. Another ancient name 
was Sirenusarum Promontorium, or Cape of the Sirens. 

VI. Posidium Promontorium, on the coast of Lucania, and 
inclosing the Sinus Pcestanus, or Gulf of Salerno, to the south. 
It is now Punta di Licosa. 

VII. Palinurum Promontorium, also on the coast of Lucania, 
and now Capo di Palinuro. Tradition ascribed the name of 
this promontory to Palinurus, the pilot of /Eneas, who was 
buried on it. Orosius records a disastrous shipwreck on the 
rock of Palinurus, sustained by a Roman fleet on its return 
from Africa, when one hundred and fifty vessels were lost. Au- 
gustus also encountered great peril on this part of the coast, 
when, according to Appian, many of his ships were dashed 
against this headland. 

VIII. Ccenys Promontorium, just below the famous rock of 
Scylla, and facing the Promontory of Pelorus in Sicily, forming 
by means of it the narrowest part of the Fretum Siculum. The 
modern name is Punta del Pezzo, called, also, Coda del Volpe. 
Holstenius less correctly contends for the Torre del Cavallo. 

IX. Leucopetra Promontorium, or, as its name indicates in 
Greek, the W kite-Rock Promontory, just below Rhegium, on 
the Fretum Siculum, and regarded by all ancient writers .on 
the geography of Italy as the termination of the Apennines. 
A difference of opinion exists as to the modern point of land 
which answers to it. The one most generally followed is in 
favor of the Capo deW Armi. 

2. On the Southeastern Shore. 

I. Herculis Promontorium or Herculeum Promontorium, the 
most southern angle of Italy to the east, and formed by a spur 
of the Apennines. It is now Capo Spartivento. 

II. Zephyrium Promontorium, a short distance to the north- 
east of the preceding, now Capo di Bruzzano. The Locrians 
who settled in this quarter from Greece, derived from this prom- 
ontory the appellation of Epizephyrii, as having originally es- 
tablished themselves on the Zephyrian promontory. 


HI. Cocintum Promontorium, to the northeast of the pre- 
ceding, now Capo di Stilo. According to Polybius, this prom- 
ontory marked the separation of the Ionian from the Sicilian 

IV. lapygum Trio, Promontoria, three capes, in close prox- 
imity, shutting in the Sinus Scyllaclus^ or Gulf of Squihace, 
to the northeast. Their modern names are Capo delta Castel- 
la, Capo Rizzuto, and Capo della Nave. Close to these capes 
were formerly two rocks or islets, each distinguished by a spe- 
cific appellation, but which have now entirely disappeared. The 
nearest was reported to be Qgygla, the island of Calypso, 
where Ulysses was so long detained an unwilling prisoner. 
The other, the more distant of the twg, was called the island 
of the Dioscuri. 

V. Lacinium Promontorium, a short distance above, to the 
northeast, and forming the lower extremity of the Sinus Taren- 
tinus, or Gulf of Taranto. It is now called Capo dalle Colonne 
and Capo Nao, from the remains of the celebrated temple of 
the Lacinian Juno, which are still visible on its summit. This 
edifice was famed for its great antiquity, the magnificence of 
its decorations, and the veneration with which it was regarded. 
It was surrounded by a thick grove of aged trees, in the midst 
of which were spacious meads. Here numerous flocks and herds 
were pastured in perfect security, as they were accounted sa- 
cred. From the profits accruing out of the sale of this cattle, 
which was destined for sacrifices, it is said that a column of 
solid gold was erected and consecrated to the goddess. On the 
festival of Juno, which was celebrated annually, an immense 
concourse of the inhabitants of all the Italian Greek cities as- 
sembled here, and a grand display of the most rare and precious 
productions of art and nature was exhibited. This sanctuary 
was respected by Pyrrhus, as well as by Hannibal, the latter 
of whom caused an inscription in Greek and Punic characters 
to be deposited here, recording the number of his troops and 
their several victories and achievements. But several years 
afterward it sustained great injury from Fulvius Flaccus, a 
censor, who caused a great portion of the roof, which was cov- 
ered with marble, to be removed, for the purpose of adorning a 
temple of Fortune constructed by him at Rome. So great an 
outcry was raised against this act of impiety, that orders were 

ITALIA. 257 

issued by the senate that every thing should be restored to its 
former state ; but this could not be effected, no architect being 
found of skill sufficient to replace the marble tiles according to 
their original position. 

VI. Crimisa Promontorium, above the preceding, to the north- 
west, now Capo d? Alice. The River Crimisa, now Fiumeni- 
ca, was a short distance below. 

VII. lapygium Promontorium, called, also, Sallentmum 
Promontorium, now Capo di Leuca, at the southern extrem- 
ity of lapygia, in the territory of the Sallentini. When the 
art of navigation was yet in its infancy, this great headland 
presented a conspicuous landmark to mariners bound from the 
ports of Greece to Sicily, of which they always availed them- 
selves. The fleets of Athens, after having circumnavigated the 
Peloponnesus, are represented on this passage as usually mak- 
ing for Corcyra, whence they steered straight across to this 
promontory, and then coasted along the south of Italy for the 
remainder of their voyage. There seems, indeed, to have been 
a sort of haven here, capable of affording shelter to vessels in 
tempestuous weather. Strabo describes this celebrated point 
of land as denning, together with the Ceraunian Mountains, 
the line of separation between the Adriatic and the Ionian Seas, 
while it formed with the opposite cape of Lacinium the en- 
trance to the Tarentine Gulf. 

3. On the Upper Coast. 

I. Brundisii Promontorium, one of the two headlands at the 
mouth of the harbor of Brundisium, now Capo Cavallo. 

II. Garganum Promontorium, an extensive neck of land, ly- 
ing between what are now the Bay of Rodi and the Bay of 
Manfredonia, the latter being the ancient Sinus Urias. It is 
in this sense that Strabo understands the appellation, namely, 
as belonging to the entire neck of land, not merely to a part of 
it. This neck of land was formed, in fact, by the ridge of 
Mount Garganus, and its modern name is Monte Gargano, 
or, as some give it, Monte St. Angelo. The ridge itself ter- 
minates in a bold headland, which was also called Garganum 
Promontorium, and is now Punt a di Viesti. Mount Garga- 
nus was covered with thick forests of oak, and is often alluded 
to on this account by the Latin poets. 



III. Cumerium Promontorium, on the coast of Picenum, now 
Monte Comero, or, as it is sometimes called, Monte Guasco. 
This promontory has a semicircular shape, and on the declivity 
of the hill which formed it stood the city of Ancona. 

IV. Polaticum Promontorium, at the southern extremity of 
Histria, now Punta di Promontore. Its ancient name was de- 
rived from the city of Pola, in its immediate vicinity. 


I. Pddus, now the Po, rising in Mom Vesulus, now Monte 
Viso, and falling into the Hadriaticum Mare or Adriatic Sea. 
It flows from two small takes on Monte Viso, the one situated 
immediately below the highest peak, the other still higher up, 
between that peak and the lesser one called Visoletto. The 
waters of this second lake find vent in a great cavern, and this 
probably is the source to which Pliny alludes when he speaks 
of the origin of the Po as being a remarkable sight. This river 
was called by the Greeks the Eridanus. Its Celtic name was 
Bodincus. The whole course of the stream, including its wind- 
ings, is about four hundred and fifty miles. Its waters are li- 
able to sudden increase from the melting of the snows and from 
heavy falls of rain, the rivers that flow into it being almost all 
mountain streams, and in the flat country, in the lower part of 
its course, great dikes are erected on both sides of the river to 
protect the lands from inundation. The Etrurians are said 
to have first applied themselves to the embanking of the Po. 
It receives a great number of tributaries, its channel being the 
final receptacle of almost every stream which rises on the east- 
ern and southern declivities of the Alps, and the northern de- 
clivity of the Apennines. The mouths of the Po were ancient- 
ly reckoned seven in number, the principal one, which was 
the southernmost, being called Padusa, and now Po di Pri- 
maro. It was this mouth, also, to which the name of Ostium 
Spineticum, or Eridanum, was applied. It sent off a branch 
from itself near Trigaboli, which was anciently called Volana 
Ostium, but is now denominated Po di Ferrara. Pliny men- 
tions the following other branches or mouths of the Po : the 
Caprasice Ostium, now Bocca di bel occhio ; the Sagis Os- 
tium, now Fossage ; and the Carbonaria, now the Po d'Artano. 
The Fossa Philistina is the Po grande, and the Tartarus, now 

ITALIA. 259 

Tartaro, which communicated with it, is probably the Hadria 
of Stephanus Byzantinus, or the Hatrianus of Ptolemy. The 
Fossa Philistina is spoken of as a very considerable canal, hav- 
ing seven arms or cuts, commonly known by the name of Sep- 
tem Maria, drawn off from it to the sea. These works were 
undertaken by the Etrurians for the purpose of draining the 
marshy lands about Hadria. The Po is rendered famous in 
the legends of mythology by the fate of Phaethon, who fell into 
it when struck down from heaven by the thunderbolt of Jove. 
We will now proceed to name the tributaries of this stream. 

(A.) Tributaries of the Padus from the North, beginning' at 

the West. 

1. Duria. There were two rivers of this name, the Duria Major and the Duria 
Minor. The Duria Minor was the more western one of the two. It rose in the 
Alpes Cottice, on what is now Mont Genevre, and joined the Padus near Augusta 
Taurinorum, the modern Turin. It is now the Doria Riparia. The Duria Ma- 
jor rose on what is now the Col de la Seigne, where the Alpes Pennine com- 
menced, and fell into the Padus between Bodincomdgus and Quadratce, at what 
is now Crescentino. Its modern name is the Doria Baltea. 2. Sessites, to the 
east of the preceding, now the Sessia or Sesia. It passed by Vercella, now Ver- 
celli. 3. Ticinus, now the Tessino, one of the largest of the tributaries of the 
Po, rose in the Lepontine Alps, on what is now Mont St. Gothard, passed through 
the Locus Verbanus or Lago Maggiore, and entered the Po a little distance be- 
low Ticinum, the modern Pavia. The waters of the Ticinus are celebrated by 
the ancient poets for their clearness and beautiful color. On the banks of this 
river Hannibal gained his first victory over the Romans. 4. Lambrus, now the 
Lambro, rose in the Lacus Eupilis, now Lago di Pusciana, among the mountains 
that separate the lower part of the Lacus Larius into two arms, and emptied 
into the Po between Ticinum and Placentia. 5. Addua or Aduas ("Adouaf), now 
the Adda, rose in the Raetian Alps, formed in its course the Lacus Larius or Lago 
di Como, and, emerging from it again, fell into the Po between Placentia and Cre- 
mona. 6. Ollius, now the Oglio, rose in the Raetian Alps, formed in its course 
the Lacus Sebmus, now Lago d'Iseo, and fell into the Po a little distance from 
Nuceria. It received in its course the Mela, now Mella, and the Clusius, now 
Chiese, which separated the Cenomdni from the Insubres. 7. Hindus, now Min- 
cio, issued from the Lacus Bendcus, now Lago di Garda, flowed by Mantua, and, 
after a sluggish and winding course, fell into the Po to the west of Hostilia, now 

(B.) Tributaries of the Padus from the South, beginning- at 

the West. 

1. Tandrus, now Tanaro, the largest of all the tributaries of the Po, on the 
right or southern bank of the stream. It rose in the Apennines, where they 
branched off from the Maritime Alps, and after receiving the Stura, which 
still retains its name, and also the Urbis, now the Orba, fell into the Padus, 
near Laumellum, the modern Lomello. 2. Trebia, which still retains its name, 


rose in the Apennines, to the northeast of Genua, and fell into the Padus a 
little to the west of Placentia. On the left bank of the Trebia, about eight 
miles from Placentia, Hannibal gained his second victory over the Romans. 
3. Tarus, now Taro. 4. Parma, still retaining its name, and flowing by the city 
of Parma. 5. Nlcia, now the Lenza, which the ^Emilian Way crossed a little 
before Tanetum. 6. Gabellus or Secia, now the Secchia. 7. Scultenna, now 
Panaro. 8. Rhenus, now Reno, celebrated in history for the meeting of the sec- 
ond triumvirate, which took place in an island formed by its stream. 

II. Arnus, now the Arno, rising in the Umbrian Apennines, 
and, after flowing through Etruria and passing by Florentia, 
now Firenze or Florence, and Pisce, now Pisa, falling into the 
Mare Tyrrhenum. At its mouth was the Portus Pisanus. 
The Arnus anciently received the Ausar, now the Serchio, from 
the north, and the juncture took place where the city of PissB 
stood ; now, however, both rivers flow into the sea by separate 

III. Tiberis, now the Tiber, on whose banks stood the city 
of Rome. It is said to have been originally called Albula, from 
the whiteness of its waters, and afterward Tiberis or Tibris 
when Tiberinus, a king of Alba, had been drowned in it. It is 
probable, however, that Albula was the old Latin name, and 
Tiberis or Tibris the Tuscan one. It is often called by the 
Greeks Thymbris (6 Qvp6pi$). The Tiber rose in the Apen- 
nines above Arretium, and after being joined, during a course 
of one hundred and fifty miles, ' by upward of forty tributary 
streams, fell into the lower sea at Ostia. This stream was 
also called poetically Tyrrhenus amnis, from its watering Etru- 
ria, the country of the Tyrrheni, on one side, in its course, and 
also Lydius amnis, on account of the popular tradition which 
traced the arts and civilization of Etruria to Lydia in Asia 
Minor. The poets, of course, are full of allusions to this cele- 
brated stream, and another poetic form of the name is Thybris. 

(A.) Tributaries of the Tiber on the Eastern Side. 

1. Tinia, now the Timia, was formed by several streams which united a lit- 
tle above Mevdnia, the modern Bevagna, at which latter place it is joined also 
by the Topino. Of the streams that flowed into and formed the Tinia, the most 
celebrated was the Clitumnus, famed for the snow-white herds that pastured on 
its banks, and were always selected to adorn the Roman triumphs as victims to 
the Capitoline Jove. Pliny the younger has left us a beautiful description of 
this sacred river and its little temple, the ruins of which are still to be seen be- 
tween Foligno and Spoleto. The stream rises close to the temple, and still 
bears the name of Clitunno. 2. Nar, now the Ncra, rose on Mount Fiscellus, in 
the Apennines, above Nursia, and in the northeastern angle of the Sabine ter- 

ITALIA. 261 

ritory. In the first half of its course it formed the boundary between the Sa- 
bines and the Umbrians, and then to the east of Interamna, now Terra, received 
the Veiinus, now Velino, and after flowing onward through Umbria, fell into the 
Tiber near Ocriculum. The Nar was noted for its sulphureous stream. The 
River Veiinus, before it joined the Nar, formed some small lakes, the chief 
of which was called the Lacus Veiinus, now Lago di Pie di Luco. The drain- 
age of the stagnant waters produced by the occasional overflow of these lakes 
and of the river was first attempted by Curius Dentatus, the conqueror of the 
Sabines. He caused a channel to be made for the Veiinus, through which the 
waters of that river were carried into the Nar, over a precipice of several hun- 
dred feet. This is the celebrated fall of Terra, known in Italy by the name of 
Caduta delle Marmore. The valley of the Veiinus, in which stood the city of 
Redte, was so delightful as to merit the appellation of Tempe ; and, from their 
dewy freshness, its meadows obtained the name of Rosei Campi. 

3. Allia, now the Aia, a small but celebrated stream, rose in the Crusturnine 
hills below Nomentum, was crossed by the Via Salaria about four miles beyond 
the modern Marciglione, and fell into the Tiber at the distance of eleven miles 
from Rome. This river is memorable for having witnessed the disgraceful 
overthrow of the Romans by the Gauls under Brennus (July 18, B.C. 390), on 
which account the dies Alliensis, or " day on the Allia," was always marked as 
a most unlucky one in the Roman calendar. The defeat on the Allia was fol- 
lowed by the capture of the city. 4. Anio, now the Teverone, rose in the Apen- 
nines near the Sabine town of Treba, and fell into the Tiber about three miles 
to the north of Rome. Its earlier name was Anien, whence comes the genitive 
Anienis, which is joined in inflection with the later nominative Anio. It is not 
so full a stream as the Nar, but was considered, however, by the Romans as 
the most important among the tributaries of the Tiber, and hence received also 
the appellation of Tiberinus, whence comes, by corruption, the modern name 
Teverone. This river, in its course, passed by the town of Tibur, the modern 
Tivoli, where it formed some beautiful cascades. 5. Almo, now the Alrnone or 
Aquatacio, a small stream rising near BovillcB, about ten miles to the southeast 
of Rome, and falling into the Tiber a short distance below that city. At the 
junction of this stream with the Tiber, the priests of Cybele, every year, on the 
25th of March, washed the statue and sacred things of the goddess. 

(B.) Tributaries of the Tiber on the Western Side. 

1. Clanis, now Chiana, rising near Arretium in Etruria, and falling into the 
Tiber northeast of Vulsinii. Near Clusium Vetus it formed a marsh termed 
Clusina Palus. It may be seen from Tacitus (Ann., i., 79), that a project was 
once agitated for causing the waters of this marsh to discharge themselves into 
the Arnus. 2. Cremera, a small river now called the Valca, rising in the neigh- 
borhood of Baccana, the modern Baccano, and falling into the Tiber a little be- 
low Prima Porta. It was in the vicinity of the place where this river joined 
the Tiber that the Fabii were cut off by the Veientes. 

IV. Liris, now the Garigliano, a river of Campania, rising 
in the country of the Marsi, to the west of the Lacus Fucmus, 
and falling into the lower sea near Minturnae. It is particular- 
ly noted by the ancient poets for the sluggishness of its stream. 
According to Strabo, its more ancient name was Clanis (KAa- 
according to Pliny, however, Glanis. 


V. Vulturnus, now the Volturno, a river of Campania, rising 
among the Apennines, in the territory of Samnium, and falling 
into the lower sea at Vulturnum. A magnificent bridge was 
thrown over this river by Domitian, when he caused a road to 
be constructed from Sinaessa to Puteoli. 

VI. AufiduSj now the Ofanto, the largest river of Apulia, 
rising in the Apennines, in the territory of the Hirpini, and 
flowing into what is now the Gulf of Manfredonia. It was 
remarkable for the rapidity of its course. On the banks of this 
river the fatal battle of Cannae was fought. 

VII. Metaurus, now the Metaro, a river of Umbria, rising 
in the Apennines, and falling into the Hadriaticum Mare, 01 
Adriatic Sea, above Sena Gallica. li^was rendered memora- 
ble by the defeat of Hasdrubal, the brother of Hannibal, when 
on his way with re-enforcements for the latter. The battle is 
supposed to have taken place near the modern Fossombrone, 
and on the left bank of the stream. 

VIII. Rubicon, a small stream falling into the Adriatic a 
little to the north of Arimmum, but, though trifling in volume, 
yet important as forming, in part, the northern boundary of 
Italia Propria. It was on this account that it was forbidden 
the Roman commanders to pass the Rubicon with an armed 
force, since in violating this injunction they would enter on the 
immediate territory of the republic, under the government of 
the senate, and would be, in effect, declaring war upon their 
country. Caesar crossed this stream with his army at the 
commencement of the civil war, and harangued his troops at 
Ariminum. When Augustus subsequently included Gallia 
Cisalpina within the limits of Italy, the Rubicon sank, of 
course, in importance, and in modern times it is difficult, there- 
fore, to ascertain the position of the true stream. D'Anville 
makes it correspond with a current called Fiumesino ; popular 
tradition, however, is in favor of the Pisatello. 

IX. Athesis, now Adige, or, as the Germans call it, the 
Etsch, a river of Venetia, rising in the Rsetian Alps, or the 
mountains of the Tyrol, and, after a course of nearly two hun- 
dred miles, discharging its waters into the Adriatic, north of 
the mouths of the Po. Next to this last-mentioned river, it 
must be looked upon as the most considerable stream of Italy. 

X. Medudcus Major and Meduacus Minor, both rising in 

ITALIA. 263 

the Raetian Alps, in the territory of the Meduaci, from whom 
they derive their name, and falling into the Adriatic to the north 
of the mouth of the Athesis. The Meduacus Major is now the 
Brenta, and the Minor now Bachiglione. 

XI. Plavis, now the Piave, further to the northeast. Pliny, 
who enumerates many of the most unimportant streams, passes 
over this, one of the largest in Venetia, in silence. This was 
owing, probably, to there being no place of importance on its 
banks. It is first mentioned by Paulus Diaconus. 

XII. TimdvuSj falling into the Sinus Tergestinus to the east 
of Aquileia. It was small of size, but few streams have been 
more celebrated in antiquity, or more sung by the poets. Its 
numerous sources, its lake and subterranean passage, which 
have been the theme of the Latin muse from Virgil to Claudi- 
an and Ausonius, are now so little known that their existence 
has even been questioned, and ascribed to poetical invention. 
It has been, however, well ascertained that the name of Timao 
is still preserved by some springs which rise near San Giovanni 
di Carso and the castle of Duino, and form a river, which, 
after a course of little more than a mile, falls into the Adriatic. 
Antenor was fabled to have penetrated to the vicinity of this 
river after the capture of Troy. 

Some of the minor streams of Italy will be alluded to in the 
accounts given of the several divisions of the country. 

8. LAKES. 
(A.) Lakes in Gallia Cisalpma, from East to West. 

I. Lacus Bendcus, on the borders of Venetia, now Lago di 
Garda. It receives the small river Sarraca, now Sarca, from 
the north, and sends forth from its southern extremity the River 
Mincius, now Mincio. Its dimensions, according to modern 
computation, are about thirty Italian miles in length and nine 
in breadth. The ancient measurement was much larger. 
Sirmio, its principal promontory, and on the southwestern 
shore of the lake, was celebrated as having been the favorite 
residence of Catullus, who commemorates it in some beautiful 
lines. It is now called Sirmione. Virgil speaks of this lake 
as subject to sudden storms, which circumstance has also been 
observed by modern travellers. 

II. Lacus SebinuSj to the west of the preceding, now Lago 


d?Iseo. It was formed by the Ollius, now the Oglio. Its 
modem name is derived from the town of Iseo, which appears 
to occupy the site of a town called Sebum, whence came the an- 
cient name of the lake. 

III. Lacus Larius, to the west of the preceding, now Lago 
di Como. Servius says that Cato reckoned the length of this 
lake at sixty miles, and the real distance, including the Lake 
of Chiavenna, is not short of that measurement. This lake 
receives, or, more correctly speaking, is formed by the Addua, 
now the Adda, which again emerges from it, and pursues its 
course to the Po. The modern name is derived from the town 
of Como, the ancient Comum. A headland, running boldly into 
the lake at its southern end, causes it J;o branch off into two 
arms, and in the mountains connected with this headland the 
River Lambrus took its rise. 

IV. Lacus Verbanus, to the west of the preceding, now Lago 
Maggiore, formed by the River Ticlnus. It is twenty-seven 
miles long, and, on an average, eight broad. In it lie the Borro- 
mean islands, which are the admiration of every traveller. 

(B.) Lakes in Etruria, from North to South. 

I. Lacus Trasimenus, a few miles to the south of Cortona, 
now Lago di Perugia, which name it receives from the mod- 
ern city of Perugia, the ancient Perusia, lying to the south- 
east of it. This lake was famous for the defeat of the Romans 
by Hannibal, making his third victory over them. The battle 
was fought in a narrow valley along the southern shore of the 
lake. Hannibal had taken up his position on the heights, and 
as the Romans pressed forward on the narrow path between 
the hills and the lake, Hannibal fell upon and defeated them 
with great slaughter. 

II. Lacus Prllis, called by Cicero Lacus Prelius, and in 
the Antonine Itinerary, Aprllis Lacus, on the shore to the 
southwest of the preceding, near the city of Rusellce, and just 
above the River Umbro. It is now Lago di Castiglione, 
which must not be confounded, however, with the Lago di 
Castiglione, answering to the ancient Lacus Gabinus, near 
Gabii, in Latium. 

III. Lacus Volsiniensis, to the southeast of the preceding, 
now the Lake of Bolsena, so called from the city of Bohena, 

ITALIA. 265 

on the northern shore, the ancient Vulsinii, which last gave its 
ancient name to the lake. The hilly banks of this lake were 
covered with wood, and its waters abounded with fish. Pliny, 
who calls it Lacus Tarquiniensis, mentions that it had two 
floating islands. 

IV. Lacus Vadimonis, to the southeast of the preceding, and 
near the confines of Umbria. It formerly existed close to the 
modern Bassano, and used to be called Lago di Bassano ; but 
it is now filled up with peat and rushes. This lake is cele- 
brated in the history of Rome for having witnessed the total 
defeat of the Etrurians by the Romans, a defeat so decisive 
that they never could recover from its effects. Another battle 
was again fought here by the Etrurians, in conjunction with 
the Gauls, against the Romans, but with the same ill success. 

V. Lacus Sabatinus, to the southwest of the preceding, and 
to the northwest of Veii. It derived its name from Sabdte, a 
city situated not far, probably, from the site of the present 
Bracciano, which now gives its name to the lake. It was said 
that a town had formerly been swallowed up by the Lacus Sa- 
batinus, and it was even asserted that in calm weather its ru- 
ms might still be seen below the surface of the water. 

(C.) Lake in the Country of the Mar si. 
Lacus Fucinus, nowLago di Celano, or, as it is sometimes 
called, La go Fucino. It was of considerable extent, being not 
less than forty miles in circumference. A small river, called 
Pitonius, now Giovenco, which entered the lake on the north- 
east side, was said not to mix its waters, the coldest known, 
with those of that lake. According to the same popular ac- 
count, this stream afterward emerged by a subterranean duct 
near Tibur, and became, under the name of Aqua Marcia, the 
purest supply which Rome received from its numerous aque- 
ducts. As this lake was subject to inundation, Caesar, it ap- 
pears, had intended to find a vent for its waters ; but this de- 
sign was not carried into effect till the reign of Claudius. Af- 
ter a continued labor of eleven years, during which thirty thou- 
sand men were constantly employed, a canal of three miles in 
length was carried through a mountain from the lake to the 
River Liris. On its completion, the splendid but sanguinary 
show of a real naumachia was exhibited on the lake, in the 


presence of Claudius and Agrippina and a numerous retinue, 
while the surrounding hills were thronged with the population 
of the neighboring country. The Emperor Hadrian afterward 
repaired this work of Claudius. 

(D.) Lakes in Latium, Campania, and Samnium. 

I. Lacus Regillus, to the southeast of Rome, between Labi- 
cum and Gabii, and now il Laghetto della Colonna. The vi- 
cinity of this lake was the scene of a great battle between the 
Romans and Latins, which Niebuhr assigns to the mythical 
history of Rome. 

II. Lacus Albanus, at the foot of the Alban Mount, and prob- 
ably the crater of an extinct volcano, 'ihis lake is well known 
in history from the prodigious rise of its waters, to such an ex- 
tent, indeed, as to threaten the whole surrounding country, and 
even Rome itself, with an overwhelming inundation. To rem- 
edy this, a subterranean canal was constructed, the rock being 
cut through for that purpose for the space of a mile and a 
half. The water discharged by this channel united with the 
Tiber about five miles below Rome. The work still exists, it 
is said, in remarkable preservation. The lake is now called 
La go di Cast el Gandolfo. 

III. Lacus Avernus, in Campania, near Baise and Puteoli, 
now La go d'Averno. It was separated from the Lucrine 
Lake, which lay in front of it, by a low and narrow strip of land, 
and was surrounded on every side but this by steep hills and 
dense forests. Gloom and darkness therefore encompassed the 
lake, and accumulated effluvia filled the air with contagion. 
The ancients even had a popular belief among them that birds, 
on attempting to fly over this sheet of water, became stupefied 
by its exhalations and fell into it. Hence the common, though 
erroneous derivation of the name (in Greek "Ao/wo^), from a 
privative, and fy?wf, " a bird" Here, too, it was believed, were 
the subterranean abodes of the Cimmerians, and a descent to 
the lower world. The forests and gloom, however, disappeared 
when Agrippa opened a communication with the Lucrine Lake, 
and constructed the well-known Julian harbor. 

IV. Lacus Lucrinus, in Campania, and immediately adjacent 
to the preceding. Its shores were famed for their oysters and 
other shell-fish. In the year 1538, an earthquake formed a 

ITALIA. 267 

hill, called Monte Nuovo 9 which displaced the water, and left 
no appearance of a lake, but only a morass filled with grass and 
rushes, and such is still the state of things at the present day. 
The Lucrine Lake formed part of the celebrated Julian harbor 
constructed by Agrippa. 

OBS. The Julian harbor, or Portus Julius, may here be briefly described. It 
was called by this name in honor of Augustus, and was constructed by Agrippa 
under his orders. According to Dio Cassius (xlviii., 50), there were three lakes 
in this quarter, lying one behind the other. The outermost one, however, or 
Lacus Tyrrhenus, was properly only a bay. The middle one was the Lucrine, 
and the innermost one the Lake Avernus. The Lucrine was separated from 
the outermost lake, or bay, by a natural dike, eight stadia long, and of a char- 
iot's breadth. There was also a separation between the Lucrine and the Aver- 
nian lakes. The outer dike was, according to Strabo, accustomed in storms to 
be washed by the waves, thus rendering it almost impassable on foot. Agrippa 
thereupon raised it higher. Dio Cassius adds that the same commander cut 
through the dike at either end, where it joined the land. These two openings 
were then strongly fortified. Agrippa at the same time made an entrance 
through the intervening land into the Avernian Lake, thus joining it to the Lu- 
crine, and cut down the thick forests that stood upon its banks. The whole in- 
terior space occupied by the two lakes was called the Julian harbor, Portus Ju- 
lius, the two entrances to which were in the outer dike. The object in form- 
ing this harbor was chiefly to procure a place along the coast fit for exercising 
and training a body of seamen previous to the contest with Sextus Pompeius, 
the son of Pompey the Great. 

V. Amsancti Lacus, in the celebrated valley of Amsanctus, 
in Samnium, and in the country of the Hirpini, to the south- 
west of Trivlcum, and close to what is now the little town of 
Tricento. The lake was remarkable for the mephitic vapors 
emitted from it, the waters being sulphureous, and on its banks 
was a temple sacred to the goddess Mephitis. The lake is still 
called Mefiti. Virgil has given a fine description of it and the 
scenery around. 


(A.) On the Lower Coast, beginning* from the North. 
1. Sinus LigusticMS, now Gulf of Genoa. 2. Sinus Amy- 
cldnus, commencing at the Promontory of Circeii, and extend- 
ing down to Caieta, and forming now the upper or northern 
part of the Gulf of Gaeta. It took its name from the city of 
Amyclce, which once stood on its shores. 3. Sinus Caietdnus, 
extending from Caieta down the coast to near Cumce, now the 
lower part of the Gulf of Gaeta. 4. Sinus Crater, called, also, 
Sinus Cumdnus or Puteoldnus, now the Bay of Naples. It 


extended from the Promontory of Misenum to the Promontory 
of Minerva or of Surrentum. The ancient name Crater was 
given to it from its resembling the mouth of a Kparrjp, that is, 
of a large bowl or mixer. 5. Sinus Pcestanus, immediately be- 
low the preceding, and reaching from the Promontory of Mi- 
nerva to the Promontory of Posidium. *It is now the Gulf of 
Salerno. Its ancient name was derived from the city of Pees- 
tum ; its modern one from the city of Salerno, the ancient Sa- 
lernum. 6. Sinus Laus, now the GulfofPolicastro. Its an- 
cient name was derived from the River Laos or Laus, now the 
Lao, which flows into it. 7. Sinus Termceus, called, also, La- 
meticus, Napitlnus, and Hipponiates, and now the Gulf of St. 
Euphemia. It derived the name of Terjnceus from the city of 
Terma, now Nocera ; that of Lameticus from Lametia, now 
St. Euphemia ; that of Napitinus from Napitia, now Pizzo ; 
and that of Hipponiates from Hipponium or Vibo Valentia, 
now Monte Leone; all these places being situate either on or 
near its shores. 

(B.) On the Southeastern Coast. 

1. Sinus Scyllaclus or Scylleticus, between the Promonto- 
rium Cocintum and the lapygum tria Promontoria. It is 
now the Gulf of Squill ace. Its name was derived from the 
city of Scyllaclum or Scylletium, the modern Squillace. The 
isthmus which separated this gulf from the Sinus Terinceus, 
on the other sea, was not more than twenty miles broad, and 
this circumstance suggested to the elder Dionysius the project 
of carrying a fortification across it, which would have been the 
means of cutting off the more southern Greeks from communi- 
cating with their allies to the north of this narrow peninsula, 
but he was prevented by the latter from executing this design. 
2. Sinus Tarentlnus, the wide gulf extending from the Lacin- 
ian to the lapygian Promontory, and now the Gulf of Taranto. 
Its name was derived from the celebrated city of Tarentum, 
now Taranto. 

(C.) On the Upper Coast, from South to North. 

1. Sinus Urias, extending from the Promontory of Garga- 
num upward as far as the modern Punt a di Mileto. It is often, 
but erroneously, taken for the modern Gulf of Manfredonia, 

ITALIA. 269 


below the promontory. The language of Pomponius Mela, 
however, and the position of Hyrium (whence it derived its 
name) on the coast above the Garganian Promontory, are deci- 
sive on this point. 2. Sinus Terg-estinus, now the Gulf of 
Trieste. Its ancient name was derived from the city of Ter- 
geste, the modern Trieste. 3. Sinus Flanaticus or Polaticus, 
lying between Histria and Liburnia. Its name Flanaticus 
was derived from Flano, a town on the Illyrian side of it, while 
it was called Polaticus from Pola, the chief city of Histria. 
The modern name is the Gulf of Quarnaro. 


I. Mare Inferum, or Lower Sea, bounding the western coast 
of Italy, and called, also, Mare Tyrrhenum and Etruscum. It 
is now the Sea of Italy. 

II. Mare Superum, or 'Upper Sea, called, also, Mare Hadri- 
aticum, the arm of the sea between Italy and the opposite shores 
of Illyricum, Epirus, and Greece, comprehending, in its great- 
est extent, not only the Gulf of Venice, but also what was 
termed the Ionian Sea. 

OBS. Herodotus, in one passage (vii., 20), calls the whole extent of sea along 
the coast of Illyricum and western Greece, as far as the Corinthian Gulf, by the 
name of the Ionian Sea ('luvioc Troirof). In another passage, he styles the part 
in the vicinity of Epidamnus the Ionian Gulf (vi., 127). Scylax makes the 
Ionian Gulf the same with what he calls Adrias ('Adptaf), and places the termi- 
nation of both at Hydruntum. He is silent, however, respecting the Ionian Sea, 
as named by Herodotus. Thucydides, like Herodotus, distinguishes between 
the Ionian Gulf and Ionian Sea. The former he makes a part of the latter, 
which reaches to the shores of western Greece. These ideas, however, be- 
came changed at a later period. The limits of what Scylax had styled 'Adpiac, 
and had made synonymous with 'luvto? /cd/luof, were extended to the shores of 
Italy and the western coast of Greece, so that now the Ionic Gulf was regarded 
only'as a part of 'Adpiac, or the Adriatic. Eustathius informs us that the more 
accurate writers always observed this distinction (ad Dionys. Perieg., v. 92). 
Hence we obtain a key to Ptolemy's meaning w r hen he makes the Adriatic ex- 
tend along the entire coast of western Greece to the southern extremity of the 


I. IN the north, where the breadth of the peninsula is greatest, it is protected 
by the Alps against the influence of the north winds. 

II. The tuo halves into which Italy is divided by the Apennines are countries 
of a totally different character : the part east of the Apennines is a country of 
secondary, or still more frequently of tertiary formation, and of quite the same 
character as Illyricum on the opposite side of the Adriatic ; the western part, 


on the other hand, is mostly of a volcanic nature, and of the same kind as the 
islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica ; so that the Apennines rise between 
two large valleys, the deepest parts of which are filled on the one side by the 
Adriatic, and on the other by the Tyrrhenian Sea. 

III. The northern part of Italy, between the Alps, the Apennines, and the 
Adriatic, forms an extensive plain (the plain of Lombardy), intersected by the 
River Po and its numerous tributaries ; while the whole of Italy south of this 
large plain is a more or less mountainous country, including the richest plains 
and valleys, with hilly districts of the most beautiful and picturesque character. 

IV. The whole peninsula enjoys, generally speaking, a clear, bright, and trans- 
parent atmosphere, and is endowed by nature with the greatest advantages and 
facilities both for agriculture and commerce. No wonder, therefore, that Italy 
in ancient times was one of the most populous and best cultivated countries. 
The number of its towns is said to have amounted at one time to one thousand 
one hundred and ninety-seven. 

V. The climate of Italy appears to have been more severe in the winter season 
in ancient than in modern times. The language of the ancient writers clearly 
favors this conclusion. Pliny, for example, speaks of long snows being useful 
for the corn, which shows that he is not speaking of the mountains ; and a long 
snow in the valleys of central or southern Italy would be an unheard-of phe- 
nomenon now. The freezing of rivers also, as spoken of by Virgil and Horace, 
would not well suggest itself to Italian poets of the present day. 



I. Liguria was so called by the Romans from its inhabitants, 
whom they named Ligures. The Greeks, on the other hand, 
called the people Ligyes (Atyve^), and their country Ligystice 

II. Liguria, in the time of Augustus, was separated from 
Etruria by the River Macra, now Magra, and was bounded 
on the north and northeast by Gallia Cisalpina, on the west 
by Gallia Narbonensis, and on the south by the Sinus Ligus- 
ticus, or Gulf of Genoa. Its limits on the west were the Mar- 
itime Alps and the River Varus, now Var, while on the north- 
east it extended to the territories of the Anamani and Boit, 
two Gallic tribes. 

OBS. 1. The northern limits of Liguria are some what uncertain. Geographical 
writers, however, generally make them to be the River Orgus, now Orca, which 
separated the Taurini, a Ligurian race, from the Cisalpine Gauls, and the River 
Padus, or Po. Niebuhr, however, and others make the Libui or Libicii, and the 
Lavi, both lying beyond the Po, to have been also Ligurian tribes. 

2. The Ligures or Ligyes appear to have been in early times a very wide- 
spread race. If we may trust to the report transmitted to us by the ancient 
writers from the Carthaginian navigator Hamilco, they dwelt at one time upon 
the shores of the Atlantic Ocean, and were driven thence into the mountains 

ITALIA. 271 

by the overpowering pressure of the Celtic race. From the mountains they 
descended to the coasts of the Mediterranean. (Av. Or. Marti., 129, seqq.) 
Hence some regard this tradition as placing them on the banks of the River 
Liger (Ligyr) or Loire. Again, Herodotus describes them as dwelling above 
Massalia, now Marseilles, and in the time of Polybius they reached as far 
south as the Arnus, now Arno. Indeed, Niebuhr thinks it probable that they 
occupied at one time the whole country from the Pyrenees to the Tiber, with 
the Cevennes and the Helvetian Alps for their northern boundary. It is certain, 
moreover, that the Ligurians and Iberians were anciently contiguous. (Niebuhr, 
Rom. Hist., vol. i., p. 164, Cambr. transl) 


I. DIONYSIUS of Halicarnassus says that the extraction of the 
Ligurians was unknown. It is generally supposed that they 
were neither Iberians nor Celts. Strabo, indeed, expressly states 
that they were not of the Celtic race. 

II. Cato stigmatized the Ligurians as lying and deceitful, and 
some of the Latin poets also draw unfavorable pictures of their 
character. Other writers, however, speak highly of their in- 
dustry, courage, and perseverance. 

III. The Ligurians were celebrated as light-armed soldiers. 
The conquest of their country by the Romans was not effected 
until long after the second Punic war. Strabo relates that, for 
the space of eighty years prior to this, the Romans only ob- 
tained a free passage along their shore of twelve stadia from 
the coast. Their final reduction took place B.C. 166, and, in 
order to accomplish this the more effectually, whole tribes had 
to be carried out of the country. The conquest of Liguria was 
of great importance to the Romans, as this country afforded the 
easiest communication with Gaul and Spain over the Maritime 

OBS. The passage of Cato referred to in ii., occurs as a fragment of the 
Origines, and is cited by Servius, ad Virg., Mn., xi., 701, 715. The authorities 
on the other side are Cic. c. Rull., ii., 35 ; Virg., Georg., ii., 167 ; Diod., iv., 20 ; 
v., 39. Niebuhr is a warm advocate for the Ligurians against the attack of 
Cato. (Ram. Hist., vol. i., p. 165.) 


1. Cities and Places on the Coast, from West to East. 
1. Niccea, now Nice, ten miles to the east of the Varus or 
Var, and therefore, strictly speaking, a city of Liguria. As, 
however, it continued subject to the Massilians even after the 
Varus had been made the boundary in this quarter between 
Gaul and Italy, we have considered it as belonging to the for- 


mer country (page 110). 2. On the summit of the Alpes Mar- 
itimce, and marking the limit between Italy and Gaul, stood 
the Tropcea Augusti, erected by that emperor, and having in- 
scribed on it the names of all the Alpine tribes he had subdued, 
from the shores of the Mediterranean to the Adriatic. Some 
slight remains of this monument are still to be seen at the 
small village of La Turbia, a name evidently corrupted from 
Tropcea , about two miles above Monaco. 3. Portus or Arx 
Herculis Monceci, now Monaco. The place was of Greek or- 
igin, and Hercules, its reputed founder, was worshipped here. 
4. Albium Intemelium, now Vintimiglia, the capital of the In- 
temdii, a city of some size and note. From Tacitus we learn 
that it was a municipium. 5. After leaving the last-mentioned 
place, we cross the River Rutuba, now the Rotta, and come to 
Albium Ingaunum* now Albenga, the chief city of the Ingauni. 
This was also a municipium. Above the Ingauni, and among 
the mountains, were the Epanterii. Opposite Albium Ingau- 
num was the island of Gallinaria, so called from its abounding 
in a particular breed of fowls. 

6. Vada Sabatorum, called, also, Vada Sabatia, and Sabata 
alone, about twenty-five miles beyond the preceding, now Vado ; 
not Savon-a, as Cluverius thinks, which answers better to the 
ancient Savo, further on. The name Vada Sabatorum marks 
the shallow and muddy nature of the shore. 7. Gcnua, now 
Genoa (in Italian Genova), mentioned for the first time in his- 
tory by Livy (xxviii., 46) as having been destroyed by Mago 
the Carthaginian. It was subsequently rebuilt by the Romans 
and made a municipium. In the time of Strabo it was a place 
of considerable trade, particularly in timber, which was brought 
from the mountains, where it grew to a great size. Some of 
it, being richly veined, was used for making tables, which were 
thought scarcely inferior to those of cedar wood. Other com- 
modities were cattle, skins, and honey, which the Ligurians 
exchanged for oil and Italian wine, none being grown on their 
coast. 8. Portus Delphini, now Porto Fino. 9. Seg-este, now 
Sestri. In the mountains above this part of the coast were the 
Brinidtes and Apuani. So obstinate was the resistance which 
the latter of these tribes made to the Roman arms, that it was 
found necessary to remove a great part of them into Samnium. 
The River Macra, which formed the limit of Liguria in this 

ITALIA. 273 

direction, and which is now the Magra, is, like most of the 
mountain streams on this coast, nearly dry in summer. 

2. Cities and Places in the Interior, from West to East. 

1. Augusta Vagiennorum, capital of the Vagiewni, now 
Bene, according to Durandi ; but less correctly, according to 
D'Anville, Vico. According to Pliny, the Vagienni extended 
as far as the Mom Vesulus, or Monte Viso. 2. Ceba, to the 
southeast of the preceding, now Ceva. It was famed for its 
cheese. 3. Aquce Statiellce, to the northeast of the preceding, 
now Acqui. It was the capital of the Statielli. 4. Pollentia, 
to the west of the preceding, on the Tanarus, now Tanaro. 
Several vestiges still remain near a village called Polenza. It 
was celebrated for its wool. 5. Alba Pompeia, a few miles 
lower down on the Tanarus. It is now Alba. This place prob- 
ably owed its surname to Pompeius Strabo, who had colonized 
several towns in the north of Italy. It was a municipium, and 
the birth-place of the Emperor Pertinax. 6. Asta, to the north- 
east, now Asti. 7. Dertona, about twenty miles to the east 
of the preceding, now Tortona. It was a place of importance, 
and a Roman colony, supposed to have been established by the 
consul ^Emilius Scaurus. 8. Clastidium, to the northeast, now 
Chiasteggio. It was celebrated as the place where Claudius 
Marcellus gained the spolia opima by vanquishing and slaying 
Viridomarus, king of the Gccsdtcc. Clastidiurn was betrayed 
to Hannibal after the battle of the Ticinus, with considerable 
magazines which the Romans had laid up there, and it formed 
the chief depot of the Carthaginian army while encamped on 
the Trebia. 

Proceeding now to the northwest, and crossing the Padus, 
we come to the territory of the Taurini. From their position, 
indeed, they would seem more properly to belong to Cisalpine 
Gaul ; but Polybius excludes the Taurini from his enumera- 
tion of the Gauls who settled in the plains of Italy, and Strabo 
and Pliny expressly call them Ligurians. The Taurini occu- 
pied the country between the Padus and the Alps, as far as the 
River Orgus, now Orca, to the east, while the position of Fines, 
now Aviliana, fixes their limit to the west. They are first 
mentioned in history as having opposed Hannibal soon after his 
descent from the Alps, and their capital, which Appian calls 



Taurasia, was taken and plundered by that general after an 
ineffectual resistance of three days. As a Roman colony, it 
subsequently received the name of Augusta Taurinorum, and 
is now Turin (in Italian Torino). 

The Cottian Alps, in the vicinity of which we now are, were 
ruled over by Cottius, an Alpine chieftain, to whom we have 
already referred (page 251). His capital appears to have been 
Segusio, now Suza. Here he erected a triumphal arch to 
Augustus, and here his remains were interred. 


I. Gallia Cisalpina, or Gaul this side of the Alps, with ref- 
erence to Rome, was the name given fo the northern part of 
Italy, as occupied by the Gallic tribes which had poured over 
the Alps into this extensive tract of country. 

II. This country was bounded on the north and west by the 
Alps ; on the southwest by the River Orgus, now Orca, sepa- 
rating it from the Taurini ; on the south by Liguria, the Ap- 
ennines, and the River Rubicon ; and on the east by the Mare 
Hadriaticum and Venetia. 


I. THE whole of the rich country which bears at present the name of Lorn- 
lardy, was possessed at an early period by the ancient and powerful nation of 
the Tuscans, who appear to have conquered it from the Ligurians. 

II. Numerous hordes of Gauls subsequently pour over the Alps into Italy, 
and driving by degrees the Tuscans from these fertile plains, confine them at 
last within the narrow limits of Etruria. Livy assigns to these migrations of 
the Gauls as early a date as the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, or about B.C. 600. 

III. The Gauls, having securely established themselves in their new posses- 
sions, proceed to make farther inroads into various parts of Italy, and thus come 
into contact with the forces of Rome. More than two hundred years elapse 
from the time of their first invasion of Italy, when they totally defeat the Ro- 
man army on the banks of the Allia, and become masters of Rome itself. 

IV. After this, however, the Gauls, though they continue by frequent incur- 
sions to threaten and even to ravage the territory of Rome, can make no seri- 
ous impression on that power. Though leagued with the Samnites and Etruri- 
ans, they are almost always unsuccessful. Defeated at Sentinum in Umbria, 
near the Lake Vadimonis in Etruria, and in a still more decisive action near 
the port of Telamo in the same country, they soon find themselves forced to 
contend, not for conquest, but for existence. 

V. The same ill success, however, attends their efforts in their own territory. 
The progress of the Roman arms is irresistible ; the Gauls are beaten back from 
the Adriatic to the Po, from the Po to the Alps, and soon behold Roman colo- 
nies established and flourishing in many of the towns which had so lately been 

ITALIA. 275 

theirs. Notwithstanding, however, these successive disasters, their spirit, 
though curbed, is still unsubdued, and when the enterprise of Hannibal affords 
them an opportunity of retrieving their losses, they eagerly embrace it ; and it 
is to their zealous co-operation that Polybius ascribes, in a great degree, the pri- 
mary success of that expedition. 

VI. At the conclusion, however, of the second Punic war, the Romans retali- 
ate upon them, and their country, brought under entire subjection, becomes a 
Roman province, under the name of Gallia Cisalpina, At a subsequent period 
the name of Gallia Togata is also applied to it, or, rather, to that part which lay 
south of the Po, the cities in this quarter having obtained the privileges of Latin 
cities, and consequently the right of wearing the Roman toga. 


I. THE character which is given of this portion of Italy by 
the writers of antiquity is that of the most fertile and produc- 
tive country imaginable. Polybius describes it as abounding 
in wine, corn, and every kind of grain. Innumerable herds of 
swine, both for public and private supply, were bred in its for- 
ests ; and such was the abundance of provisions of every kind, 
that, according to Polybius (ii., 15), travellers, when at an inn, 
did not find it necessary to agree on a price for any article which 
they required, but paid so much for the whole amount of what 
was furnished them, and this charge, at the highest, did not 
exceed half a Roman as. 

II. As a proof of the richness of this country, Strabo remarks 
that it surpassed all the rest of Italy in the number of large and 
opulent towns which it contained. The wool grown here was 
of the finest and softest quality, and so abundant was the sup- 
ply of wine, that the wooden vessels, in which it was commonly 
stowed, were of the size of houses. Lastly, Cicero styles it the 
flower of Italy, the support of the empire of the Roman people, 
the ornament of its dignity. 


IN considering the tribes and cities of Gallia Cisalpina, the division of the 
country which most naturally suggests itself is that into Gallia Transpaddna, 
or Gaul beyond the Po, and Gallia Cispdddna, or Gaul this side of the Po. We 
shall follow, therefore, this arrangement. 

Tribes in Gallia Transpdddna. 

I. Salassi, in the northwestern angle of the country. The main part of their 
territory lay chiefly in a long valley, which reached to the summits of the Graian 
and Pennine Alps. The passes over these mountains were too important an 
object with the Romans not to make them anxious to secure them by the con- 
quest of the Salassi. But these hardy mountaineers held out for a long time, 
and were not finally subdued till the reign of Augustus, who caused the country 


to be permanently occupied, for this purpose, by a large force under Terentius 
Varro. This arrangement ended the contest ; a large number of the Salassi 
perished in battle, and the rest, to the number of thirty-six thousand, were sold 
into slavery. 

II. LIBICII and LJEVI, two tribes mentioned together by Polybius (ii., 17), and 
to each of whom it is difficult to assign a distinct territory. We must be con- 
tent to know generally that they occupied the country lying between the Orgus, 
now Orca, and the Ticinus, now Tessino. They did not reach quite to the Alps 
on the north, as the Salassi seem to have extended some way into the plains 
situated at the foot of those mountains. They are said to have been of Ligurian 

III. INSUBRES, called 'Iao/a6pe^ by Polybius, and 'IvaovSpoi by Strabo, and oc- 
cupying the country between the Rivers Ticinus and Addua. According to 
Polybius, they were the most numerous as well as the most powerful tribe of 
the Cisalpine Gauls. They took a very active part in the Gallic wars against 
the Romans, and zealously co-operated with Hannibal in his invasion of Italy. 

IV. CENOMANI, to the east of the Insubres, ftmn whom they were separated 
by the Addua, while the Athesis formed their boundary to the east. They are 
distinguished from the rest of the Cisalpine Gauls by the circumstance of their 
not having joined with the other tribes in war against Rome, and from their 
having even sided with that city against Hannibal. Subsequently, however, 
they became hostile to the Romans. 

V. EUGANEI. These are spoken of as one of the most ancient nations of Italy, 
and as having once occupied all the country to which the Venlti, its subsequent 
possessors, communicated the name of Venetia. Driven from these their an- 
cient abodes, the Euganei appear to have retired across the Athesis, and to have 
settled on the shores of the Lacus Sebinus and Lacus Benacut, and in the ad- 
jacent valleys. Pliny says, on the authority of Cato, that they held at one time 
thirty-four towns : these were admitted to the rights of Latin cities under Au- 

Tribes in Gallia Cispddana. 

I. ANAMANI, on the northeastern borders of Liguria, and extending to the Po. 
Their southeastern boundary was the Tarus, now Livy never mentions 
this tribe by any specific name, though he seems to distinguish them from their 
more numerous and powerful neighbors the Boii. The nature of the country 
occupied by these Gauls, intersected as it was by numerous streams descend- 
ing from the Apennines, could not have allowed them to build many towns. 

II. Bon. This tribe, at some period or other, but when is uncertain, crossed 
the Alps, and established themselves in Italy between the Tarus, the Silarus, 
and the Apennines, having the Po for their upper frontier. Their wars with 
the Romans in this quarter were long and desperate ; but they were finally sub- 
dued by Scipio Naslca, and removed to the banks of the Draws or Drove. Con- 
sult page 229. 

III. LINGONES. This tribe occupied the extreme eastern portion of Gallia 
Cispadana. Polybius is the only author who has pointed out the district occu- 
pied by them in Italy. Appian characterizes them as the fiercest and wildest 
of the Gauls. The territory which they seized in Italy had previously been oc- 
cupied by the Umbri. 

ITALIA. 277 


1. Cities among 1 the Salassi. 

1. Augusta Pretoria, now Aosta in Piedmont. It was built 
on the site of Terentius Varro's camp, after that commander 
had conquered the Salassi, as has been already mentioned, and 
was intended to protect the great military road in this quarter, 
which led over the Graian Alps. Augustus, for this purpose, 
established here three thousand Praetorians as a military colony, 
and gave the place its appellation, partly in allusion to his own 
name, and partly to the description of soldiers settled here. It 
was situate on the Duria Major, along the banks of which the 
road in question ran. 2. Eporedia, to the southeast, on the 
same river and road, now Ivrea, a corruption of Eporegia or 
Iporeia, the name of the place in the Middle Ages. It was an 
old Celtic town, and, according to Pliny, the name was derived 
from a Celtic term meaning " good tamers of horses." A Ro- 
man colony was established here, in obedience to the injunc- 
tions of the Sibylline Books, as Pliny likewise tells us, and the 
settlement subsequently became a municipium. 

2. Cities among the Libicii and Lcevi. 

1. Vercellce, the capital of the Libicii, now Vercelli, on the 
River SessHes, now the Sessia. It was a municipium, and a 
strong and important place. Strabo mentions some gold mines 
in its vicinity. Vercellae lay on the road already referred to 
above, and another Roman road came in here from Mediolanum 
and met the former. 2. Novdria, about ten miles northeast of 
Vercellae, now Novara. It was situate on a river of the same 
name, now the Gogna, and was a municipal town. The fa- 
mous battle of the Ticlnus, in which Hannibal defeated the 
Romans, is supposed to have been fought to the south of this 
place, not far from the little town of Vigevano. 3. Laumellum, 
southeast of Vercellae, now Lomello. 4. Ticlnum, to the north- 
east of the preceding, now Pavia, on the River Ticlnus, now 
the Tessino. It was founded, as Pliny reports, by the Laevi 
and Marici, and was at first their chief city, on which account 
we have given it a place here. Being situated, however, on 
the left bank of the river, it became subsequently, though less 
correctly, ranked among the cities of the Insubres. Tacitus 


first makes mention of it, and states that Augustus advanced 
as far as Ticinum, in the depth of winter, to meet the corpse 
of Drusus, the father of Germanicus, and escorted it thence to 
Rome. Under the Lombard kings this city assumed the name 
of Papia, which in process of time has been changed to Pavia. 

3. Cities among the Insubres. 

1. Mediolanum, now Milan, the capital of the Insubres, and, 
according to Livy, founded by that tribe on their first arrival 
in Italy, and named by them from a place so called in the ter- 
ritory of the ^dui in Gaul. This city is mentioned for the 
first time in history by Polybius in his account of the Gallic 
wars. The capture of it by Cneius Sdlpio and Marcellus was 
followed by the submission of the Insubres. In Strabo's time 
it was considered a most flourishing city. But its splendor 
seems to have been the greatest in the time of Ausonius, who 
assigns it the rank of the sixth town in the Roman empire. 
Ausonius flourished under the Emperor Gratian, toward the 
end of the fourth century. Procopius, who wrote a century 
and a half later, speaks of Mediolanum as one of the first cities 
of the west, and inferior to Rome alone in population and ex- 
tent. At a later period, the frequent inroads of the barbarians 
of the north compelled the emperors to select, as a place of 
arms, some city nearer the scene of action than Rome was. 
The choice fell on Mediolanum. Here, too, Maximian resigned 
the imperial diadem, and the famous St. Ambrose established 
the see of a bishopric. Although subsequently plundered by 
Attila, it soon revived, and under Odoacer became the imperial 
residence. In its vicinity was fought the battle which put 
Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, in possession of Italy. It 
met with its downfall, however, when, having sided with Beli- 
sarius, and having been besieged by the Goths and Burgundi- 
ans, it was taken by the latter, and 300,000 of the inhabitants, 
according to Procopius, were put to the sword. It never, after 
this severe blow, regained its former eminence, although in the 
Middle Ages it became a flourishing and opulent place of trade. 
About ten miles to the northwest of Mediolanum were the Rau- 
dii Campi, plains rendered memorable by the bloody defeat of 
the Cimbri by Marius. A small place in this vicinity, called 
Rho, still preserves some trace of the ancient appellation. 

ITALIA. 279 

2. Laus Pompeia, to the southeast of the preceding, founded, 
as Pliny reports, by the Boii, and subsequently colonized by 
Pompeius Strabo, father of Pompey the Great. It was at one 
time next in importance to Mediolanum. Its position answers 
to that of the modern Lodi Vecchio, which having been de- 
stroyed by the Milanese, the Emperor Barbarossa caused the 
new town of Lodi to be built at the distance of three miles 
from the ancient site. 3. Acerrce, to the southeast, on the Ad- 
dua, and answering now to Gherra. It is mentioned by Polyb- 
ius in the Gallic wars as a strong and important place. This 
city must not be mistaken for one of the same name in Cam- 
pania. 4. Pom Aureoli, to the northeast of Mediolanum, and 
between it and Bergomum. It obtained its name from the de- 
feat of the usurper Aureolus, and is now Pontiruolo. 5. Ber- 
gomum, to the northeast of the preceding, now Bergamo. It 
belonged to the Insubrian Orobii, whom Pliny, on the authority 
of Cato, distinguishes as a separate tribe, but whose territory 
is naturally included in that of the Insubres. 6. Comum, to 
the northwest of the preceding, and at the southern extremity 
of the Lacus Larius. It is now Como, and gives its name also 
to the lake. Comum, like Bergomum, was a city of the Insu- 
brian Orobii, and was first colonized by Pompeius Strabo, then 
by Cornelius Scipio, and finally by Julius Csesar. This last- 
mentioned commander sent thither six thousand colonists, 
among whom were five hundred distinguished Greek families. 
The place now took the name of Novum Comum. Pliny the 
younger was born here. 

4. Cities among the Cenomani. 

1. Brixia, the capital of the Cenomani, to the northeast of 
Mediolanum, and now called Brescia. It became a Roman col- 
ony, but at what time we are not informed. It was also a muni- 
cipium. Brixia lay on the little river Gartia, now Garza, while 
in front of it, to the west, flowed the River Mela. According to 
some, it was a city of Tuscan origin, and taken from that nation 
by the Cenomani. Catullus calls Brixia the " mother of Vero- 
na," because, though much smaller than the latter, it was nev- 
ertheless the chief city of the Cenomani. 2. Cremona, to the 
southwest of the preceding, on the Padus or Po, and retaining 
its ancient name. It is supposed to have been of Gallic origin, 


but it first acquired importance as a Roman colony, being, to- 
gether with Placentia, the earliest establishment which the Ro- 
mans formed in Cisalpine Gaul. This colony was settled, ac- 
cording to Polybius, the year before Hannibal invaded Italy. 
The Romans retained the place during the whole of the second 
Punic war, though it suffered so much during its continuance, 
and from the subsequent attacks of the Gauls, that it was found 
necessary to recruit its population by a fresh supply of colonists. 
The place flourished after this until the civil wars which en- 
sued after the death of Ceesar. Cremona unfortunately es- 
poused the cause of Brutus, and thus incurred the vengeance 
of the victorious party, its territory being divided among the 
veteran soldiers of Augustus. It soon, however, recovered from 
this blow, and in Strabo's time was accounted one of the most 
considerable cities in the north of Italy. The civil wars which 
arose during the reigns of Otho and Vitellius were the source 
of much severer affliction to this city than any former evil, as 
the fate of the empire was more than once decided between 
large contending armies in its immediate vicinity. After the 
defeat of Vitellius's party by the troops of Vespasian, it was 
entered by the latter, and exposed to all the horrid excesses of 
a licentious and brutal soldiery. The conflagration of the place 
lasted four days. The indignation which this event excited 
throughout Italy compelled Vespasian to use every effort to 
raise Cremona from its ruins, and reassemble and aid the un- 
fortunate inhabitants. 

3. Bedridcum, to the east of the preceding, and between it 
and Mantua. It is supposed by D'Anville to correspond to the 
modern Cividale, on the right side of the Ollius, now Oglio. 
This place was famous for two battles fought near it within a 
month of each other. In the first Otho was defeated by the gen- 
erals of Vitellius, and in the second Vitellius by Vespasian. 
Tacitus and Suetonius call the name of this place Betriacum^ 
and Pliny, Juvenal, and later writers Bebriacum. 4. Mantua, to 
the northeast of the preceding, situate on an island in the River 
Mincms, now the Mincio, and still retaining its former name. 
It is supposed to date its foundation long before the arrival of 
the Gauls in Italy, and to have been of Tuscan origin. Ac- 
cording to a fabulous legend, the place derived its name from 
the prophetess Manto, the daughter of Tiresias. Its vicinity 

ITALIA. 281 

to Cremona was an unhappy circumstance for Mantua, since, 
as the territory of the former city was not found sufficient to 
contain the veteran soldiers of Augustus, among whom it had 
Deen divided, the deficiency was supplied from the lands of 
Mantua ; a loss most feelingly deplored by Virgil, though he 
was fortunate enough to escape himself from the effects of this 
oppressive measure. 5. Andes, a village a short distance to the 
southeast of Mantua. It is celebrated as having been the birth- 
place of Virgil, and is supposed to be now represented by Pie- 
tola, a small place in this quarter. 6. Verona, to the north- 
east of Mantua, and situate on the Athesis, now the Adlge. 
It still retains its ancient name. It appears to have belonged 
originally to the Ruganei, and to have been their chief city, and 
to have been wrested from them by the Cenomani. In this 
way we may reconcile Pliny, who ascribes its foundation to the 
Rseti and Euganei, with Livy, who as positively attributes it 
to the Cenomani. Under the Roman dominion it became a 
large and flourishing city, and it was also celebrated as having 
been the birth-place of Catullus, and of Pliny the elder, or the 

5. Cities among the Anamdni. 

1. Veleia, on the right bank of the River Nura, and about 
eighteen miles south of Placentia, near the present hamlets of 
Mancinesso and Liveia. 2. Florentia, to the northeast of the 
preceding, now Fiorenzuola. 3. Fldentia, to the southeast of 
the preceding, near which Sylla's party gained a victory over 
Carbo. From the martyrdom of St. Donninus, Fidentia has 
obtained the name of Borgo San Donnino. 4. Placentia, at 
the confluence of the Trebia and Padus, and now Piacenza. 
It was colonized by the Romans at the same time with Cre- 
mona, to serve as a bulwark against the Gauls, and to oppose 
the threatened approach of Hannibal. Its utility in this latter 
respect was fully proved by its affording a secure retreat to the 
Roman general after the battle of the Ticinus, and more espe- 
cially after the disaster of the Trebia. Placentia withstood all 
the efforts of the victorious Hannibal, and also, eleven years 
after, all the attempts which his brother Hasdrubal made to ob- 
tain possession of it. After the termination, however, of the 
second Punic war, it was taken and burned by the Gauls, head- 


ed by Hamilcar the Carthaginian, but it was soon after restored 
by the consul Valerius. Placentia had acquired the rights of 
a municipium in Cicero's time. Strabo speaks of it as a cele- 
brated town, and Tacitus extols it as a powerful and opulent 

6. Cities among the Boii. 

1. Parma, still retaining its name, situate on the River 
Parma, to the southeast of Placentia. It was founded by the 
Etrurians, taken from them by the Boii, and finally conquered 
and colonized by the Romans. From Cicero, it may be inferred 
that Parma was attached to the party of Antony, and suffered 
from the adverse faction in the civil wa/s. It was probably re- 
colonized under Augustus, as some inscriptions give it the title 
of Colonia Julia Augusta Parma. From Martial we learn 
that its wool was highly prized. 2. Tanetum, about eight miles 
east of Parma. It is mentioned by Polybius and Livy as the 
place to which L. Manlius, the Roman praetor, retired, after an 
unsuccessful action with the Boii, at the beginning of the sec- 
ond Punic war. It is now Taneto. 3. Forum Lepidi, or, as 
it was more commonly called, Regium Lepidum, southeast of 
Tanetum, and now Reggio. In Cicero we find it sometimes 
under the name of Regium Lepidi, or simply Regium. It 
probably owes its origin to M. ^Emilius Lepidus, who laid down 
the famous road called Via JEmilia, on which so many of the 
places we are now considering were situated. But when, or 
from what cause, it took the surname of Regium, is unknown. 
It is further noticed in history as having witnessed the death 
of the elder Brutus, by order of Pompey, to whom he had sur- 
rendered himself. In the vicinity was a plain, in which an an- 
nual fair of cattle was held ; it was known by the name of the 
Maori Campi. 

4. Mutlna, to the southeast of the preceding, and situate on 
the ^Emilian Way, above referred to. It is now Modena. Mu- 
tina was a Roman colony, and is often mentioned in history, 
and more particularly during the stormy period which inter- 
vened between the death of Caesar and the accession of Au- 
gustus. It sustained a severe siege against the troops of An- 
tony, A.U.C. 709. D. Brutus, who defended the place, being 
apprised of the approach of the consuls Hirtius and Pansa by 

ITALIA. 283 

means of carrier-pigeons, made an obstinate defence. Antony, 
being finally defeated by those generals and Octavianus, was 
forced to raise the siege. Mutina was also famous for its wool. 
5. Forum Gallorum, to the southwest of the preceding, on the 
^Emilian Way, and rendered remarkable by some important ac- 
tions which were fought there during the siege of Mutina. It is 
now Castel Franco. 6. Sonoma, to the southeast of the prece- 
ding, on the same Roman road, and now Bologna. This city 
was of Tuscan origin, and existed under the name of Felslna 
prior to the invasion of the Boii. It appears to have been the 
principal seat of the Etrurians to the north of the Apennines. 
Bononia received a Roman colony, A.U.C. 653, B.C. 100. Fre- 
quent mention is made of this city in the civil wars. As it had 
suffered considerably during this period, it was restored and 
aggrandized by Augustus after the battle of Actium, and con- 
tinued to rank high among the great cities of Italy. 7. Forum 
Cornelii, to the southeast, founded by Sylla, and now Imola. 

8. Faventia, ten miles further on the same road, and now Fa- 
enza. It was situate between the rivers Sinnus and Anemo, 
now the Senno and Amone, and was noted in the history of 
the civil wars for the defeat of Carbo's party by that of Sylla. 

9. Ccesena, the last town of Cisalpine Gaul on the ^Emilian 
Way, and situate close to the River Sapis, now the Savio. 
It retains its ancient name. 

There are only a few places noticed by ancient writers to the 
right or left of the JEmilian Way. Among the former we may 
point out, 1. Brixellum, northeast of Parma, and now Bresello. 
It was a Roman colony, and was rendered remarkable by the 
death of Otho after his defeat at Bedriacum. 2. Nuceria, ten 
miles to the northeast of the preceding, and now Luzzara. 
Among the places on the left of the ^Emilian Way, we may 
mention, 1. Forum Novum, about ten miles to the southwest of 
Parma, and near the source of the Tarus, now the Taro. Its 
modern name is Fornovo. An old inscription gives it the title 
of a municipium. 2. Aquinum, south of Mutina, now Acqua- 
rio. In the vicinity of this place was the vast forest called 
LUana Silva, extending along the base of the Apennines, from 
the sources of the Scultenna, now the Panaro, to those of the 
Secia or Gabellus, now the Secchio. In this forest a Roman 
army was destroyed by the Gauls. 


7. Cities among the Lingones. 

1. Ravenna, on the coast, a short distance below the Spinet- 
io mouth of the Po. It was a place of very early origin, found- 
ed, according to Strabo, by some Thessalians, by whom proba- 
bly are meant Pelasgi. This place was situate in the midst 
of marshes, and built entirely on piles, and a communication 
was established between the different parts of the town by 
means of bridges and boats. The noxious air, however, arising 
from the marshes was so purified by the tide, that Ravenna 
was considered by the Romans a very healthy place, in proof 
of which they sent gladiators thither to be trained and exercised. 
Ravenna became the great naval station, of the Romans on the 
Adriatic, and continued to flourish as such long after the reign 
of Augustus, and after the fall of the western empire it became 
the seat of a separate government, called the exarchate of Ra- 
venna. It was badly supplied, however, with water. The 
modern name is the same as the ancient. The old port was 
situate at the mouth of the River Bedesis, now the Ronco ; but 
Augustus caused a new one to be constructed at the entrance 
of the little river Candianus into the sea, about three miles 
from the city. The new harbor thenceforth became the station 
for the fleet, and received the name of Portus Classis, an ap- 
pellation traces of which still subsist in that of the Basilica of 
Sanff Apollinare in Classe. 2. Spina, near the entrance of the 
Spinetic mouth of the Po into the Adriatic, and from which 
this mouth derived its name. It was a very ancient, and at 
one time very flourishing city, and very powerful at sea. The 
place appears to have been of Pelasgic origin. Its inhabitants 
were finally overpowered by the neighboring barbarians, and 
compelled to leave it. In Strabo's time it was a mere village. 
Spina is supposed to have stood not far from the present village 
of Argenta, and on the left bank of the Po di Primaro. 3. Fo- 
rum Allieni, to the northwest, supposed to have occupied the 
site of the present Ferrara, this modern name being thought 
to be a corruption from Forum Allieni, contracted to Forum 

ITALIA. 286 



I. Venetia took its name from the Veneti, its inhabitants, who 
appear to have been a branch of the great Sclavonic race, and 
to have been connected with the Venedi of the north of Europe, 
a supposition rendered extremely probable by their having the 
amber trade among them, since this trade may be taken as a 
proof of a communication between them and the natives trading 
in amber on the shores of the Baltic. 

II. It was bounded on the north by the territory of the Eu- 
ganei and by Rcetia ; on the west and south by Gallia Cisal- 
pina ; on the east by the Mare Hadriaticum ; while on the 
northeast, the River Tilavemptus, now the Tagliamento, sepa- 
rated it from the Garni. 

III. On the invasion of Italy in the fifth century by the Huns 
and their king Attila, and the general desolation that every 
where ensued, great numbers of the people who lived near the 
Adriatic took shelter in the islands in this quarter, where now 
stands the city of Venice. The arrival of fresh hordes of bar- 
barians in Italy increased their population, until a commercial 
state was formed, which gradually rose to power and opulence. 

OBS. There was a popular belief among the ancients, adopted by the poets, 
that the Veneti were sprung from a colony of Heneti, a people of Paphlagonia 
in Asia Minor, enumerated by Homer among the allies of Priam. The forces 
sent by that people to the aid of the Trojan monarch are said to have followed 
Antenor, at the close of the war, over into Europe, and in the course of their 
wanderings to have arrived at the head of the Adriatic, where they finally set- 
tled, after having expelled the Euganei, the original inhabitants of the country. 
The fable probably arose from some accidental resemblance between the name 
of the Homeric Antenor and that of the chieftain who led the Veneti into this 

IV. The Garni were situated to the northeast of the Veneti, 
and were an Alpine race. They occupied a considerable extent 
of territory, and their existence is still to be traced in the mod- 
ern appellation of Carniola. Their name itself is undoubtedly 
of Celtic origin, and refers to their having been originally oc- 
cupants of rugged and mountainous regions. (Compare page 
159, 6.) 

V. The country of Histria, now Istria, was originally a part 
of Illyricum. Little is known respecting the origin of the peo- 
ple ; but an early geographer, Scymnus of Chios, describes them 


as a nation of Thracian race. They were in all probability, 
however, of Illyrian origin. This country was subjugated by 
the Romans, B.C. 178. Augustus subsequently included it 
within the limits of Italy, and the little river Arsia, now the 
Arsa, henceforth became the boundary. 

OBS. The Greeks, in their fanciful mythology, derived the name of Histria 
from the Hister or Ister, now the Danube. They conveyed the Argonauts from 
the Euxine into the Ister, and then, by an unheard-of communication between 
this river and the Adriatic, launched their heroes into the waters of the latter. 
They made, also, a band of Colchians, sent in pursuit of Jason and Medea, to 
have settled in Histria after a fruitless search. This strange error no longer 
prevailed in Strabo's time, when Histria had become known to the Romans, and 
formed part of their empire. 


1. Hadria or Hatria, in the southeastern angle of the coun- 
try, near the River Tartarus, now Tartaro, and not far from 
its mouth. According to the earliest accounts it was near the 
shores of a bay, but in the subsequent alterations of this part 
of the coast, the bay, if it ever existed, has long been filled up. 
Hadria was a place of very ancient origin, and must have been 
at one time powerful and great, since it was enabled to trans- 
mit its name to the sea on which it stood. It still existed when 
Strabo wrote, but as an insignificant place. At present it is a 
small town, still bearing the name of Hadria or Adria, and up- 
ward of eighteen miles distant from the coast. 2. Patavium, 
to the northwest of the preceding, between the Medudcus Ma- 
jor and Minor, but nearer the latter. It is now Padua, in 
Italian Padova. This city, from its celebrity and importance, 
may be regarded as the capital of Venetia. It was fabled to 
have been founded by Antenor and his followers, the Heneti, to 
whom we have already referred. Strabo speaks of Patavium 
as the greatest and most flourishing city in the north of Italy, 
and states that it counted in his time five hundred Roman 
knights among its citizens, and could at one period send twen- 
ty thousand men into the field. Its manufactures of cloth and 
woollen stuffs were renowned throughout Italy. This city was 
the birth-place of the historian Livy, and also of Thrasea Pae- 
tus, who was put to death by Nero. 3. Altmum, now Altino, 
to the northeast of the preceding, on the River Silts, now 
the Site, near its mouth. It was celebrated for its wool, and 
seems in other respects, also, to have been a place of note, since 

ITALIA. 287. 

Martial compares the appearance of its shores, lined with villas, 
to that of Baiae. L. Antoninus Verus, the emperor, died here 
of apoplexy. 4. Concordia, to the northeast, and still retain- 
ing its ancient name. Beyond this place is the River Tila- 
vemptus, now the Tagliamento, which separated the territories 
of the Veneti from those of the Carni. 

Retracing our steps toward the southern borders of Venetia, 
in order to examine the interior and remaining part of the coun- 
try, we come to, 1. Ateste, to the north of the Athesis, and on 
the River Eretenus, now the Retone. It is now Este, a name 
well known in modern history as the title of one of the most 
ancient and illustrious families in Europe. 2. Vicentia, to the 
northwest, sometimes called Vicetia, and now Vicenza. Tac- 
itus speaks of it as a municipium. 


1. Aquileia^ a celebrated city, between the Alsa, now Ausa, 
and the Natiso, now Natisone, and about seven miles from the 
sea. It was of Gallic origin, but was soon taken possession of 
by the Romans, and made a Latin colony. Polybius speaks of 
valuable gold mines in its neighborhood; and Eustathius de- 
rives the name from the Latin aquila," an eagle," the legiona- 
ry standard of the Romans who were first stationed there. 
Aquileia soon became the chief bulwark of Italy on its north- 
eastern frontier. In Strabo's time it was the great emporium 
of all the trade of Italy with the nations of Illyria and Panno- 
nia ; these were furnished with wine, oil, and salt provisions 
in exchange for slaves, cattle, and hides. It was sacked and 
razed to the ground by Attila. The modern city of Aquileia 
stands near the ruins of the ancient place. 2. Tergeste, to the 
east of the preceding, and now Trieste. It gave name to the 
Sinus Tergestinus, now Gulf of Trieste. It suffered severely, 
on one occasion, from an invasion of the Illyrian lapydes, whom 
Augustus had some difficulty in subduing. 3. Forum Julii, to 
the northeast, now Friuli. It is said to have been founded by 
Julius Caesar, and became a place of importance. It must not 
be confounded with Forum Julii, now Frejus, in Gallia Nar- 
bonensis. 4. Julium Carnicum, on the northwestern confines 
of the Carni, and a place of great importance, having been 
founded, probably by Julius Caesar, to guard the frontier against 
the depredations of the Gauls and Illyrians. It is now Zuglio. 



1. JEgiida, at the mouth of the River Formio, now the &- 
sanOj in a small island named JEgidis. It was subsequently 
Justinopolis, and is now Capo fflstria. 2. Parentium, to the 
south, with a sea-port. It is now Parenzo. 3. Pola, to the 
south, and near the Promontormm Polaticum. It still retains 
its ancient name. Pola was a city of very early origin, and 
became eventually a Roman colony, when it took the name of 
Pietas Julia. From the splendid remains of antiquity which 
are yet to be seen here, it is evident that it was a city of no 
little note. The amphitheatre is still in a very perfect state of 
preservation, and is scarcely exceeded in magnificence by the 
Coliseum at Rome. Off the promontwy, in a southeast direc- 
tion, are certain islands called Absyrtides, as tradition reported, 
from Absyrtus, the brother of Medea. The principal one was 
named Absorus, and had a town likewise called so. These isl- 
ands, four in number, are known in modern geography as Cher- 
so, Osero, Ferosina, and Chao. 


I. THE Romans called this country Etruria or Tuscia ; the 
Greeks, Tvpprjvia or Tvparjvia. 

II. In the age of their greatness, the Tuscans, having sub- 
dued the ancient Tyrrhenians and the Umbrians, dwelt not only 
in Etruria proper, but also in the country about the Po ; and 
they had even carried their conquests as far as Campania in 
central Italy. 

III. Etruria, however, considered as a Roman province, was 
bounded on the north by Liguria and Gallia Cisalpina, being 
separated from the former by the River Macra, now the Ma- 
gra, and from the latter by the Apennines ; on the east by Um- 
bria, the boundary line being formed by the Apennines and the 
Tiber ; on the west and southwest by the Mare Inferum ; and 
on the southeast by the country of the Sabines and by Latium. 

OBS. 1. The probable origin of the Etrurian nation has already been given 
(page 249, seq.). The Etrurians or Tuscans appear to have been axace coming 
in from the north, and to have conquered the Tyrrhenian Pelasgians, the previ- 
ous possessors of the country. The idea of a Lydian immigration into Italy, 
though a favorite one with the ancient writers, and though ~advpcated by many 
modern scholars, is now regarded as untenable. 

ITALIA. 289 

2. In speaking of this nation, the terras Etrurian and Tuscan are indiscrimi- 
nately used. In the age of Cato, the country was commonly called Etruria, and 
the people themselves Tusci. In later times, Etrusci grew to be more usual in 
books. The old name, however, must have continued the prevalent one in the 
mouth of the people. Hence, under the later emperors, arose the name of 
Tuscia for the country, which till then had not been used in writing ; and 
hence, since the Middle Ages, we have Toscana, and, for the people themselves, 
Toscani. The terms Etruria and Etrusci presuppose the simple form Etruri ; 
and this we may hold to be the name by which the Italians originally designated 
the conquerors of the Tyrrhenians, although the name both of Tuscans and 
Etruscans was no less foreign to the people than that of Tyrrhenians. They 
called themselves, as already remarked, Rasena. The name Tyrrhenian arose 
from the Greeks' confounding the conquered race with their conquerors. (Nie- 
buhr, Rom. Hist., vol. i., p. 112, Cambr. transl.) 


I. HAD the Tuscans formed a regular and effective plan for securing their 
conquests and strengthening their confederacies, they would have been the 
masters of Italy, and perhaps of the world, instead of the Romans. But their 
enterprises, after a certain period, seem to have been desultory, and their meas- 
ures ill combined and ineffectual. A fatal want of internal union, which pre- 
vailed among their states, rendered them an easy prey to their Gallic invaders 
in the north of Italy, and to the hardy Samnites in Campania, while Rome was 
aiming at the very centre of their power and existence those persevering and 
systematic attacks, which, with her, were never known to fail. 

II. Etruria was standing at the summit of her greatness about the end of the 
third century of Rome. In the next she lost the whole country beyond the 
Apennines, with Veii and Capena. A great part of the fifth century was spent 
in an irresolute struggle, which Volsinii alone maintained with any fortitude, 
against the prevailing destiny of Rome. 

III. After this the nation enjoyed two centuries of inglorious repose. Even 
during the second Punic war, her prosperity was so far restored that Arretium 
of itself was able to support Scipio's African expedition with arms and corn for 
the whole army, and with pay for the crew of a fleet. In this state of ease 
they felt no desire for the Roman franchise, which bound such as shared it to 
the performance of hard duties. When they received it, however, they dis- 
played no less courage than the Marsians and Samnites in maintaining its full 
honor. But fortune dealt hardly with them, and, after the final success of Syl- 
la's party, many of their cities were razed to the ground for having sided with 

IV. The form of government in Etruria, prior to its subjugation by the Ro- 
mans, was the aristocratic. The ruling class formed both an aristocracy and 
priesthood, and effectually prevented the mind of the nation from expanding 
itself in its natural growth. The great body of the people appear to have formed 
a class of clients or dependents on the ruling caste. 

V. Wherever the Etrurians settled we find them to have erected twelve con- 
federate cities, which were, in fact, so many aristocratic republics, having a 
magistrate presiding over each termed Lucumo. Thus we have twelve con- 
federate cities in Etruria proper, twelve in the northern Etrurian territory 
around the Po, and twelve, again, in Campanian Etruria. Niebuhr, Miiller, and 
other modern scholars have endeavored to determine what these cities were, 
but only with partial success. In Etruria around the Po, many of these cities 



seem to have been utterly destroyed at the irruption of the Gauls. Of those in 
Etruria proper, Niebuhr gives the following ten : 1. Care or Agylla ; 2. Tarqut- 
nii ; 3. Populonium ; 4. Volaterra ; 5. Arretium ; 6. Perusia ; 7. Clusium ; 8. Ru- 
sella ; 9. Veii ; 10. Volsinii. The two that are wanting can not be fixed with 
any certainty. Capena, Cosa, and Fasula may appear to have a claim. 


BEGINNING from the Macro,, we come to, 1. Luna, on the coast, 
celebrated for its beautiful and capacious harbor (now the Gulf 
of Spezzia) as early as the days of Ennius. Before the new 
division under Augustus, Luna had formed part of Liguria. 
It was also famous for its white marbles, which now take their 
name from the neighboring town of Carrara. Pliny speaks 
of the wine and cheese made in its vicinity ; the latter were 
sometimes so large as to weigh one thousand pounds. The 
ruins of the place now bear the name of Luni. 2. Lucus Fe- 
ronice, to the southeast, at first merely a place sacred to the 
worship of Feronia, but afterward raised to the dignity of a 
colonial town. 3. Luca, now called Lucca, to the southeast, 
on the River Ausar, now the Serchio. To this place Tiberius 
Gracchus retired after the unfortunate campaign on the Tre- 
bia; and Caesar frequently made his head-quarters here dur- 
ing his command in the two Gauls. 4. Pisce or Pisa, as it 
is sometimes written, to the southwest, and still retaining its 
situation and name, Pisa, as a modern city of great celebrity. 
We learn from Strabo that anciently it stood at the junction 
of the Ausar and Arnus, but now they flow into the sea by 
separate channels. Pisa was fabled to have been founded by 
some of the followers of Nestor in their wanderings after the 
fall of Troy. Its harbor was much frequented by the Romans 
in their communication with Sardinia, Gaul, and Spain. In 
Strabo's time it was still a very flourishing commercial place, 
from the supplies of timber which it furnished to the fleets, and 
the costly marbles which the neighboring quarries afforded. 

Diverging now into the interior, we come to, 1. Pistoria or 
Pistorium, to the northeast of Luca, and at the foot of the 
Apennines. It is now Pistoia. In the vicinity of this place 
Catiline was defeated and slain by the forces of the republic. 
2. Fcp.sulce, about twenty-five miles to the southeast of the pre- 
ceding, now Fiesole. Catiline made this the chief hold of his 
party in Etruria. It was still a flourishing city in the time of 

ITALIA. 291 

Pliny ; at present a small village marks its site. 3. Florentia, 
a short distance to the southwest, on the Arnus, now Florence 
(in Italian, Firenze). Although so celebrated in modern times 
as the capital of Tuscany, it has no pretensions to a foundation 
of great antiquity, as we find no mention made of it before the 
time of Caesar, by whom, as Frontinus informs us, it was col- 
onized, unless we make Fluentia identical with it, which is 
mentioned by Florus as having suffered severely, along with 
many other cities, in the civil wars of Sylla and Marius. 

Returning to the coast, we come to, 1. Portus Her culls Li- 
burnt or Labronis, now Leghorn (in Italian, Livorno). 2. Vada 
Volaterrdna, about eighteen miles further on. It was the har- 
bor of Volaterrce, and was situate at the mouth of the River 
Cceclna, which still retains its name. The modern name of 
the place is Vada. 3. Volaterrce, fifteen miles inland, and on 
the right bank of the River Caecina. Its Etrurian name, as it 
appears on numerous coins, was Velathri. The modern name 
is Volterra. This was one of the twelve principal cities of Etru- 
ria, and its massive remains at the present day bear full testi- 
mony to its ancient splendor and importance. 4. Sena Julia, 
to the east of Volaterrae, and now well known as Sienna. The 
more ancient name was Sena, to which Julia was subsequent- 
ly added, to distinguish it from Sena Gallica in Umbria. This 
designation Julia implies a colony founded by Julius or Augus- 
tus CaBsar. 5. Vetulonii, to the southwest of the preceding, and 
one of the most powerful and distinguished of the twelve great 
cities of Etruria. D'Anville errs in placing it on the coast, 
since Strabo expressly says that Populonium was the only one 
of the Etrurian cities that was close to the sea. A more care- 
ful examination of the vicinity has proved that the ruins of Vet- 
ulonii exist in a forest still called Selva di Vetleta. 

6. Populonium, to the west of the preceding, and on the 
coast, being the only one of the Etrurian cities that was close 
to the sea. In other instances the Etrurians were prevent- 
ed from founding any large cities immediately on the coast, 
both by the want of commodious harbors, and their fear of pi- 
rates. Populonium, however, possessed great advantages in 
this respect, since it was both secure and of great extent, and 
from its proximity to the island of Ilva, now Elba, so rich in 
metals, of the highest importance; since the produce of the 


mines seems never to have been prepared for use in the island 
itself, but to have been always sent over to Populonium for 
that purpose. The city itself was placed on a lofty cliff, that 
ran out into the sea, and formed the Promontorium Populoni- 
um ; the harbor was at the bottom of the cliff, and here, too, 
was the naval arsenal of the Etrurians. The Etrurian name 
of the city, as appears from numerous coins, was Pupluna. 
During the civil wars of Marius and Sylla, Populonium sus- 
tained a siege about the same time with VolaterrsB, in which 
it suffered so much that nothing but the temples and a few 
houses were preserved. Its ruins are about three miles north 
of Piombino. 7. Rusellce, to the southeast of the preceding, 
and one of the twelve great cities. Some remarkable ruins, 
with the name of Rosette, point to its site. It is mentioned 
more than once by Livy in the course of the wars with Etru- 
ria. In the second Punic war we read of its furnishing timber, 
especially fir, for the Roman fleets. Near it was the Lacus 
Prilis j already mentioned (page 264), and also the River Um- 
bro, now Ombrone, whose name Pliny regards as indicative of 
the Urnbrians having once been in possession of Etruria. 

8. Portus Telamo, below the River Umbro, and a place of 
great antiquity, since its foundation was even fabulously as- 
cribed to the Argonauts. It was probably a Pelasgic city. The 
modern name is Telamone. The country between Telamo and 
the Lake Prilis was memorable for the defeat of a body of in- 
vading Gauls by the Romans under the consuls C. Atilius and 
Paulus ^Emilius. This battle, which was fought seven years 
before the commencement of the second Punic war, is common- 
ly called the battle of Telamo, but the scene of action was near- 
er the Lake Prilis, and on the right bank of the Umbro. 9 . Cosa , 
called, also, Cossa and Cossce, to the southeast, on a peninsula, 
in the midst of which rose the Mons Argentarius. The pen- 
insula formed two bays ; the one on the north answers to the 
modern Stag-no cPOrbitello, and in it the tunny fishery was 
carried on. Hence the name given to the harbor on this side, 
Portus ad Cetarias. The bay on the other side formed the 
Portus Cossanus, called, also, Portus Herculis, and now Porto 
d'Ercole. Cosa was a very ancient Etrurian city, and found- 
ed, according to Pliny, by the Volcientes. It was remarkable 
for its fidelity to the Romans during the second Punic war, and 

ITALIA. 293 

we hear of it frequently in the naval history of Rome as one 
of the principal stations for her fleets on the lower sea. It is 
supposed to have been destroyed by the Goths under Alaric. 
Its ruins are at a little distance from the modern town of An- 
sedonia, which is now itself in ruins. 

10. Graviscce, southeast of the preceding, and a sea-port. It 
appears to have been a town of some note, and probably served 
as a harbor to the city of Tarquinii. The low and marshy sit- 
uation in which it was built seems to have rendered this town 
always unhealthy. It occupied probably the site of the Torre 
di Corneto , not Corneto itself, which is too far inland. 11. Tar- 
qumii, some distance inland, in a northeast direction from Gra- 
viscae, and on the left bank of the Marta. This was one of 
the most powerful cities of Etruria, and celebrated in history 
for its early connection with Rome, since from it the Tarquin 
family came to that capital. The foundation of this city is as- 
cribed by Strabo to Tarchon, the famous Etrurian chief, who is 
so often introduced by the poets. Tarquinii was foremost among 
the cities of Etruria to assist Tarquinius Superbus in re-estab- 
lishing himself at Rome. Its wars with that city and final sub- 
jugation are related by Livy. At a later period it became a col- 
ony and municipium. The country around was, as it still is, 
productive in flax, and hence we read of this city's having fur- 
nished sails for the Roman fleet. The Tuscan name was prob- 
ably Tarcuna. The site of the place is still indicated by some 
ruins near Corneto, still called Turchina. 12. Centum Cellce, 
to the south, now Civita Vecchia. This place, which obtain- 
ed its name from a large number of hamlets that were scat- 
tered around, first assumed importance when Trajan caused a 
magnificent harbor to be constructed here, which Pliny the 
younger has described in one of his letters. Two immense piers 
formed the port, which was semicircular, while an island, con- 
structed artificially of immense masses of rock, brought there 
by vessels and sunk in the sea, served as a break-water in front, 
and supported a pharos. The coast being very destitute of 
shelter for vessels of burden, this work of Trajan's was a great 
national benefit, and hence the place was better known by the 
name of Trajani Portus. Centum Cellae having been destroyed 
by the Saracens, the inhabitants built another town some dis- 
tance inland; but afterward they reoccupied the site of "the 


old city," which from that circumstance obtained its present 

13. Pyrgi or Pyrgos, to the southeast, a place of great an- 
tiquity, and, as its name imports, of Grecian, that is, Pelasgic 
origin. This city contained a temple of the goddess Lucina, 
celebrated for its riches until plundered by Dionysius of Syra- 
cuse, not long after the capture of Rome by the Gauls. The 
modern town of Santa Severa occupies its place. 14. Care, 
a short distance to the northeast of the preceding, and called by 
the Greek writers Agylla ("AyvAAa). It was one of the most 
considerable cities of Etruria, and enjoyed a great reputation for 
justice among the Greeks ; for, though very powerful and able 
to send out fleets and armies, it always abstained from piracy, 
to which the other Etrurian cities were so much addicted. 
When Rome was taken by the Gauls, the inhabitants of Caere 
rendered that city an important service by receiving their 
priests and vestals, and by defeating the Gauls on their return 
through the Sabine country, on which occasion they are said 
to have recovered the gold with which Rome had purchased its 
liberation. In return for this, the Romans declared the Caerites 
public guests of Rome, and admitted them to a portion of the 
rights enjoyed by her citizens. In Strabo's time this celebra- 
ted city was reduced to insignificance, being less frequented 
than the mineral waters (Aquce Cceretance, now Bagni di 
Sasso) in its vicinity. The remains of Caere are still to be 
traced about four miles from the sea, on a spot now known by 
the name of Cervetcri. 15. Lorium, to the southeast, a small 
place, answering now to Castel Guido. In a villa here Anto- 
ninus Pius was brought up, and here, also, he died. 16. Por- 
tus Augusti. An account of this will be given when we come 
to speak of Ostia in Latium. 

In order to describe what remains of Etruria, we will now 
proceed to the northeast portion of that province, situated near 
the sources of the Arnus, and will then examine the interior 
of the country. Pursuing this course, we come to, 1. Arretium> 
now Arezzo, a town of considerable celebrity, and generally 
considered as one of the principal states of Etruria. It became 
a place of great importance to the Romans, as a defence against 
the incursions of the Cisalpine Gauls, and we also find the con- 
sul Flaminius posted there to defend the entrance of Etruria 

ITALIA. 295 

against Hannibal. Csesar did not neglect to make himself 
master of this important place when he had seized upon Ari- 
minum, but sent Antony with five cohorts to occupy it. Ar- 
retium was much celebrated for its terra cotta vases, which 
Pliny ranks with those of Samos and Saguntum. Besides the 
Arretium which we are here considering, and which for that rea- 
son was sometimes called Arretium Vetus, there were two other 
Roman colonies of the same name in this quarter, distinguished 
as Arretium Julium and Arretium Fidens. The former of 
these answers to the modern Subliano, the latter to Castigli- 
one. 2. Cortona, about fourteen miles south of Arretium. 
This was one of the most ancient cities of Italy, and of Pelas- 
gic origin, as is plainly shown by the massy remains of its an- 
cient walls. It was fabled by some to have been founded by 
Corythus, father of Dardanus, and hence is called by Virgil the 
city of Corythus. It was subsequently colonized by the Ro- 
mans. The modern name is the same as the ancient. 3. Pe- 
rusia, somewhat to the southeast of the Lacus Trasymenus, 
and on the site of the modern city of Perugia. This place was 
scarcely inferior in antiquity to Cortona, and equal to it in dig- 
nity and rank among the confederated cities of Etruria. It 
was also of Pelasgic origin. Perusia became a Roman colony 
about B.C. 44, and some years after sustained a memorable 
siege, in which Antony held out against Octavianus Caesar, but 
was at length forced by famine to surrender. On this occasion 
many of the Perusians were put to death, and the city was ac- 
cidentally burned ; a madman having set fire to his own house, 
a general conflagration ensued. Perusia, however, appears to 
have risen from its ruins, and under the Emperor Justinian we 
find it maintaining a successful siege against the Goths. 

4. Clusium, to the west of Perusia, and nearly on a line 
with it, now Chiusi. This was the capital of Porsena, the 
early enemy of Rome. Its first name is said to have been Ga- 
mers, and it appears to have belonged originally to the Umbrian 
Camertes, from whom it was taken by the Tuscans. The siege 
of Clusium by the Gauls, and the provocation which they re- 
ceived from the Roman ambassadors, led to the capture of 
Rome itself. It was near this place that Porsena erected for 
himself the splendid mausoleum, of which Pliny has transmit- 
ted to us a description on the authority of Varro, but which 


bears no small appearance of fiction, since, had so stupendous 
a work actually existed, some traces of it would have remained, 
not merely in Pliny's day, but even in the present age. Pliny 
makes a distinction between Clusium Vetus and Novum. A 
village named Chiusi, at the foot of the Apennines, north of 
Arretium, is supposed to represent the latter. 5. Volsinii or 
Volsinium, on the northern shore of the Lacus Volsiniensis, 
and now Bolsena, ranked among the cities of Etruria. It sub- 
sequently became so enervated by its wealth and luxury as to 
allow its slaves to overthrow the constitution, and give way to 
the most unbridled licentiousness and excess, till at last the cit- 
izens were forced to seek protection from Rome. The rebels 
were then speedily reduced and brought to condign punishment. 
As a proof of the ancient prosperity of Volsinii, it is stated by 
Pliny that it possessed, when taken by the Romans, no less than 
two thousand statues. From Livy we learn that the Etrus- 
can goddess Nortia was worshipped here, and that it was cus- 
tomary to mark the years by fixing nails in her temple. Vol- 
sinii at a later period was noted as the birth-place of Sejanus. 
6. Void, an ancient city, which appears to have stood be- 
tween the preceding and Tarquinii. Its site is still known 
by the name of Piano di Void. The inhabitants are called 
Volcientes. 7. Fdnum Voltumnce, to the southeast of Volsinii, 
and celebrated as the spot where the general assembly of the 
Etrurian nation was held on solemn occasions. 8. Trossulum, 
a little to the southeast, of which some remains have been dis- 
covered at a place which bears the name of Trosso. Pliny tells 
us that this town having been taken by cavalry alone, the Ro- 
man horse from that circumstance obtained the name of Tros- 
suli. 9. Fescennium, east of the Lacus Clmmus, and near the 
Tiber, and occupying the site of the modern Galese. It is noted 
in the annals of Roman poetry for the nuptial songs called Car- 
mina Fescennina, to which, according to Festus, it gave its 
name. 10. Falerium, or, as it is more generally called, Fate- 
ra, to the southwest of the preceding, and the capital of the 
ancient Falisci. It appears to have occupied the position of 
the present Civita Castellana. The wars of the Falisci with 
Rome are chiefly detailed in the fifth book of Livy, where the 
celebrated story of Camillus and the schoolmaster of Falerii oc- 
curs. It was not, however, till the third year after the first Pu- 

ITALIA. 297 

nic war that this people were finally reduced. The waters of 
the FaHscan territory were supposed, like those of the Clitum- 
nus, to have the peculiar property of communicating a white 
color to cattle. 11. Capena, to the southeast of Mons Soracte, 
and often mentioned in the early annals of Rome. It stood at 
a place now called Civitucula. 

12. Veil, to the east of Caere, and eleven miles from Rome, 
to which it was at one time a formidable rival. It sustained 
many long wars against the Romans, and was at last taken by 
Camillus after a siege of ten years. Its opulence is attested 
by the account which historians have given of the booty that 
Camillus obtained for his army at its fall. In fertility of soil and 
extent of territory, Veii had greatly the advantage over its ri- 
val. After the capture of Rome by the Gauls, an effort was 
made to transfer the seat of Roman power to Veii. It failed, 
and from this time we scarcely hear of the latter city. Veii 
became a Roman colony under Julius Caesar, who divided its 
lands among his soldiers ; but in the civil wars which ensued 
after his death, it was nearly destroyed, and left in a most des- 
olate state. It rose, however, from its ruins, and was raised to 
municipal rank, probably under Tiberius ; and we find it ex- 
isting even under the Emperors Constantine and Theodosian. 
Its site answers to the spot now called V Isola Farnese. 


1. Urges, called by Rutilius Gorgon, and lying in a south- 
west direction from Portus Her cults Liburni or Leghorn. It is 
now Gorgona. 2. Mcenaria, near the preceding, now Meloria. 

3. Ilva, now Elba, called by the Greeks JEthdlia, distant 
about ten miles from Populonium, the nearest point of the Tus- 
can coast. Ilva was early celebrated for its rich iron mines, 
but by whom they were first discovered and worked is uncer- 
tain, as they are said to exhibit the marks of labors carried on 
for an incalculable time. It is probable, however, that the 
Phosnicians were the first to make known the mineral riches 
of this island, and that it was from them the Pelasgic Tyrrheni 
learned to estimate its value, which may have held out to them 
no small inducement for settling on a coast otherwise deficient 
in natural advantages. It is to this latter people that we may 
trace the name of Mthalia^ since it appears that Lemnos, 


which they once inhabited, bore, according to the testimony of 
Polybius, the same appellation in more ancient times. The 
Portus Argons, in this island, fabled to have derived its name 
from the expedition of the Argonauts, is now Porto Feraio. 

4. Pldndsia, a small island between Ilva and Corsica, called 
Planasia by Varro, and Pldnaria by Pliny. It is now Pia- 
nosa. Tacitus relates that Augustus banished to this island 
his nephew Agrippa, and that the young prince was put to death 
here on the accession of Tiberius. 5. Capraria, northwest of 
Ilva, and now Capraia. It derived its name from the goats 
(caprce) with which it abounded. Hence, also, the Greeks 
called it Mgilon (kiyiXuv, from aig). 6. Igilium, opposite the 
harbor of Cosa, and now Giglio. Cloge to it lay another small 
island, called Dianium or Artemisium, now Gianuti. 



I. Umbria takes its name from the Umbri, its inhabitants, 
who were called by the Greeks 'OpdpiKoi, a word which this lat- 
ter people supposed to be derived from 6ju6po, " a rain-storm," 
under the singular idea that they were a people saved from a 
universal deluge. 

II. It is certain, however, that the Umbrians were originally 
a great and powerful nation, and they are regarded by some 
of the ancients as the earliest inhabitants of the country. Their 
territory at first, too, was very extensive, embracing probably 
not only what afterward was called Umbria, but also the south- 
ern part of Etruria, and the district occupied by the Sabines 
between the Apennines and the Tiber ; while, on the northeast 
slope of the Apennines, toward the upper sea and the Po, they 
are said to have spread as conquerors, to have expelled the Li- 
burnians and the Siculi from the coast, and to have maintained 
an obstinate contest with the Tuscans for the territory on the 
lower Po. 

III. But Umbria, in the sense in which we are here to con- 
sider it, that is, under the limits which were assigned to it in 
the reign of Augustus, was very different from all this, and 
was bounded as follows : On the north by the Rubicon, which 
separated it from Gallia Cisalpina ; on the east by the Adri- 

ITALIA. 299 

atic and Picenum ; on the west by the Apennines and Tiber, 
dividing it from Etruria : and on the south by the country of 
the Sabines. 


I. THE Umbri come into collision with the Etruscans, who defeat them, and 
take three hundred of their towns. 

II. Not long after this a new foe appears, equally formidable to both the con- 
querors and the conquered, namely, the Galli Senones, the same who afterward 
took Rome. The Tuscans are vanquished and driven from the country around 
the Po, while the Umbri also feel the force of the invasion, and are driven from 
the shores of the Adriatic into the mountains. The Senones take possession 
of the coast. 

III. The decisive struggle between the Etruscans and Romans now takes 
place, and we find the Camertes Umbri, a tribe on the borders of Etruria, offer- 
ing to assist the Romans in their attack upon their Etruscan neighbors. It is 
worthy of remark, that the emissary sent by the Romans, and who is acquainted 
with the Etruscan language, is enabled thereby to converse with the Camertes 
Umbri, and to enter into negotiations with them. 

IV. After the overthrow of the Etruscans, the Umbri make, when it is too 
late, an effort to check the advance of the conquering Romans. The consul 
Decius, who has advanced into Etruria, retraces his steps to oppose the new 
enemy, and the other consul Fabius, who has been fighting against the Sam- 
nites, is ordered by the senate to march round against the Umbri, who are as- 
sembled at Mevania. 

V. This joint movement damps the spirit of the Umbri, and their forces dis- 
perse to their several strongholds. Only one tribe, called Materina, keeps the 
field, and attacks the camp of Fabius, but are defeated, B.C. 307. In a short 
time most of the communities of Umbri submit to Rome without much resist- 
ance ; Sarslna, however, is one of the last to yield. The Senones are totally ex- 
tirpated about twenty-five years afterward, and Umbria again reaches to the sea. 


ADVANCING from the Rubicon along the coast, we come to, 
1. Arimmum, now Rimini, situate between the rivers Arimi- 
nus and Aprusa, now the Marecchia and Ausa, and the former 
of which is said to have given name to the city. After the ex- 
pulsion of the Senones, Ariminum, originally an Umbrian city, 
received a Roman colony. From this period it was considered 
a most important place, and the key of Italy on the eastern 
coast ; and hence we generally find a Roman army stationed 
there during the Gallic and Punic wars. How much import- 
ance Caesar attached to the possession of this place is shown by 
his seizing it immediately after crossing the Rubicon. That it 
continued to nourish under Augustus is evident from the re- 
mains of several great works erected there during the reign of 
that emperor. 2. Pisaurum, now Pesaro, to the southeast, at 


the mouth of the River Pisaurus, now the Foglia. It became 
a Roman colony B.C. 185, and it appears to have been colonized 
again either by Julius or Augustus Caesar, since inscriptions 
give it the title of Colonia Julia. The climate of this place 
appears from Catullus to have been in bad repute. 3. Sena 
Gallica, now Sinigaglia, on the right bank of the River Mi- 
sus, now the Nigola. The surname Gallica was added to dis- 
tinguish this place from the Etruscan Sena. It was colonized 
by the Romans after they had expelled, or, rather, exterminated 
the Senones. During the civil wars of Marius and Sylla, Sena, 
which sided with Marius, was taken and sacked by Pompey. 

We must now return to the north of Umbria, in order to de- 
scribe the interior of the province. Advancing, then, from this 
point, we come to, 1. Sarsina , on the left bank of the Sapis, 
now the Savio, and which still retains its ancient name. It 
was the birth-place of Plautus, the comic writer. Sarsina must 
have been at one time a place of note, since it gave name to a 
numerous Umbrian tribe. From ancient inscriptions we learn 
that it was a municipium. The Sapinian tribe seem to have 
occupied the mountainous district near the source of the river 
whence they derived their appellation, and to have dwelt not far 
from Sarsina. Some vestige of the ancient name may still be 
traced in that of a place now called Sapigno. 2. Pitinum Pi- 
saurense, to the southeast, so called from its situation on the 
River Pisaurus. It is now probably Piagnino. 3. Urbmum 
Metaurense, to the southeast, now Urbania, and on the right 
bank of the River Metaurus, whence it derived the latter part of 
its name. 4. Urbmum Hortense, to the northeast, on the oppo- 
site bank of the same river, now Urbino, the capital of a duchy 
of the same name. Here Valens, general of Vitellius, was put 
to death. In the mountains to the south of this place is the 
defile anciently called Petra Pertusa or Intercisa, now il Furlo 
or Sasso Forato, from its being cut through the rock which 
here closes in to the edge of the River Cantiano. This work 
must doubtless be referred to the construction of the Flaminian 
Way. 5. Forum Sempronii, nearer the sea, and on the left 
bank of the Metaurus. It answers to the modern Fossom- 
brone. The battle between Hasdrubal and the Roman gener- 
als must have taken place here, according to the best opinions. 
A hill between Fossombrone and the pass of Furlo is still called 
Monte cPAsdrubale. 

ITALIA. 301 

6. Sentinum, to the southwest, and nearer the Apennines, 
now Sentma. It was celebrated for the battle fought in its 
vicinity between the Romans and the Gauls leagued with the 
Samnites, B.C. 295, in which the consul Decius so nobly de- 
voted himself for his country. Sentinum is also noted for hav- 
ing held out against the second triumvirate. 7. Camerinum, 
to the southeast, on the borders of Picenum, and now Cameri- 
no. This place must not be confounded with the Camerte of 
Strabo, to which we will presently come. 

We must now turn to that part of Umbria which lies to the 
west of the central chain of the Apennines. Beginning with 
the sources of the Tiber, we come to. 1. Tifernum Tiberinum, 
so called because near the sources of that stream. It was sit- 
uate on the left bank, and answers to the modern Cittd di Cas- 
tello. Tifernum is chiefly known from the circumstance of its 
being situated near the villa of the younger Pliny. 2. Iguvi- 
um, to the south of Tifernum, and at the foot of the main chain 
of the Apennines. It is now Eugubbio, or more commonly 
Gubbio, and was a municipium. This city has acquired great 
celebrity in modern times from the discovery, in its vicinity, 
A J). 1440, of several bronze tablets covered with inscriptions, 
some of which are in Umbrian, others in Latin characters. To 
the northeast of this place was the temple of Jupiter Apenni- 
nus, to which the Umbrians resorted to sacrifice, as the Etrus- 
cans did to the temple of Voltumna, and the Latins to the Al- 
ban Mount. Some vestiges of this temple are still to be seen 
on Monte SanP Ubaldo. 3. Nuceria, to the southeast of the 
preceding, now Nocera. It is noticed by Strabo for its manu- 
facture of wooden vessels. 4. Mevania, to the southwest of 
the preceding, now Bevagna. This place was famous for its 
wide-extended plains and rich pastures. Here Vitellius took 
post, as if determined to make a last stand for the empire 
against Vespasian, but soon after withdrew his forces. This 
city is also memorable as having been the birth-place of Pro- 

5. Spoletium, to the southeast of the preceding, now Spoleto. 
It ranked high among the municipal towns of Italy, but it suf- 
fered severely from proscription in the civil wars of Marius and 
Sylla. 6. Carsulce, southwest of the preceding, and noticed by 
Strabo among the principal towns of Umbria. The ancient 


site still retains the name of Carsoli. 7. Tuder, about eight 
miles to the northwest of Carsulce, and now Todi. It was one 
of the most important cities of Umbria, and famous for the wor- 
ship of Mars. Its situation on a lofty hill rendered it a place 
of great strength. 8. Ameria^ south of the preceding, and near 
the Tiber. It is now Amelia. This was one of the most con- 
siderable and ancient cities of Umbria, and, according to Cato, 
could boast of an origin greatly anterior to that of Rome. It 
was a municipium, and became a colony under Augustus. 
9. Gamer te, between Ameria and Tuder, and now Camarata. 
It was the chief city of the Camertes, a powerful Umbrian 

10. Interamna, east of Ameria, and so called because situa- 
ted between two branches of the River Nar. Hence, also, the 
inhabitants were known as the Interamndtes Nartes, to distin- 
guish them from those of Interamna on the Liris, in New La- 
tium. It is now the well-known town of Terni. This place 
suffered severely in the civil wars between Marius and Sylla. 
The adjacent plains, which were watered by the Nar, are rep- 
resented as the most productive in Italy, and Pliny assures us 
that the meadows were cut four times in the year. 11. Nar- 
ma, lower down on the Nar, more anciently called Nequinum, 
and now Narni. This change of name took place after the 
town had been taken by the Romans, when it received a colo- 
ny with the view of serving as a point of defence against the 
Umbri. It was situate on a lofty hill, at the foot of which 
flowed the Nar. A bridge was raised over this river by Au- 
gustus, the arch of which was said to be the highest known. 
12. Ocriculum, to the south of the preceding, and a few miles 
from the left bank of the Tiber. It is now Otricoli. This 
place suffered severely during the Social War, but was still, in 
Strabo's time, a city of note. 

p i c E N u M. 


I. Picenum took its name from the Picentes, its inhabitants, 
who were a colony of Sabines ; and these colonists are said to 
have assumed the appellation of Picentes because led in their 
migration from home by a woodpecker (picus), the sacred bird 
of Mamers or Mars. According, however, to the legend of the 

ITALIA. 303 

poets, they were so called from the ancient Picus, the mythic 
leader of their colony. 

II. Picenum was bounded on the north by Umbria, on the 
east by the Adriatic, on the west by Umbria and the country 
of the Sabines, and on the south by the country of the Sa- 
bines and that of the Vestini. This arrangement comprehends 
under the name of Picenum the territory of the Prcetutii, who 
were, in fact, however, a different people from the Picentes, but 
are here, for convenience' sake, ranked along with them under 
the same^general head. 

III. Picenum was regarded as one of the most fertile parts 
of Italy. The produce of its fruit-trees was particularly es- 

IV. The Sabines were not apparently the first or sole pos- 
sessors of this country. The Siculi, Liburni, and Umbri, ac- 
cording to Pliny ; the Pelasgi, as Silius Italicus reports ; and 
the Tyrrheni, according to Strabo, all at different periods form- 
ed settlements in this part of Italy. 

V. The conquest of Picenum cost the Romans but little 
trouble. It was effected about 269 B.C., not long after the ex- 
pedition of Pyrrhus into Italy, when 360,000 men, as Pliny 
assures us, submitted to the Roman authorities. 


BEGINNING at the north, from the River jEsis, now the Esino, 
which separates Picenum, in this quarter, from Umbria, we 
come to, 1. Ancona, on the coast, and still retaining its ancient 
name. This place, in Greek 'Ay/cwv, was so called from the 
angular or bended form of the promontory on which it was 
placed, the term aynuv, in Greek, conveying the general idea of 
any thing curved or bent. This city is said to have been of 
Doric origin, and to have been founded by some Syracusans, 
who were flying from the tyranny of Dionysius. It is spoken 
of by Livy as a naval station of some importance in the wars 
of Rome with the Illyrians, and it continued to be a port of 
consequence even in Trajan's time, if we may judge from the 
works erected by that emperor, which are still extant there. 
According to Strabo, its territory was very fertile in corn and 
wine. Its purple dye is celebrated by Silius Italicus. 2. Nu- 
mana, about ten miles farther on, an old settlement of the Sic- 


uli, now Humana. 3. Potentia^ on a river of the same name, 
now the Potenza. The remains of the city are close to the 
monastery of St. Maria di Potenza. 4. Firmum, to the south- 
east, and about five miles from the sea. It was colonized to- 
ward the beginning of the first Punic war. The modern town 
of Fermo answers to it, and is yet a place of some note in the 
Marca cPAncona. The Castellum Firmanorum is now the 
Porto di Fermo. 5. Cupra, to the south, termed Maritima, 
to distinguish it from another city known by the name of Cu- 
pra Montana. It was an establishment of the Etruscans, who 
are said to have worshipped Juno here under the name of Cu- 
pra. The temple of the goddess was restored by Hadrian. 
The site of this place is commonly fixed at Marano. 6. Cas- 
trum Truentinum, at the mouth of the Truentus, now the 
Tronto, is said by Pliny to have been the only remaining es- 
tablishment of the Liburni, a well-known Illyrian nation, in 
Italy. According to the same writer, they once occupied a con- 
siderable extent of territory on this coast. 

Returning to the north of Picenum, in order to examine the 
interior of this province, we come to, 1. Cupra Montana, on the 
left bank of the ^Esis, and so named from its situation among 
the mountains. It was near the present Masaccio d'lesi. 
2. Cingulum, a few miles to the south, now Cingolo. It sur- 
rendered to Caesar, though Labienus, then a great partisan of 
Pompey's, had fortified it at his own expense. 3. Auximum, 
to the northeast, and near Ancona, now Osimo. From its 
strength this was one of the most important places in Picenum. 
In the l^ime of Procopius it was a large city, and the capital of 
the province. 4. Asculum Picenum, southwest of Firmum, and 
now Ascoli. It was called Picenum, to distinguish it from As- 
culum in Apulia. This city is described by Strabo as a place 
of great strength, being surrounded by walls and inaccessible 
heights. It was the first city to declare against the Romans 
when the social war broke out, and its example was followed 
by the whole of Picenum. In the course of that war it main- 
tained a long and memorable siege against Pompey, who finally, 
however, compelled the place to surrender. Cicero mentions 
Barrus, a native of Asculum, as a most eloquent orator. 

ITALIA. 305 

P R & T U T 1 1. 

OF this people scarcely any thing is known except that they were of a differ- 
ent race from the Picentes. Their territory was fertile, and celebrated for its 
wine ; and we know that Hannibal availed himself of these resources when he 
led his army through this district, on his way to the south, after his campaign 
in Etruria, as did Claudius Nero when proceeding by forced marches to join 
his colleague who was opposed to Hasdrubal. 

Few places of any consequence occur in this territory. We may mention, 
however, 1. Inter amna Prcetutidna, so called to distinguish it from three other 
cities of the name of Interamna, in other parts of Italy. Its modern name is 
Teramo, situated between the small rivers Viziola and Turdino. 2. Beregra, to 
the southwest of the preceding, on the River Vomanus, now the Vomano. Its 
particular site is undetermined. 3. Hadria, between the Vomanus and Matrinus, 
and at some distance from the sea. Its emporium was at the mouth of the 
latter river. Hadria is now Atri, and its harbor just mentioned, Porto d'Atri. 
This city is supposed to have been settled by a colony from the Hadria to the 
north of the Po. It seems generally allowed that the Emperor Hadrian was de- 
scended from a family originally of this city. 


S A B I N I. 

I. THE Sabines appear to be generally considered as one of 
the most ancient indigenous tribes of Italy, and one of the few 
who preserved their race pure and unmixed. Their name, ac- 
cording to Cato, was derived from the god Sabus, an aboriginal 
deity, whose son Sancus was the Sabine Hercules. 

II. The Sabines were a mountaineer race originally, and ap- 
pear to have been at first a very inconsiderable community, as 
may be seen from the accounts of Cato, who, as quoted by Di- 
onysius of Halicarnassus, reported that the first Sabines settled 
in an obscure place named Testrlna, in the vicinity of Amiter- 
num. As their numbers increased, however, they rapidly ex- 
tended themselves in every direction, expelling the Aborigines 
from the district of Reate, and thence sending out numerous 
colonies into Picenum, Samnium, and the several petty nations 
who are named at the head of this section. 

III. The early connection of the Sabines with Rome, which 
was yet in its infancy, naturally forms the most interesting 
epoch in their history, but is too well known to require further 
notice here. Their entire subjugation was effected by Curius 
Dentatus, who carried fire and desolation beyond the sources 
of the Nar and Velinus, to the very shores of the Adriatic. 

IV. The country of the Sabines, in the reign of Augustus, 



was bounded as follows : on the north by Umbria, on the south 
by Latium, on the west by Umbria and Etruria, and on the 
east by the country of the Vestini, Marrucini, &c. 

V. The Romans had no general name comprehending the 
Sabines along with the tribes supposed to have issued from 
them. The latter, as well the Marsi and Peligni as the Sam- 
nites and Lucanians, they termed Sabellians. 


BEGINNING at the junction of the Tiber and Anio, we come 
to, 1. Antemnce, a city of the Aborigines, and more ancient than 
Rome itself. From its position it belonged strictly to Latium, 
being on the left bank of the Anio ; butj;hat it afterward formed 
part of the Sabine confederacy is evident from its being one of 
the first cities which resented the outrage offered to that nation 
by the rape of their women. Its name, according to Varro, in- 
dicated its position, " Ant evince, quod ante amnem, qui influit 
in Tiberim" 2. Fldence, to the northeast, near ttie Tiber, and 
between four and five miles from Rome. It was at first a col- 
ony of Alba. Romulus conquered the place soon after the death 
of Tatius. After many attempts to emancipate itself, it was 
stormed by the dictator Mamercus ^Emilius. After this it re- 
mained for a long time a deserted place, but it subsequently 
rose again to the rank of a municipium. A terrible disaster 
occurred here in the reign of Tiberius, by the fall of a wooden 
amphitheatre during a show of gladiators, by which accident 
fifty thousand persons, as Tacitus reports, or twenty thousand, 
according to Suetonius, were killed or wounded. The site of 
this city is near Castel Giubileo. * 3. Crustumerium, about two 
miles further on, in the same direction. This was also a colo- 
ny of Alba, and a place of great antiquity. The Crustumini 
were vanquished by Romulus, and a settlement was formed in 
their territory, the fertility of which is extolled by more than 
one writer. The ruins of Crustumerium still exist in a place 
called Marcigliano Vecchio. 4. Nomentum, northeast of the 
preceding, on the site now called by a corruption of the ancient 
name, Lamentana Vecchia. This also was a colony of Alba, 
and therefore originally, perhaps, a Latin city, but from its po- 
sition it is generally attributed to the Sabines. Nomentum, in 
the time of Propertius, was but an insignificant place, yet its 

ITALIA. 307 

territory was long celebrated for the produce of its vineyards, 
and hence, in the time of Seneca and Pliny, we find that land 
in this district was sold for enormous sums. The former had 
an estate in the vicinity of this town, which was his favorite 
retreat. The wine of Nomentum is praised by Athenseus and 

5. Cormculum, to the east of the preceding, and giving name 
to the Corniculani Colles. It was the reputed birth-place of 
Servius Tullius. 6. Erctum, north of Nomentum, and the 
scene of many contests between the Romans and Sabines 
leagued with the Etruscans. In Strabo's time it was little 
more than a village. Its site is at Rimane, about two and a 
half miles beyond Monte Ritondo. 7. Regillum, near E return, 
and the native place of Atta Clausus, or Appius Claudius, the 
founder of the Claudian family at Rome. 8. Cures, to the north 
of E return, and celebrated as the birth-place of Numa Pompil- 
ius. It was a place of great antiquity, and though Virgil and 
Ovid apply the term parvi to it, yet it must have been a pop- 
ulous and powerful city to play the part it did in early Roman 
history. The site of Cures, according to the best opinion, is to 
be fixed at Correse, a little town on a river of the same name. 
9. Mandela , a village to the southeast of Cures, near which 
stood Horace's Sabine villa. It is now Bardela. The Mom 
Lucretllis, in its vicinity, is now Monte Libretti, and the little 
River Digentia is now the Licenza. 

10. Reate, to the northeast of Cures, and now Rieti. In an- 
tiquity of origin this city was equalled by few places in Italy, 
since, at the most remote period to which the records of that 
country extend, it is reported to have been the first seat of the 
Umbri, the same, probably, with the Aborigines of Italy. Reate 
was particularly celebrated for its breed of mules, and still more 
so for its asses, which sometimes fetched the enormous price of 
60,000 sesterces, about $2320. The valley of the Velinus, in 
which this city was situated, was so delightful as to merit the 
appellation of Tempe, and from their dewy freshness its mead- 
ows obtained the name of Rosei Campi. 11. Cutilice, to the 
east of Reate, and also an aboriginal city of great antiquity. 
It was celebrated for its lake, now Pozzo Ratignano, and the 
floating island on its surface. This lake was further distin- 
guished by the appellation of the umbilicus, or centre of Italy, 


a fact which D'Anville found to be correct, when referred to 
the breadth of Italy. Cutiliae was also famed for its mineral 
waters, which failed, however, in their effect on Vespasian, who 
is stated to have died here. 

12. Testrina, to the southeast of Cutiliae, and the first seat 
of the Sabine nation. Its site is near Civita Tommassa. 
13. Amiternum, northeast of Testrina, near the modern St. 
Vittorino, and a place of great antiquity. It was the birth- 
place of Sallust. 14. Nursia, in the northeastern corner of the 
Sabine territory, at the foot of the central chain of the Apen- 
nines, and near the sources of the Nar. It was noted for the 
coldness of its atmosphere, and is now Norcia. Polla Vespa- 
sia, the mother of Vespasian, was bori* here, and we are told 
that the family of that emperor had possessions at a place called 
Vespdsice, between Nursia and Spoletum, a memorial of which 
is still preserved in the name of Monte Vespio. 


I. THE ^Equi, or ^Equlcoli, as they are sometimes called, are more distin- 
guished in history for their early and incessant hostility to Rome, than for the 
extent of their territory or their numbers. Livy himself expresses his surprise 
that a nation apparently so small and insignificant should have had a population 
adequate to the calls of a constant and harassing warfare, which it carried on 
against that city for so many years. 

II. But it is plain, from the narrow limits which must be assigned to this 
people, that their contests with Rome can not be viewed in the light of a regular 
war, but as a succession of marauding expeditions, made by these hardy but 
lawless mountaineers on the territory of that city, and which could only be ef- 
fectually checked by the most entire and rigid subjection. 

III. The ^Equi are to be placed next to the Sabines, and between them and 
the Marsi, chiefly in the upper valley of the Anio, which separated them from 
the Latins. They are said at one time to have been possessed of forty towns ; 
but many of these must certainly have been little more than villages, and some, 
also, were subsequently included within the boundaries of Latium. 

(B.) CITIES OF THE ^Equi. 

1. Varia, lying close to the Digentia of Horace. In Strabo 
(v., p. 238) it is probable that we ought to read Varia for Vale- 
ria. The modern name of this place is Vicovaro. 2. Carseoli, 
about fifteen miles to the northeast of Varia. It was appa- 
rently a town of some consequence, and became a Roman col- 
ony after the .^Equi were finally reduced. It appears to have 
been sometimes selected by the senate as a residence for illus- 

ITALIA. 309 

trious state captives and hostages. The ruins of this place are 
still called Celle di Carsoli. 3. Treba, near the sources of the 
Anio, now Trevi. This town appears to have been further dis- 
tinguished by the name of Augusta, but after what emperor it 
was so called is uncertain. A little lower down, the Anio forms 
three small lakes, called Simbrivii Lacus, or Simbruina Stag- 
na. The coolness and salutary virtue of these waters are com- 
mended by Celsus. 4. Subldqueum, in the vicinity of the 
lakes just mentioned, and now Subiaco. The ancient name 
has reference to its situation with regard to these lakes. It 
may be collected from Tacitus ( Ann., xiv., 22) that this place 
was at first only a villa of Nero's. 


I. THE Mam, though inconsiderable as a people, are entitled to honorable no- 
tice in the page of history for their hardihood and warlike spirit. Their origin, 
like that of many other Italian tribes, is enveloped in obscurity and fiction. A 
certain Phrygian, named Marsyas, is said to have been the founder of their race ; 
by others, Marsus, the son of Circe. (Plin., vii., 2.) Hence they are repre- 
sented as enchanters, whose potent spells deprived the viper of its venom, or 
cured the hurt which it might have caused. 

II. We do not find the Marsi engaged in war with Rome before B.C. 308, 
when they are defeated and forced to sue for peace. Six years after they again 
assume a hostile character, but with as little success : they are beaten in the 
field, and lose several of their fortresses. From this time we find them the 
firm and staunch allies of Rome, and contributing by their valor to her triumphs, 
till her haughty and domineering spirit compels them and most of the other 
neighboring communities to seek by force of arms for that redress of their 
wrongs, and that concession of privileges and immunities, which was not to be 
granted to their entreaties. In the war which ensues, and which, from this 
circumstance, is called the Marsic as well as the Social War, the Marsi are the 
first to take the field under their leader Silus Pompaedius, B.C. 90. Though 
often defeated, the perseverance of the allies is at last crowned with success 
by the grant of those immunities which they may be said to have extorted from, 
the Roman senate. 

III. The Marsi were contiguous to the Sabines and Vestlni on the north, to 
the ^Equi and Hernici on the west and southwest, to the Samnites on the south, 
and to the Peligni on the east. 


1. Marruvium or Marrubium, the capital of the race, on the 
eastern shore of Lacus Fucinus. Its site is to be fixed at San 
Benedetto, where inscriptions have been discovered. The an- 
cient name appears to contain the same root with that of the 
Marsi. No Roman colony was ever established here. 2. Alba 


Fucentia, a short distance northwest of the lake. From its 
strong and secluded situation, it appears to have been selected 
by the Roman senate as a fit place of residence for captives 
of rank and consequence, as well as for notorious offenders. 
Among the former we may mention Syphax, who was after- 
ward removed to Tibur ; Perseus, king of Macedonia, and his 
son Alexander ; and Bituitus, king of the Arverni. At the time 
of Caesar's invasion of his country, we find Alba adhering to 
the cause of Pompey, and subsequently repelling the attack 
of Antony, on which occasion it obtained a warm and eloquent 
eulogium from Cicero. Its ruins are still considerable, and 
stand about a mile from the modern city of Alba. 3. Lucus, 
on the western shore of the lake. Its inhabitants are called 
Lucernes by Pliny, and it appears to answer to the modern 
Luco. Near this place was the celebrated Lucus Angitice, or 
grove of Angitia, the sister of Circe, and to which allusion is 
made by Virgil. 



I. THE Peligni were not distinguished from the other tribes by which they 
were surrounded either by their political importance or the extent of their coun- 
try ; but they derive some consideration in history from the circumstance of 
their chief city having been selected by the allies in the Social War as the seat 
of their new empire. Had their plans succeeded, and had Rome fallen beneath 
the effects of their coalition, Corfinium would have become the capital of Italy, 
and perhaps of the world. 

II. The Peligni, according to Festus, were of Illyrian origin ; but Ovid, who 
ought to be considered good authority in what regards his own countrymen, ex- 
pressly informs us that they were descended from the Sabines. 

III. The small and mountainous country of the Peligni seems to have been 
noted for the coldness of its climate, as well as for the abundance of its springs 
and streams. Some portion of it, however, was fertile. It was separated from 
the Marsi on the west by the Apennines ; to the north it bordered on the Ves- 
tini ; to the east and southeast on the Marruclni, Frentani, and part of Samnium. 


1. Corfinium, the chief city of the race, in a northeast direc- 
tion from Marruvium. It has already been referred to as hav- 
ing been selected by the allies in the Social War for the seat of 
their empire. Corfinium assumed, in consequence, the name 
of Italica, as standing at the head of the new Italian confed- 
eracy. It enjoyed the honor, however, of being styled the cap- 
ital of Italy only for a short period, since it appears to have se- 

ITALIA. 311 

ceded from the coalition before the conclusion of the war. In 
later times we find it regarded as one of the most important 
cities of this part of Italy, and one which Csesar was most anx- 
ious to secure in his enterprise against the liberties of his coun- 
try. It surrendered to him after a short defence. The church 
of St. Pelino, about three miles from the town of Popoli, stands 
on the site of this ancient city. 2. Sulmo, about seven miles 
southeast of the preceding, and now Sulmone. It is worthy of 
note as having been the birth-place of Ovid. We learn from 
Florus that this city was exposed to all the vengeance of Sylla 
for having been attached to the cause of Marius. It was not, 
however, destroyed by him, since we soon after read of its fall- 
ing into the hands of Csesar together with Corfinium. 3. Su- 
per Equum, to the northwest of the preceding, and, according 
to Frontinus, a Roman colony. It occupied the site of the 
modern Castel Vecchio Subequo. 


I. THE Vesfini occupied an equally mountainous, though more extensive tract 
of country than the other communities which have just been described. To the 
east they reached as far as the sea, being separated from the Pratutii on the 
north by the River Matrlnus, and from the Marruclni on the southeast by the 
River Aternus. On the west they bordered on the Salines, and on the south on 
the Peligni. 

II. Their history offers no circumstances of peculiar interest. They are first 
introduced to our notice in the Roman annals as the allies of the Samnites, a 
people to whom they are said not to have been inferior in valor ; but, being 
separately attacked by the Romans, the Vestini, too weak to make any effectual 
resistance, were soon compelled to submit. 

III. This people, however, were not behindhand with their neighbors in 
taking up arms on the breaking out of the Social War ; they bore an active part 
in the exertions and perils of that fierce and sanguinary contest, and received 
their share of the rights and privileges which, on its termination, were granted 
to the confederates. 


1. Pinna, now Civita di Penna, the chief city of the race. 
We are informed by Valerius Maximus that it sustained a siege 
against the Roman army during the Social War. It subsequent- 
ly became a Roman colony. Vitruvius notices some waters in 
its vicinity as being nitrous. 2. Angulus, nearer the coast, now 
Civita San? Angela. 3. Cutina and Cingilia, two fortresses 
among the Apennines. The former is now Aquana, and the 


latter Aretenga. A little to the north of Aquaria, and on the 
borders of Picenum, rises Monte Corno, called, also, il Gran 
Sasso, and considered to be the highest summit of the Apen- 
nines. It is probably the ancient Mom Cunarus. 4. Aufi- 
na, between the two last-mentioned places, and now Ofena. 
5. Aternum, at the mouth of the Aternus, now Pescara, which 
is also the modern name of the place. 6. Pitlnum, near the up- 
per part of the Aternus, and now Torre di Pitino. It was sit- 
uate near a little stream called Novanus by Pliny, which was 
noted for being dry in winter, but plentifully supplied in summer. 


I. THE Marruclni appear to have occupied a narrow strip of territory on the 
right bank of the River Aternus, between the Vesltni to the north, and the Fren- 
tani to the south, and between the Peligni and the sea toward the west and east. 
Cato derived their origin from the Marsi. Like that people, they were account- 
ed a hardy and warlike race, and with them they made common cause against 
the tyranny of Rome. 

II. The only city of note which we find ascribed to the Marrucini is Tedtc, 
now Chieti, on the right bank of the Aternus or Pescara. But all accounts agree 
in describing it as a large and populous place, and worthy of being ranked among 
the distinguished cities of Italy. The family of Asinius Pollio came originally 
from this place. 

7. ROMA. 

I. Roma, now Rome, the celebrated capital of Italy and the 
Roman empire, was situate on the left, or eastern bank of the 
Tiber, below the junction of the Anio with that stream. From 
the time of Servius Tullius it extended over seven hills, and 
hence was often called Urbs Septicollis. From the time of 
Aurelian, however, it spread over ten hills, the names of which 
are Mom Palatinus, Capitolinus, Caslius, Aventinus, Quiri- 
nalis, Viminalis, Esquilinus, Janiculus, Collis Hortulorum or 
Mom Pincius, and Vaticanus. 

II. Of these hills the Palatine was in the centre, while the 
Collis Hortulorum and the Aventine were the farthest on the 
north and south. Before the Collis Hortulorum was included 
in the city, the furthest hill on the north was the Quirinal. 
On the Palatine Hill was the celebrated Palatine Library, and 
the splendid temple of Apollo with which it was connected. 
Here, too, was the residence of Augustus, subsequently en- 
larged into the magnificent palace of the Caesars. The Pala- 
tine was the first inhabited part of Rome, and is sometimes put, 

ITALIA. 313 

by way of eminence, for the whole city. On the Capitoline 
Hill stood the Capitol, or Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. Be- 
tween this hill and the Palatine was the Forum, from which 
three ascents led to the Capitol : 1st. By the one hundred steps 
of the Tarpeian Rock, which was probably on the steepest side, 
where it overhangs the Tiber ; 2d. By the Clivus Capitolinus, 
which began from the Arch of Tiberius and the Temple of Sat- 
urn ; and 3d. By the Clivus Asyli, which, being less steep than 
the other two, was on that account the road by which the tri- 
umphant generals were borne in their cars to the Capitol. The 
Aventine Hill is said to have been the place where Remus took 
his station when consulting the auspices with a view to found- 
ing Rome ; and here, too, he is reported to have been interred. 
The public granaries of the city stood in this quarter, on ac- 
count of the convenience, probably, which the river here afford- 
ed of landing the wheat which came from Sicily, Egypt, and 
Africa. On the Esquiline Hill were the splendid palace and 
gardens of Msecenas. Julius Caesar was born in that part of 
the Suburra which was situate on this hill. The Campus Es- 
quilinus, a plot of ground without the walls of the city, was in 
the early days of Rome a burial-place for the lower orders, and 
the Esquiline Hill seems to have been considered unhealthy till 
this mode of burial was discontinued. The Janiculan Hill, 
across the Tiber, was said to have derived its name from a city 
founded on its summit by Janus. Tradition reported that Nu- 
ma was buried at the foot of this hill. The Vatican Hill was 
supposed to have been so called from the Latin word vates, or 
vaticinium, as having once been the seat of Etruscan divination. 

III. Ancient Rome had in the time of Pliny thirty-seven 
gates, exclusive of seven which no longer existed. In the time 
of Frontinus, nine aqueducts supplied it with water, a number 
which later authors magnify to fourteen, and even twenty ; but 
the latter statement, which rests on the authority of Aurelius 
Victor alone, is probably exaggerated, and it is supposed that 
he counted the different channels or conduits of water, not the 
aqueducts themselves. 

IV. Lipsius, a modern scholar, has computed the population 
of ancient Rome and the environs at four millions. This, how- 
ever, should rather be called a conjecture than a calculation 
upon any solid data. A later and more careful computation 


makes the inhabitants of the fourteen regions, or wards, into 
which Rome was divided by Augustus, to have amounted to 
1,104,000. The true number, probably, was near 2,000,000. 



I. IT is universally admitted that the part of Rome which was said to have 
been built by Romulus occupied the Palatine Hill, on the eastern side of the 
Tiber. This town on the hill was, according to the custom of the Latins, built 
in a square form, whence it was called Roma Quadrdta. It is more than prob- 
able, however, that this same city existed long before the so-called era of Rom- 
ulus ; in other words, that no such individual as Romulus ever existed, and 
that the place said to have been founded by him on the Palatine Hill was a Si- 
culian, Pelasgian, or Tyrrhenian town, whose name was Roma. This will serve 
to explain the statement that Rome was a Tyrrhenian city, as well as the foreign 
appearance of the name Roma itself. > 

II. As early as the so-called time of Romulus, Etruscan settlements existed 
on the Caelian Hill, and extended over Mons Cispius and Oppius, which are 
parts of the Esquiline. Whether these Etruscans lived in open villages or for- 
tified places is unknown ; but we learn from Varro that they were compelled 
by the Romans to abandon their seats on the hills, and to descend into the 
plains between the Caelian and the Esquiline, whence the Vicus Tuscus in that 
district derived its name. The principal of these Etruscan settlements was, 
according to the well-known hypothesis of Niebuhr, called Lucerum, and the 
Etruscan settlers themselves were called Luceres. These Luceres, in the early 
history of the Roman state, were in a state of subjection to the other tribes, 
from which they emerged only by degrees. 

III. The three hills north of the Palatine, namely, the Quirinal, Viminal, and 
Capitoline, were occupied by Sabines, and the last of these hills was their cita- 
del. Their town on the Quirinal was, according to Niebuhr, called Qmrium. 
When the Latin and Sabine towns became united, the valleys between the hills 
must have been drained, and the cloaca by which this was effected belong to 
the earliest architectural remains of Rome. The valley between the Palatine 
and the Capitoline was set apart as the place of meeting for the two nations 
( Comitium and Forum Romanum), and the boundary between the territories of 
the two towns was probably marked by the Via Sacra, which came down from, 
the top of the Velia, ran between the Quirinal and Palatine, and then, making 
a bend, proceeded between the latter hill and the Capitoline as far as the Tem- 
ple of Vesta, whence it turned right across the Comitium toward the gate of 
the Palatine. 

IV. The seven hills inhabited by these three different nations were united 
into one town, and surrounded by a wall by King Servius Tullius. The Pome- 
rium, that is, the precincts within which auguria could be taken, had been ex- 
tended with the increase of the city, but the Aventine, though included in the 
new wall, did not lie within the Pomerium, and it continued to be chiefly oc- 
cupied by plebeians. Hence it is not mentioned among the districts of the city 
by Varro, who calls them Palatium, Velia, Cermdlus, Calius, Fagutal, Oppius, 
and Cispius. 

V. The whole circumference of the walls of Servius Tullius was about six 
miles. They included considerable tracts of land which were not occupied by 

ITALIA. 315 

buildings, but were either pasture grounds or covered with wood or thickets, 
such as great part of the Esquiline and Viminal. Accordingly, in time of war, 
the people of the surrounding districts took refuge within the walls of the city, 
where they found sufficient space and food for their cattle. It was, however, 
principally the inner space, near the wall itself, which was not occupied by 
buildings until a very late period. Servius Tullius divided the whole city within 
the walls into four regions, which coincided with the four city tribes into which 
he divided the commonalty. Each of these regions was again subdivided into 
six districts, which derived their names from the Sacella Argaorum, which prob- 
ably stood wherever two streets crossed each other, so that these subdivisions 
appear to have been compact masses of houses, such as were subsequently 
called vici. Their number is stated by Varro to have been twenty-seven ; 
twenty-four belonging to the four regions, and the three remaining ones proba- 
bly to the Capitoline. 


I. MANY great works were erected at Rome during the kingly period. The 
great Temple of Jupiter was on the Capitoline. The prison of Tullius, called 
Career Tullianus or Mamertinus, was at the eastern foot of the same hill. The 
Circus Maximus was between the Palatine and Aventine, of which there are 
probably no remains. The Cloaca Maxima carried the waters of the Velabrum 
and the Forum Romanum into the Tiber, and was a stupendous work. The 
wall of the elder Tarquin formed an embankment on the east side of the river: 
the remains are still visible to some extent. Of the wall of Servius Tullius 
few traces remain ; but it existed in the eighth century of Rome, as appears 
from the description of Pliny (iii., 5), and from Dionysius of Halicarnassus (ix., 
p. 624). 

II. During the early part of the Republic, we find no mention of such great 
architectural works as those which were built during the period of the kings ; 
but, with the increase of the population, many of the uncultivated and uninhab- 
ited districts must have gradually become covered with houses. About one 
hundred and twenty years after the establishment of the Republic, when the city 
was taken by the Gauls, the whole was consumed by fire, with the exception of 
the Capitol, a few houses on the Palatine, and some of the works above enu- 
merated, the magnitude of which saved them from destruction, The hasty 
mode in which the city was rebuilt explains the fact that, down to the time of 
Nero, the streets of Rome were narrow, irregular, and crooked, and, in point 
of beauty and regularity, Rome was far inferior to most of the other great cit- 
ies of Italy. After this restoration a long time probably passed before any new 
ground was built upon. ' Down to the fifth century of the city, private houses 
were generally covered with shingles, and there continued to be a number of 
groves within the walls of the city. But toward the end of the period which is 
comprised between the Gallic conflagration and the end of the second Punic 
war, Rome began to be embellished with temples, which, however, both as to 
material and architecture, were far inferior to the temples of Greece. High 
roads and aqueducts also began to be built. The streets of the city itself were 
not paved, though we have no reason to suppose that they were neglected. At 
a somewhat later period, we find public places, streets, and walks under the 
porticoes commonly paved with large square blocks of tuffb or of travertine. In 
the year 176 B.C., the censors ordered the streets of the city to be paved with 
blocks of basalt, which were laid on a stratum of gravel, such as is still visible 
in a part of the Via Appia. At the time of the war with Hannibal, the district 


near the river, between the Capitoline and the Aventine, was almost entirely 
covered with buildings, and it was called Extra Portam Flumentdnam. 

III. The private houses had, from the earliest times, been very simple in struc- 
ture ; but, after the conquest of Greece, and more especially of Asia, individ- 
uals began to build their dwellings in a magnificent style, and the taste for 
splendid mansions and palaces increased so rapidly, that a house like that of 
Crassus, which at first was universally admired for its splendor and magnifi- 
cence, in the course of a few years was lost among superior buildings. Public 
edifices, however, still remained the chief objects of the pride of the Romans. 
Theatres, a class of buildings which had once been scarcely tolerated, were 
erected in several parts of Rome during the last century of the Republic, espe- 
cially after the time of Sylla. During the civil wars between Marius and Sylla, 
we find that the number of houses had increased to such a degree, that the walls 
of Servius Tullius in several parts lay within the city itself, and Niebuhr thinks 
it not improbable that at this time a suburb already existed in the plain west of 
the Tiber, which was afterward called the Regw Transtiberlna. At the begin- 
ning of the eighth century of the city, another suburb is mentioned, In JEmilianis, 
between the Circus Flaminius and the Quirinal. A third arose south of the 
Caelius, a mile from the Porta Capena, and was called Ad Martis. Of all the 
splendid buildings, however, which were raised during the latter part of the Re- 
public, scarcely any traces exist, and the only remains which can with any prob- 
ability be reckoned among them are the substructions of three ancient temples, 
below the church of San Nicola in Carcere, the so-called Temple of Fortuna Viri- 
lis, not far from the Theatre of Marcellus, and perhaps, also, the three columns 
of the so-called Temple of Castor and Pollux, near the Forum. 

IV. Augustus might well say that he had changed Rome from a city of brick 
into one of marble, for the roads, aqueducts, and public buildings of every descrip- 
tion, temples, arcades, and theatres, which were constructed during his long 
and peaceful reign, were almost innumerable. The whole plain between the 
Quirinal and the river became a new town, which in splendor and magnificence 
far surpassed the city of the hills : this new town was one mass of temples, ar- 
cades, theatres, and public places of amusement, not interrupted by any private 
habitations. Aqueducts, for the purpose of supplying the city with water, had 
been built as early as the year 313 B.C., and the first (Aqua Appia) was be- 
gun by Appius Claudius. It ran almost entirely under ground, and conveyed 
the water, from a distance of about eight miles, in the direction of the Porta 
Capena, into the city. Other aqueducts (Anio Vetus, 273 B.C. ; Aqua Marcia, 
145 B.C. ; Tepula, 127 B.C. ; Julia, 35 B.C.) were constructed ; but it was not 
until the imperial period that this kind of architecture reached its perfection, 
and most of the remains which are still extant belong to the period of the em- 
pire. They were mostly built upon arches, which had an easy inclination, so 
that the water ran gently from its source toward the city. Augustus built two 
new aqueducts (Aqua Alsietina or Augusta, and Aqua Virgo), and increased the 
Marcia. Subsequent emperors added the Aqua Claudia ; Anio Novus (both in 
A.D. 50); Aqua Trajana (A.D. Ill); Antoniniana (A.D. 212); Alexandrine, 
(A.D. 230) ; and Jovia (A.D. 300). 

V. The division into four regions, made by Servius Tullius, had remained un- 
altered ; but Augustus, for the convenience of administration, divided the whole 
city, both within and without the walls of Servius, into fourteen new regions, 
a division which continued to the eighth century, when it began gradually to 
give way to the Ecclesiastical division into seven regions. Each of the Au- 
gustan regions, according to a survey taken in the reign of Vespasian, contained 

ITALIA. 317 

nineteen, or, according to a later account, twenty-two vici, with as many sacel- 
la, in places where two streets crossed each other (in compitis). Each vicus 
seems, on an average, to have contained about two hundred and thirty dwelling- 
houses, so that every region contained more than four thousand. About one 
twenty-fifth part of this number of houses were domus, that is, habitations of the 
rich (palazzi), with a portico in front, and an extensive inner court (atrium). 
The remaining twenty-four twenty-fifths consisted ofinsula, that is, habitations 
for citizens of the middle and lower classes ; they had no portico in front, but 
mostly an open space, which served as a shop or work-shop. In the interior 
they may have had a court, but of smaller extent than the atrium of a domus. 
The number of these insula was about forty-four thousand. All Roman houses 
were very high. Augustus fixed seventy and Trajan sixty feet as the height, 
above which none were allowed to be built, and the upper story was usually of 
wood. It was a law of the Twelve Tables, which also occurs in the Roman 
legislation of later times, that no two houses, whether domus or insula, should 
be built closely together, but that an open space of five feet should be left be- 
tween them. 

VI. Tiberius, besides completing many of the buildings of his predecessor, 
began the Pratorian Camp on the northeast side of the city, in the Campus Vim- 
inalis, and surrounded it with high walls. The wealthy Romans at this time 
had their palaces principally in the district from the Porta Collina to the Porta 
Ccelimontana ; they did not, however, form streets, but lay in gardens within 
the fields between the high roads which issued from the city, and hence they 
are generally called Horti, as Horti Macendtis, Pallantidni, Epaphrodlti, &c. All 
that had been done, however, for the embellishment of the city previous to the 
reign of Nero, was eclipsed by the magnificent buildings of this emperor ; but 
the greater part of these works, together with those of former days, perished in 
the conflagration which took place in his reign. His plan of restoring Rome 
was gigantic, and proved to be impracticable : he proposed to make Rome a 
port, and to connect it with the sea by long walls from the Capitol to Ostia. 
But all that he could do, notwithstanding his profusion, was to restore those 
parts of the city which had been destroyed. The face of the new city, howev- 
er, assumed a totally different aspect. On the ruins of the temples and the im- 
perial palace on the Palatine rose the so-called golden house of Nero, which oc- 
cupied a space equal to a large town. The greatest care was taken to make 
the new streets wide and straight, and that the buildings should not exceed a 
reasonable height. In order to render possible the execution of the regular 
plan, the several quarters of the city were measured, and the heaps of ruins 
were removed, and conveyed in ships to Ostia, to fill up the marshes in its vi- 
cinity. All the new buildings were massive, and constructed of the fire-proof 
peperino, without the old wooden story. The width of the new streets rendered 
it necessary to extend the city beyond its former limits. Some time afterward, 
in the reign of Vespasian, a measurement of the circumference of Rome was 
taken, according to which-it amounted to thirteen and one fifth Roman miles. 
The subsequent emperors continued to increase and embellish the city ; but un- 
der Commodus a great part was again consumed by a fire, which destroyed all 
the buildings on the Palatine. Septimius Severus exerted himself to restore 
the parts which had been burned, and to ornament the city, and some of his 
buildings are still extant. But the grandeur and magnificence of the thermae 
of Caracalla, south of the Porta Capena, surpassed all the works of his prede- 
cessors. Almost all the great buildings, or their remains, which still exist at 
Rome, belong to the period between Nero and Constantine. 


VII. The most extensive work of this latter period is the immense wall, with 
its numerous towers, with which Aurelian surrounded the city. The work, 
which was completed in the reign of Probus (A.D. 276), does not, however, en- 
able us to form a correct estimate of the real extent of the city, as the objects 
of the fortifications may have rendered it necessary to enclose parts which were 
not covered with buildings. The whole circumference of these new fortifica- 
tions was about twenty-one miles. Seven bridges connected the eastern and 
western sides of the river. In the time of Honorius, some parts of this wall 
were decayed, and others had become useless on account of the great quantity 
of rubbish which had accumulated near them, but they were restored by this 

VIII. After the time of Constantine, when the emperors and the Roman no- 
bles had adopted the Christian religion, the decay and destruction of the ancient 
edifices commenced. The building of numerous churches was the immediate 
cause of this destruction. Neither the court nor private individuals possessed 
sufficient wealth to raise buildings equal in form or material to those of their 
ancestors, and as heathen temples could not always be converted into Christian 
churches, they were generally pulled down and the materials used for other 
purposes. During the fifth century of our era, great calamities were inflicted 
upon Rome by the ravages of the northern barbarians, though it is a mistake to 
suppose that the buildings of Rome suffered much injury from the irrvaders, for 
they could have no interest in destroying any thing, and all historians agree in 
stating that it was their principal object to carry away gold, silver, and other 
costly things. The few buildings which were destroyed at the capture of the 
city by Alaric were near the Porta Salaria, where the enemy entered. There 
are in this part still some remains of the house of Sallust, which was destroyed 
on that occasion. A harder fate befell the city in 455, when it was taken by 
the Vandals, though even then, and notwithstanding the sack of fourteen days, 
the buildings seem to have suffered little ; the precious metals were the main 
object of the cupidity of the barbarians. Theodoric and his immediate success- 
ors not only took the greatest care to preserve what remained, but even ex- 
erted themselves to restore the public buildings which had suffered, or were 
beginning to decay. The population, however, rapidly decreased during the 
fifth century, and became impoverished, so that, toward the end of the century, 
the suburbs around Rome seem to have no longer existed, with the exception 
of that which had arisen between the northern extremity of the Janiculum and 
the Vatican. Rome was thus confined to the walls of Aurelian and their res- 
toration by Honorius, and even within its precincts extensive districts were 
uninhabited. The most remarkable buildings of former days, indeed, still ex- 
isted, but after the reign of Deodatus they were entirely neglected, and thus 
one after another they fell into decay and ruin. 


I. THE name Latium is derived by the Roman poets from 
the circumstance of Saturn's having lain concealed there, after 
having been driven by Jupiter from the skies (quod ibi latms- 
set Saturnus). Modern investigators, however, leaving the re- 
gion of fable, have traced in the name of the country an allu- 
sion to its flat or marshy character. 

ITALIA. 319 

OBS. Abeken, in his Mittelitalien nor den Zeiten rdm. Herrsch., p. 42, deduces 
the name Latiura from latus, comparing this last with -K^a-rvq and platea. Gro- 
tefend, on the other hand, seeks for the origin of the term in the Celtic lan- 
guage, and makes the name mean " marshy land," " fenny country," answering 
to the German Sumpfland. Klotz, following out this idea, supposes the word to 
be in affinity with lacus, whence may have been formed Lacinius, and from this 
Latinus. (Handb. der lat. Litteraturgesch., p. 181, note.) 

II. Latium anciently extended from the mouth of the Tiber 
in the north, as far only as the Circeian Promontory in the south, 
a distance of about fifty miles along the coast, and this part 
was subsequently distinguished by the name of Latium vetus 
or antiquum. At a later period the name of Latium was ex- 
tended as far south as the mouth of the River Liris, and in- 
land as far as the country of the Marsi and Peligni, and the 
part thus added was called Latium novum or adjectum, to dis- 
tinguish it from ancient Latium. 

III. Latium, therefore, as comprehending both the Old and 
the New, was bounded on the north by Etruria, the territory 
of the Sabines, and the country of the jEqui and Marsi, on the 
west and south by the Lower Sea, and on the east by Samni- 
um and Campania. 


I. ACCORDING to Aristotle, who calls Latium a district in 
Opica, its inhabitants would have been the Oscans or Opicans ; 
but, according to the traditions of the Romans themselves, 
which are collected and minutely discussed in Dionysius of 
Halicarnassus, Latium was inhabited in the earliest times by 
Siculi, a Pelasgian tribe, whom tradition traced to some myth- 
ical king Latinus. These Siculi were connected with the Itali 
in the extreme south of Italy. The district northeast of Lati- 
um, in the neighborhood of Redte and Carseoli, was inhabited 
by the Aborigines, a kindred tribe of the Siculi. 

II. These Aborigines were driven from their seats, and urged 
forward to the River Anio by the Sabines. The Siculians of 
Latium were obliged to give way before the Aborigines, and a 
portion of them were said to have emigrated to Sicily, which 
derived its name from them. The ancient name of the Abo- 
rigines was Casci, Prisci, or Sacrdni ; and, in connection with 
those Siculians who remained behind in Latium, they gradually 
formed the people of the Prisci Latini, that is, Prisci et Latini > 
or simply Latini. 


III. The Aborigines are described by the poets and histori- 
ans of later ages as a savage nation, without laws and civilized 
manners, and as living on the produce of the chase ; but this 
description seems to be no more than a sort of philosophical no- 
tion, which persons of a civilized age are always apt to form 
of the earliest periods of their history. We know that the Ab- 
origines were an agricultural people, and lived 'in villages and 
towns, of which Varro, in his Origines, has given a list, and 
some of which continued to be inhabited in the time of Dionys- 
ius of Halicarnassus, such as Palatium^ on the Quintian road. 
Most of these towns, however, lay in ruins. 

IV. The population of Latium was thus a mixed one, con- 
sisting, on the one hand, of Siculians^ind Oscans, all of whom 
belonged to the Pelasgian race, and, on the other, of Sabellians 
(Sabines). This fact is not only stated in the ancient tradi- 
tions, but is manifest from the language spoken in Latium (the 
Latin language, or the language of the Latins), for we can still 
distinguish the two elements : one is of a Pelasgian character, 
and constitutes the great affinity between the Latin and Greek 
languages ; the other element, which is utterly foreign to the 
Greek, is of Sabellian origin. From these elements, so far as 
they are discernible, we may form some idea of the character 
of the two respective nations. Most Latin words relating to 
agriculture and a more civilized state of society, are the same 
in Latin and Greek ; but others, which are of Sabellian origin, 
are chiefly words relating to war and the chase. 

V. The Aborigines are said to have worshipped Janus, as 
the founder of a better mode of life : Saturn was believed to 
have taught them husbandry, and accustomed them to live in 
fixed habitations. Janus or Dianus was the god of the sun ; 
Saturn and his wife Ops were, in all probability, the god and 
goddess of the earth, that is, the personifications of the vivify- 
ing and productive powers of the earth. 

VI. The tradition of the arrival of a Trojan colony in Latium 
must be regarded in no other light than as a mere fiction, and 
a fiction probably not introduced by the Greeks, but home- 
sprung and of Italian origin. 

VII. From all that we can learn, it would appear that La- 
tium, long before the time assigned to the building of Rome, 
was a flourishing country, and stocked with numerous towns 

ITALIA. 321 

and villages. Its inhabitants formed a powerful confederacy, 
the affairs of which were discussed in assemblies held near the 
well of Ferentina, in the neighborhood of Alba, and which ex- 
tended from the Tiber in the north to Terraclna in the south. 
The history of the confederacy previous to the building of Rome 
is completely lost, for the lists of the kings of Alba, as well as 
the number of years assigned to the reign of each, must be re- 
jected as late fabrications. The founders of Rome are called 
descendants of the Alban kings, although the legends nowhere 
describe Rome as a colony of Alba. 


BEGINNING from the Tiber, as being the northern limit of this 
province, we come to, 1. Ostia, situate at the southern mouth 
of the Tiber, and the ancient port of Rome. According to Stra- 
bo and other ancient writers, it was founded by Ancus Marcius. 
It stood on a narrow peninsula between the river and the La- 
cus Ostice, now Stagno di Levante, which formerly communi- 
cated with the sea, but is now separated from it by a consider- 
able tract of sand. The port appears to have been a mere an- 
chorage, near the site of the modern Torre Bovacciana, in which 
the Roman fleet used to be moored. It was open, however, and 
unprotected, for we read in Cicero's Oration for the Manilian 
Law that the Cilician pirates captured and plundered the fleet 
moored there, to the great disgrace of the Roman name. This 
anchorage ground has long been filled up with sand, and the 
sea is now nearly two miles from old Ostia. Strabo describes 
Ostia as having no port, and he says that the mouth of the river 
had become so choked up, that only small vessels could ascend 
the stream. Hence the Emperor Claudius was induced to con- 
struct a new harbor on the northern arm of the Tiber. A new 
basin was excavated, a large mole with a pharos was erected, 
and a magnificent port was the result, which took the name of 
Portus Augusti. Ostia, in consequence, rapidly declined, and 
in the tune of Procopius, about the middle of the sixth century, 
was in a ruined state and nearly deserted. The site is now 
marked by a heap of ruins. The modern Ostia, which is a 
miserable place, is at some distance from the ancient city. The 
harbor of Claudius, in time, became itself choked up, and it is 
now a stagnant lagune, the sea having retired nearly two miles 



on that side also. There are some remains of antiquity here, 
and the place still retains the name of Porto. It was in con- 
sequence of the failure of Claudius's harbor that Trajan con- 
structed the excellent one at Centum Cellce in Etruria. Be- 
tween the two branches of the Tiber was the Insula Sacra. 

2. Laurentum, about sixteen miles to the southeast of Os- 
tia, and near the spot now called Paterno. Virgil makes it to 
have been the capital of Latinus. Still, however, whatever 
may be thought of ^Eneas and the Trojan colony, it is very ev- 
ident from ancient authorities that a city of this name did ac- 
tually exist in this quarter. The country around was thickly 
covered with groves of bay (laurus), and hence arose the ap- 
pellation given to the place. The jpnarshes in the vicinity 
abounded in wild boars. The adjacent country is now render- 
ed unhealthy by the malaria, but in ancient times it appears 
to have been just the reverse, and was crowded with villas of 
the Roman nobility. 3. Lavinium, to the southeast of the pre- 
ceding, and fabled to have been founded by ^Eneas on his mar- 
riage with Lavinia, after whom he gave it its name. The 
place, however, is actually enumerated among the cities of La- 
tium by Strabo and other authors, as well as by the Itineraries. 
Its site is supposed to answer to the modern Pratica, about 
three miles from the coast. 

A little beyond the site of the ancient Lavinium we come to 
a small stream now called Rio Torto, which probably answers 
to the celebrated Numicius of Virgil, on the banks of which, 
according to the legend, ^Eneas fell in battle. Near the source 
of the Numicius was a grove consecrated to JBneas under the 
title of Jupiter Indiges. Beyond the Numicius we enter the 
territory of the ancient Rutuli, a small people, who, though 
perhaps originally distinct from the Latins, became subsequent^ 
ly so much a part of that nation that it would be superfluous 
to notice them under a separate head. Their capital was Ar- 
dea, a very ancient city, fabled to have been founded by Da- 
nae, mother of Perseus. Virgil makes it the capital of his 
Turnus. The ruins of the place still bear the name of Ardea, 
and are situate on a hill about three miles from the sea. Ac- 
cording to Livy and Silius Italicus, Ardea sent a colony to Sa~ 
guntum in Spain, and contributed mainly to the establishment 
of that city. Ardea is memorable in early Roman history as 

ITALIA, 323 

the place, during the siege of which the affair of Lucretia oc- 
curred, which led to the expulsion of the Tarquins. This city, 
according to Livy, afforded an asylum to Camillus on his go- 
ing into voluntary exile from Rome. To the southwest of Ar- 
dea lay Castrum Inui, the exact situation of which is uncer- 
tain. According to Nibby, however, the name of Incastro, at- 
tached to the little stream near which the ruins of Ardea are 
situated, seems to preserve a memorial of the Castrum Inui. 

What remains of the coast will be more conveniently exam* 
ined in describing the country of the Volsci, to which we will 
presently come. In the mean time, proceeding into the interi- 
or of Latium from Ardea, in a northwesterly direction, we find, 

1. Lanuvium^ the ruins of which still bear the name of Civita 
Lavinia or Cittd delta Vigna. The similarity of the former 
of these modern appellations has sometimes caused this city to 
be mistaken for Lavinium, but by the different positions of the 
two towns they are easily distinguished. Lanuvium was sit- 
uate on the right of the Appian Way, on a hill commanding an 
extensive prospect toward Antium and the sea. The temple 
and worship of Juno Sospita were here held in great veneration. 
Among the natives of this place more or less known in history 
or otherwise, may be named Milo, the antagonist of Clodius, 
Roscius, the celebrated actor, and the three Antonines. Milo 
was dictator of Lanuvium, and was on his way thither when 
the encounter took place which ended in the death of Clodius. 

2. Aricia, a little to the northwest of Lanuvium, and nearer 
Rome. It is now La Riccia. According to Strabo, Aricia it- 
self was situate on the Appian Way, but its citadel was placed 
on a hill above. The latter site answers to the position of the 
modern town. The distance between this place and Rome was 
fifteen miles. Diana had a sacred grove, temple, and lake not far 
from this place. The lake is now called Lago di Nemi. Stra- 
bo tells us that the worship of Diana here resembled that paid 
to the goddess in the Tauric Chersonese, and that the priest of 
the temple was obliged to defend himself by force of arms 
against all who aspired to the office, for whosoever could slay 
him succeeded to the dignity. The country around Aricia was 
remarkable for fertility and beauty. 

3. Alba Longa, a short distance to the north of Aricia, and 
one of the most ancient cities of Latium. The old fabulous 


traditions of ancient Rome speak of the city of Alba as being 
founded by Ascanius, son of ./Eneas, about four hundred years 
before the foundation of Rome itself. They also give a suc- 
cession of kings of Alba, from Ascanius down to Numitor, grand- 
father of Romulus. But this story evidently cannot be regard- 
ed as historical. The truth is, that Alba was a considerable 
city anterior to Rome, and the centre of a confederation dis- 
tinct from that of the Latins, but connected with it. The site 
of this ancient city has been much contested by topographers. 
The ancient account makes it to have been situated on the 
declivity of the Alban Mount, midway between the summit 
and the Lacus Albanus, each of these serving as a defence to 
the city; and hence many have supposed it to coincide with 
the modern village of Palazzolo. Sir W. Gell, however, after 
a careful examination, decides in favor of a long ridge higher 
up the ascent, and makes the city to have been scarcely fifty 
yards broad, but to have stretched in a long line for more than 
a mile. Hence the name given to the city, the first part, Alba, 
referring to the high, precipitous rocks on which it was founded, 
and the latter part, Longa, to its lengthened appearance. This 
city, according to Livy, was destroyed by Tullus Hostilius, and 
the inhabitants were removed to Rome ; but Niebuhr has strong 
doubts about the time as well as the manner in which Alba 
was destroyed ; and it appears that the territory of Alba was 
taken possession of in the first place by the Latins, and not 
by Rome, A second town was built afterward by Roman col- 
onists in the time of the first emperors. This second Alba is 
mentioned by Suetonius in his life of Nero. The modern town 
of is at the foot of the mountain, and does not, of 
course, answer to the ancient site. The Mom Albanus is now 
Monte Cavo. The Lacus Albanus has been already mentioned 
(page 266). 

4. BoviUce, an ancient town on the Appian Way, between 
the ninth and tenth mile-stones, and answering now to the situ- 
ation of the inn called L y Osteria dellt Frattochie. At no great 
distance from Bovillse was the source of the Aqua Ferentina> 
distinguished in the early annals of Latium as the place where 
the confederate cities assembled in public council. Near Bo- 
villse, also, the rencounter took place between Milo and Clodius, 
which ended in the death of the latter. 5. Tusculum, on the 

ITALIA. 325 

summit of the ridge of hills which forms the continuation of 
the Alban Mount, and above the modern town of Frascati. 
The ruins themselves bear the name of // Tuscolo. The foun- 
dation of this place is ascribed in the legends of the poets to 
Telegonus, the son of Ulysses and Circe. Strabo says that on 
the side toward Rome, the hills of Tusculum were covered with 
villas. Of these, the one most interesting for us was the villa 
of Cicero, giving name to the beautiful moral Disputations, 
which were probably written there, Tusculance Disputationes, 
or " Tusculan Disputations." The villa itself was called Tus- 
culanum. 6. Algidum, to the southeast of Tusculum, and often 
mentioned in the early history of Rome as a favorite station of 
the .J3qui in their predatory incursions on the Roman territory. 
We must distinguish, however, between this town and the 
Mount Algidus. The latter appears to have been that chain 
which stretches from the rear of the Alban Mount, and is par- 
allel to the Tusculan hills, being separated from them by the 
valley along which runs the Via Latina. The woods of the 
bleak Algidus are a favorite theme with Horace. 

7. Gdbii, to the northeast of Tusculum, on the Via Prcenes- 
tina, and about one hundred stadia from Rome. Its site cor- 
responds to the modern Osteria del Pantano. Gabii is said 
to have been a colony of Alba, and an obscure tradition repre- 
sented it as the place in which Romulus and Remus were 
brought up. The artful manner in which Tarquinius Superb- 
us obtained possession of Gabii, after he had failed in the at- 
tempt by force of arms, is well known, as recorded by Livy. 
According to the same historian, the Gauls received their final 
defeat from Camillus near this city. This place suffered so 
much during the civil wars that it became entirely ruinous and 
deserted. It revived, however, under Antoninus and Commo- 
dus, and became a thriving town. In its more flourishing days, 
Juno seems to have been held in peculiar honor at Gabii. The 
cinctus Gabinus was a peculiar mode of folding or girding the 
toga, in order to give more freedom to the person when in motion. 
The people of Gabii are said to have adopted it on a particu- 
lar occasion, when hurrying to battle from a sacrifice. 8. Col- 
Idtia, a little to the north of Gabii, and likewise a colony of Al- 
ba. It was celebrated in Roman history for the self-sacrifice 
of the chaste Lucretia. In Strabo's time it was a mere village. 


The road which led to this place from Rome was called Via 
Collatina. The site of Collatia is generally supposed to agree 
with that of a place called Castel delP Osa or Castellucdo. 
Gell, however, is in favor of Lunghezza. 9. Tibur, now Tf- 
voli, to the northeast of Gabii, and on the banks of the Anio. 
According to Dionysius, it was a town of the Siculi ; but oth- 
ers make it to have been founded by Catillus, son of Amphia- 
raus, who, with his two brothers, Coras and Tiburtus, migra- 
ted to Italy, and named the place after the latter. This legend 
refers, of course, to a Pelasgic origin. The Greek writers call 
the place rd Ti6ovpa. Hercules was the deity held in greatest 
veneration at Tibur, and his temple, on which the Cathedral of 
Tivoli is built, was famous throughout Italy . Hence the epithet 
of " Herculean," given it by the poets. In the vicinity of Tibur 
dwelt one of the ancient sibyls, surnamed Albunea. A beau- 
tiful little ruin still remains, called the Temple of the Sibyl, 
though others assign it to Vesta. The hero Tiburnus was also 
revered at Tibur, and had a grove consecrated to him on the 
banks of the Anio. Two illustrious captives of Rome both ter- 
minated their existence on the banks of the Anio, the Numidian 
Syphax, and Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, the former at Tibur, 
the latter in Hadrian's villa near that place. 

10. Prceneste, to the southeast of Tibur, and now Palestri* 
na. Strabo describes it as having a citadel remarkable for its 
strength of position, standing on the brow of a lofty hill which 
overhung the city. The same author states that Prseneste laid 
claim to a Greek origin, and had been named formerly Poly- 
stephdnus (Uokvorefyavos). Pliny also observes that it was once 
called Stephane. From Dionysius we may infer that it was 
afterward colonized by Alba. The strength of Prceneste ren- 
dered it a place of too great importance to be overlooked by the 
contending parties of Sylla and Marius. It was induced to 
join the cause of the latter, but suffered severely in consequence, 
a bloody massacre of the inhabitants having been made by the 
victorious troops of Sylla, and the place having been given up 
to plunder. It survived, however, these disasters, and gained 
new strength from a colony of those very troops which had in- 
flicted so severe a blow upon it, so that it eventually became 
once more a flourishing city. .^Elian, the writer of the " Vari- 
ous History," and also of the work " On Animals," was a native 

ITALIA. 327 

of this place. The Temple of Fortune in Prseneste was very 
celebrated. Among the productions of the territory around this 
city, none are so often spoken of as its walnuts. 11. Sacripor- 
tus, near Praeneste, and the place where the decisive' action 
took place between the forces of Sylla and the younger Marius. 
12. Pedum, also in the vicinity of Praeneste, and often named 
in the early wars of Rome. Its site answers to that of the mod- 
ern Gallicano, according to Sir W. Gell. Others are in favor 
of Zagarolo. 13. Lablcum^ about fifteen miles from Rome, be- 
tween the Via Prcenestina and the Via Latina. It was a col- 
ony of Alba. Caesar had a villa in the Ager Lablcanus, where 
he resided not long before his death, since he is said by Sueto- 
nius to have made his will there the September previous to that 
event. The height on which the modern town of Colonna 
stands answers to the site of Labicum. 

Having now described what may be considered as the Latin 
territory, strictly so called, we pass on to that portion of New 
Latium which bordered on the ^Equi and Marsi, and was an- 
ciently possessed by the Herriici before it was included within 
the Latin limits. 


I. IT was maintained by some of the ancient writers that the Hernici derived 
their name from the rocky nature of their country, hcrna in the Sabine dialect 
signifying " a rock ;" others were of opinion that they were so called from Her- 
nicus, a Pelasgic chief. The former etymology, however, is generally regarded 
as the more probable one, and it would lead us also to infer that the Hernici, as 
Well as the ^Equi and Marsi, were descended from the Sabines, or generally from 
the Oscan race. t 

II. There is nothing in the history of this petty nation which possesses any 
peculiar interest, or distinguishes them from their equally hardy and warlike 
neighbors. It is merely an account of the same ineffectual struggle to resist 
the systematic and overwhelming preponderance of Rome, and of the same final 
submission to her genius and fortune. 

III. Among the Hernici we may notice the following places : 
1. Anagnia, now Anagni, their principal city, which Virgil 
distinguishes by the epithet of " dives," and which Strabo terms 
an important city. It was colonized by Drusus. From Tac- 
itus we learn that it was the birth-place of Valens, a general 
of Vitellius, and the chief supporter of his party. 2. Ferenti- 
num, about eight miles beyond Anagnia, on the Via Latina. 
It is now Ferentino. This place appears to have originally be* 


longed to the Volsci, but it was taken from them by the Ro- 
mans and given to the Hernici. 3. Alatrium^ further in the 
mountains, and more to the east, now Alatri. It is mentioned 
by Plautus, in his play of the Captives, under the Greek form 


I. LEAVING the territory of the Hernici, we now enter on that of the Volsci, a 
nation whose history is known to us only from its connection with that of Rome. 
They were a branch of the Oscan race. Notwithstanding the small extent of 
country which they occupied, reaching only from Antium to Terracma, a line of 
coast of about fifty miles, and little more than half that distance from the sea 
to the mountains, it swarmed with cities filled with a hardy race. 

II. The Volsci were first attacked by the second Tarquin, and war was car- 
ried on afterward between the two nations, with dnort intervals, for upward of 
two hundred years, until they were completely subdued. 

III. Beginning from the northern extremity of their territory, 
we find, 1. Velitrce, now Velletri. It was situate a little to 
the left of the Appian Way, and in a southeast direction from 
Alba Longa. VelitraB was always reckoned one of the most 
important and considerable cities of the Volsci, and was en- 
gaged in hostilities with Rome as early as the reign of Ancus 
Marcius. The chief boast of the place was the honor of having 
given birth to Augustus. 2. Corioli^ to the southwest of Veli- 
traB. A hill now called Monte Giove is thought to represent 
its site. It was by the capture of this town that C. Marcius ob- 
tained the surname of Coriolanus. 3. Ulubrce, in the plain, at 
no great distance from VelitraB. Its marshy situation is plainly 
alluded to by Cicero, who calls the inhabitants little frogs. 
Horace and Juvenal give us but a wretched idea of the place. 
4. Satricum, between VelitraB and Antium. It was taken by 
Coriolanus, retaken and burned by the Latins, but restored by 
the Antiates. It fell again, however, into the hands of the Ro- 
mans, who destroyed it because it had joined the Samnites. 

5. Antium, a celebrated city on the coast, the ruins of which 
are still called Porto (VAnzo. The city, however, must have 
reached as far as the modern town of Nettuno, which de- 
rives its name probably from some ancient temple dedicated to 
Neptune. Antium was fabled to have been founded by An- 
thias, a son of Circe. It was a maritime place of note at a 
very early period, and its inhabitants were addicted to piracy. 
It was to this city that Coriolanus retired after his banishment, 

ITALIA. 329 

and here, too, he ended his days. The Antiates were finally 
conquered by the Romans in a battle near the River Astura, 
on which occasion the Romans destroyed most of their ships, 
reserving the beaks to adorn the elevated seat in the Forum at 
Rome, from which orators addressed the people, and which 
thenceforth was designated by the name of Rostra. Antium 
now received a fresh supply of colonists, and from that period 
enjoyed a state of quiet, till the civil wars of Marius and Sylla, 
when it was nearly destroyed by the former. But it rose again 
from its ruins during the empire, and attained to a high degree 
of prosperity and splendor. In Strabo's time it was the favor- 
ite residence of the emperor and his court, and here Augustus 
received from the senate the title of Father of his country. An- 
tium became successively the residence of Tiberius and Calig- 
ula. It was also the birth-place of Nero, who, having recolo- 
nized it, built a port there, and bestowed upon it various other 
marks of his favor. Hadrian also is said to have been particu- 
larly fond of this city. Antium contained two temples of ce- 
lebrity, one sacred to Fortune, and the other to ^Esculapius. 
The famous Apollo Belvedere, the fighting gladiator, and many 
other statues discovered at Antium, attest also its former mag- 

6. Circeii, a short distance inland from the Promontorium 
Circeium, probably on the site of the village of San Felice, 
where some ruins are said to be visible. The celebrated en- 
chantress Circe was fabled to have dwelt in this vicinity. A 
Roman military colony was sent to this place in the reign of 
Tarquinius Superbus, which shows it to have been a town of 
importance at that period. It was still extant in Cicero's time, 
who says that Circe was worshipped there. Lepidus was ex- 
iled to this place by Augustus. It was famous for its oysters* 

We must return to the Appian Way in order to describe 
some places situated on this celebrated road or in its vicinity. 
Pursuing this route, we come to, 1. Tres Tabernce, a station 
about seven miles from Aricia, on this Way, and where it was 
joined by a cross-road from Antium. This place is mentioned 
by St. Paul in the account of his journey to Rome. 2. Forum 
Appii, sixteen miles further on the Appian Way, also men- 
tioned by St. Paul, and well known as Horace's second resting- 
place in his journey to Brundisium. D'Anville inclines to place 


it at Borgo Lungo, near Treponti. It was usual here to em- 
bark on a canal, which ran parallel to the Appian Way, and 
which was called Decennovium, from its length being nineteen 
miles. Vestiges of this canal may still be traced a little be- 
yond Borgo Lungo. It was made by Augustus, who endeav- 
ored by this and other means to drain the Pontine Marshes. 
Strabo says that travellers took the canal during the night, and 
in the morning were landed near Tarracina. This canal was 
enlarged by Nero, who had formed a project for uniting the 
Lake Avernus with the Tiber. For an account of the Pontine 
Marshes, the student is referred to the close of this article on 
the geography of Latium. 

3. About three miles before reaching Tarracina we come to 
the grove and fountain of Feronia, the scene of Horace's ablu- 
tions, in his account of the journey to Brundisium. There was 
here a temple also dedicated to the same goddess. In this tem- 
ple was a seat on which slaves received their freedom. Leaving 
this spot, we reach, 4. Tarracina, called, also, Anxur, the latter 
being probably its Volscian name. We learn from Horace that 
this city stood on a lofty rock, at the foot of which the modern 
Terracina is situated. According to Strabo, the place was 
first named Trachina, a Greek appellation indicative of the 
ruggedness of its situation. Tarracina subsequently became 
of consequence as a naval station. The poets invariably call 
it Anxur. The Emperor Galba was born in a village near it. 

Some places yet remain to be noticed in that mountainous 
tract which stretches from the neighborhood of Prseneste, and, 
running nearly south, meets the sea at Tarracina. This is the 
chain from which the rivers that cause the stagnation of wa- 
ters in the Pontine district derive their source. It is called 
Mom Leplnus by Columella. In its most northern extremity 
was, 1. Sigma, now Segni, which became a Roman colony as 
early as the reign of Tarquinius Superbus. At first it was only 
a military post, but afterward became a city. It was noted for 
a particular mode of flooring with bricks, which was called the 
" Opus Signinum" 2. Car a, somewhat to the south, and a 
place of great antiquity, which has preserved its name un- 
changed to this day. Virgil makes it a colony of Alba. It 
suffered greatly during the contest with Spartacus, having been 
taken and sacked by one of his wandering bands. Propertius 

ITALIA. 331 

and Lucan speak of it as the seat of ruin and desolation. 
3. Norba, somewhat to the south of Cora, and on the same 
ridge of hills. It is now a small place called Norma. Having 
espoused the party of Marius, it suffered severely in conse- 
quence, and the place being at length betrayed into the hands 
of Lepidus, one of Sylla's generals, the inhabitants chose rath- 
er to perish by their own hands than become the victims of a 
bloody conqueror. 4. Setia, to the southeast of Norba, now 
Sezza. Martial makes frequent mention of the wine of this 
place. 5. Privernum, to the east of Setia. Its site is marked 
by the modern Piperno. Virgil makes mention of it as a Vol- 
scian city, and the birth-place of his heroine Camilla. Strabo, 
however, seems to consider the Privernates as a distinct people 
from the Volsci. Frontinus classes it among the military col- 

6. Frusino, to the northeast of Privernum, on the Via Lati- 
na, and now Frosinone, This town was deprived of its terri- 
tory by the Romans for having incited the Hernici to war. 
7. Fregellce, to the southeast of Frusino, near the Liris, and 
close to the Via Latina. It belonged first to the Sicticini, and 
successively to the Volsci and Samnites. Pyrrhus took this 
place when he was advancing against Rome ; and it also suf- 
fered severely in its territory from the ravages of Hannibal's 
troops. Its ruins are to be seen at the small town of Ceperano, 
on the right bank of the Garigliano. 8. Fabrateria, to the 
south of Fregellse, on the Via Latina, now Falvaterra. 9. Sora } 
to the northeast of Fregellse, and still preserving its name. The 
earliest writer who has mentioned this place is Plautus, in his 
play of the Captives. If we now cross the Liris, and follow the 
course of that river on its left bank, we shall soon arrive at its 
junction with the Fibrenus, a stream well known from the lit- 
tle island which it forms before its junction with the Liris. 
This island belonged to Cicero, and here is laid the scene of 
his dialogues with Atticus and his brother Quintus on legisla- 
tion. He himself was born there. It has taken the name of 
San Domenico Abate. 10. Arpinum, somewhat to the south 
of this island, and now Arpino. It was memorable for having 
given birth to Marius and Cicero, the latter having been born, 
as just remarked, in its immediate vicinity. 11. Atina, to the 
southeast of Arpinum, and one of the most ancient cities of the 


Volsci. Virgil applies the epithet " patens" to it. 12. Aqui- 
num, to the east of Fabrateria, on the Via Latina, and now 
Aquino. It was the birth-place of Juvenal, and of the Em- 
peror Pescennius Niger, and in more modern times of the cel- 
ebrated Thomas Aquinas. It was famous for its purple dye. 
13. Casinum, the last town of Latium on the Via Latina, and 
a large and populous place. Its site is now partly occupied by 
the modern town of San Germano. According to Varro, its 
name was derived from Cascum, an Oscan word answering to 
the Latin vetus. 

Resuming now the description of the Latin coast from Tar- 
racina, we come to, 1. Fundi, now Fondi^ situate somewhat 
inland, on the Appian Way, and near <a small lake called L a- 
cus Fundanus. It obtained at the end of the Latin war the 
privileges of a Roman city, except the right of voting, for hav- 
ing always allowed a free passage to the Roman troops in their 
marches into Campania. It received the right of voting subse- 
quently, A.U.C. 564, and its citizens were enrolled in the 
^Emilian tribe. It was, at a later period, colonized by the vet- 
eran soldiers of Augustus. 2. Amyclce, to the southwest of 
Fundi, and situate on the coast. It gave name to the adja- 
cent gulf. It was of Greek origin, as is said, and strange tales 
were told concerning the manner of its destruction. Accord- 
ing to some accounts, it was infested and finally rendered deso- 
late by serpents. Another tradition represented the fall of 
Amyclae as having been the result of the silence enjoined by 
law on its inhabitants, in order to put a stop to the false ru- 
mors of hostile attacks which had so frequently been circulated. 
The enemy at last, however, really appeared, and, finding the 
town in a defenceless state, destroyed it. This latter account 
was in general acceptation with the poets. The neighboring 
district was the Ccecubus Ager, so celebrated for the excellence 
of its wine. According to Pliny, the cultivation of the vine in 
this quarter was greatly injured by a canal cut in this vicinity 
by Nero. 

3. Caieta, to the southeast, on the coast, and fabled to have 
been named from the nurse of ^Eneas, who died and was inter- 
red here. According to Strabo, however, some Spartans, having 
settled on this coast, named this place Kamrra, a word which in 
their dialect signified "a cave," in allusion to the receding of 

ITALIA. 333 

the shore. The harbor of Caieta was one of the finest and most 
commodious in Italy. The modern name of the place is Gaeta. 
4. Formice, now Mola di Gaeta, to the north of the preceding, 
and the fabled abode and capital of the Lsestrygdnes, spoken 
of by Homer in his Odyssey. Formiae was a Laconian colony, 
and its first appellation was Hormice, in allusion to the excel- 
lent anchorage which its port afforded to vessels (op/zof, "a 
roadstead," " an anchorage"). This place is chiefly interesting 
from its having been long a favorite residence of Cicero, who 
had a villa here, which he commonly terms his Formidnum, and 
at other times his Caietan villa. He appears to have resided 
here during the most turbulent part of the civil war between 
Caesar and Pompey, and here, also, his existence was termina- 
ted by the assassins sent by Antony. In the reign of Augus- 
tus we find Formise distinguished as the birth-place and resi- 
dence of Mamurra, a Roman senator of enormous wealth, ac- 
quired by great rapacity, and hence Horace, in the narrative 
of his journey to Brundisium, calls it contemptuously "the city 
of the Mamurrse" (Mamurrarum mbs). The Formian hills 
are often extolled for the superior wine which they produced. 

5. Minturnce, now Minturne, about nine miles further, on 
the Appian Way, situate on the Liris, and only three or four 
miles from its mouth. It is chiefly known in connection with 
the history of Marius, who, in endeavoring to escape into Af- 
rica, was forced to put in at the mouth of the Liris. Having 
no other resource left, he plunged into the neighboring marshes, 
but was discovered, dragged out, and thrown into a dungeon 
at Minturnae. He was finally released, however, and furnished 
with a vessel to carry him to Africa. The grove and temple 
of Marica, fabled to have been the mother of Latinus, and by 
others thought to have been Circe, were close to Minturnae. 
6. Sinuessa, the last town in New Latium, situate close to the 
sea, and founded, as is said, on the ruins of Sinope, an ancient 
Greek city. Strabo says that Sinuessa stood on the shore of 
the Sinus Setinus, and derived its name from this circum- 
stance. The site of this place now answers to the rook of 
Monte Dragone. 



THESE form a group to the number of three, distant about twenty miles to 
the south of the Circeian Promontory. The nearest to the land is Sinonia, now 
Senonc. A second, more to the west, is Palmaria, now Palmaruola. The third, 
which was the most populous, and is the largest of the group, is Pontia, now 
Ponza. It received a Roman colony, and obtained the thanks of the Roman 
senate for its zeal and fidelity in the second Punic war. It became afterward 
the spot to which the victims of Tiberius and Caligula were secretly conveyed, 
to be afterward dispatched, or doomed to a perpetual exile. Among these 
might be numbered many Christian martyrs. 


IN describing the chief Roman roads which traversed Latium, we shall no- 
tice them in their order, as they severally branched off from Rome, their com- 
mon centre. 

1. Via Osticnsis, leading, as its name implies, to Ostia. It commenced at the 
Porta Trigemina, or, if we take a later period, at the Porta Ostiensis, now Porta 
San Paolo. 

2. Via Laurentlna, branching off from the Via Ostiensis, about two miles from 
Rome, and terminating at Laurentum. We have no account of this Roman 
way in the Itineraries, but we learn its existence from Ovid. 

3. Via Ardedtina, evidently intended to establish a communication with Ardea, 
distant about twenty miles from Rome. 

4. Via Appia, the most celebrated of all the Roman roads, both on account of 
its length and the difficulties which it was necessary to overcome in its con- 
struction. It was made by the censor Appius Claudius Caecus, A.U.C. 442, 
B.C. 311, and in the first instance was only laid down as far as Capua, a dis- 
tance of about one thousand stadia, or one hundred and twenty-five Roman 
miles. But even this portion of the work, according to the account of Diodorus 
Siculus, was constructed in so expensive a manner that it exhausted the public 
treasury. From Capua this road was subsequently carried on to Beneventum, 
and finally to Brundisium, when this port became the great place of resort for 
those who were desirous of crossing over into Greece and Asia Minor. This 
latter part of the Appian Way is supposed to have been constructed by the con- 
sul Appius Claudius Pulcher, grandson of Caecus, A.U.C. 504, and to have been 
completed by another consul of the same family thirty-six years after. We find 
frequent mention made of repairs done to this road by the Roman emperors, 
and more particularly by Trajan, both in the histories of the time, and also in 
ancient inscriptions. This road seems to have been still in excellent order in 
the time of Procopius, who gives a very good account of the manner in which 
it was constructed. He says, " An expeditious traveller may very well perform 
the journey from Rome to Capua in five days. Its breadth is such as to admit 
of two carriages passing each other. Above all others, this is worthy of notice, 
for the stones which were employed on it are of an extremely hard nature, and 
were doubtless conveyed by Appius from some distant quarry, as the adjoining 
country furnishes none of that kind. These, when they had been cut smooth 
and squared, he fitted together closely, without using iron or any other sub- 
stance, and they adhere so firmly to each other that they appear to have been 
thus formed by nature, and not cemented by art ; and, though they have been 

ITALIA. 335 

travelled over by so many beasts of burden and carriages for ages, yet they do not 
seern to have been any wise moved from their place, or broken, nor to have lost 
any part of their original smoothness." According to Eustace, such parts of 
the Appian Way as have escaped destruction, show few traces of wear and de- 
cay after a duration of two thousand years. The same writer states the aver- 
age breadth of the Appian Way at from eighteen to twenty-two feet. 

5. Via Latina, commencing at the Porto. Catena, and falling into the Via Ap- 
pia at Beneventum. Of its formation we have no account, but it was certainly 
of great antiquity, and existed probably before the Romans had conquered La- 

6. Via Lavtcdna, so called from its passing close to the ancient city of Lavi- 
cum, and communicating with the Via Latina. 

7. Via Pranestina, like the Via Lavicana, issued from the Porta Esquilina, and 
fell into the Via Latina. 


I. Pontina, Pometina, or Pomtincz Paliides, a marshy tract of country, in the 
territory of the Volsci. and deriving its name from the town of Suessa Pometia, 
destroyed by Tarquinius Superbus, and in whose vicinity it was situate, although 
no trace has been left to identify the precise spot on which this ancient city 
once stood. These fens are occasioned by the quantity of water carried into 
the plain by numberless streams, which rise at the foot of the adjacent mount- 
ains, and, for want of a sufficient declivity, creep sluggishly over the level space, 
and sometimes stagnate in pools, or lose themselves in the sands. Two rivers 
principally contributed to the formation of these marshes, the Ufens, now Uffentc, 
and the Nymphaus, now the Ninfa. The flat and swampy tract spread to the 
foot of the Volscian mountains, and covered an extent of eight miles in breadth 
and thirty in length. 

II. There is every appearance that the basin of the Pontine Marshes was once 
a gulf of the sea, which has been gradually filled up by alluvium from the mount- 
ains. The oldest historical records exhibit this tract as occupied by the Volsci, 
who had numerous towns here, some of which were situated in the most marshy 
part of the country. The region was evidently a very fertile one, for we read 
in Livy (iv., 25) that, in A.U.C. 322, the Romans, in a season of scarcity, sent 
to the Ager Pomtinus for a supply of corn. In A.U.C. 367-8, the tribune L. 
Sicinus proposed a distribution of the lands of that district among the poorer cit- 

III. About 442 A.U.C., the censor Appius Claudius Caecus constructed the 
Via Appia across the length of the Pontine region, the soil of which must have 
been then sufficiently compact to bear the great weight of the causeway. The 
level of the original ground on which it was constructed has been found to be 
about four feet above the sea-level, at a distance of twelve miles from the coast. 
But, on arriving at the foot of the rock of Feronia, Appius found that if he con- 
tinued the road in a straight line, he must pass through a soft, marshy tract, 
and he was induced to deviate from the direct line in order to avail himself of 
the more solid ground which lay near the foot of Mons Lepmus. 

IV. At some period of the century and a half that followed the building of the 
Appian Way, the country seems to have undergone great deterioration, either 
from natural or civil causes, and to have become partly inundated, for we find 

the consul Cornelius Cethegus, in A.U.C. 592, applying himself to the draining 
of the marshes and restoring the land to cultivation, and it was then that new 


towns arose on the ruins of the ancient towns of the Volsci, under the names 
of Tres Ponies or Tripontium, Ad Medias, &c. 

V. The civil wars and the devastation which accompanied them again caused 
the hydraulic works of the Pontine Marshes to be neglected, until Augustus 
made or restored several canals, especially a navigable canal which followed 
the line of the Appian Way, and to which we have heretofore referred in our 
account of Forum Appii (on page 330). Nerva and Trajan restored parts of 
the Appian Way which had sunk, and the latter drained the country from 
Tripontium to Tarracina. During the convulsions of the following centuries 
the marshes were again overflowed, until again drained in the reign of Theodo- 
ric by Csecilius Decius, a public-spirited individual, and apparently with good 

VI. After this epoch we know no more of the state of the country until the 
end of the thirteenth century, when Pope Boniface VIII., whose family, the 
Caetani, were feudal lords of Scrmoneta and of the greater part of the Monti 
Lepini, constructed some works for the drainage of part of the marsh. Leo X. 
employed the engineer Giovanni Scotti to repair and enlarge the canal of Ba- 
dino, which is the great outlet of the marshes. Sixtus V. constructed a lateral 
canal, nearly parallel to the Appian Way, which received the waters of the 
western part of the marshes, and carried them to the common estuary of Badi- 
no. The most important improvements, however, were made by Pius VI., and 
the work of effectual draining was very nearly completed, when the low state 
of the papal treasury, and the confusion resulting from the French revolutionary 
invasion, caused for a time a complete interruption. At the present day, all 
that has been done is to maintain the drainage in the state in which Pius VI. 
left it, by keeping the canals clear and the dikes in repair. The greater part 
of the plain is covered with rich pastures, in which are fed numerous herds of 
horned cattle, and other parts of it are sown with rice, wheat, and Indian corn, 
and afford rich crops. In the spring, before the great heats render the at- 
mosphere unwholesome, it has the appearance of a most delightful region. But, 
except the post-stations along the high road, and some scattered huts here and 
there, there is no permanent population throughout the whole of the plain. 
The great estuary of Badino is between seventy and eighty feet wide ; there is 
about four feet water over the bar, and nearly ten feet water inside of it, where 
boats find a safe anchorage. 


I. Campania is the ancient name of that part of the king- 
dom of Naples which is now called Terra di Lavoro. The 
word Campania is probably derived from campus, " a plain,'' 
in allusion to the level nature of the country. 

II. Campania was bounded on the north and east by Samni- 
um ; on the west by Latium and the Mare Tyrrhenum ; on the 
south by the Mare Tyrrhenum ; and on the southeast by Lu- 
cania. Before Latium had been extended beyond the Liris, 
that river formed the natural boundary of Campania in this 
quarter, but after this change in the limits of the two provin- 

ITALIA. 337 

ces, the Massic Hills were considered as the boundary by which 
they were separated. The Apennines divided Campania from 
Samnium, and the River Silarus from Lucania. 


I. IT is universally agreed that the first settlers in Campania, with whom his- 
tory makes us acquainted, were the Oscans. The next in order who obtained 
possession of the country were the Tuscans. When the latter had effected the 
conquest of Campania, that province became the seat of a particular empire, 
and received the federal form of government, centred in twelve principal cities, 
which has already been noticed as a striking political feature in the history of 
the Etrurians. 

II. Wealth and luxury, however, soon produced their usual effects on the con- 
querors of Campania, and they, in their turn, fell an easy prey to the attacks of 
the Samnites, and were compelled to admit these hardy warriors to share with 
them the possession and enjoyment of these sunny plains. This observation, 
however, applies more particularly to Capua and its district, which was sur- 
prised by a Samnite force. 

III. It is from this period that we must date the origin of the Campanian na- 
tion, which appears to have been thus composed of Oscans, Tuscans, Samnites, 
and Greeks, the latter having formed, as we shall presently see, numerous col- 
onies on these shores. About eighty years after, the Romans gladly seized the 
opportunity of adding so valuable a portion of Italy to their dominions, under 
the pretence of defending the Campariians against their former enemies, the 

IV. From this time Campania maybe regarded as subject to Rome, if we ex- 
cept that short interval in which the brilliant successes of Hannibal withdrew its 
inhabitants from their allegiance, an offence which they were made to expiate 
by a punishment, the severity of which has few examples in the history, not of 
Rome only, but of nations. 

V. The natural advantages of Campania, its genial climate and fertile soil, so 
rich in various productions, are a favorite theme with Latin writers, and elicit 
from them many an eloquent and animated tribute of admiration. Pliny styles 
it " Felix ilia Campania, certamen humance voluptalis." 


RESUMING the description of the coast from Sinuessa, the 
last maritime town of Latium, we come to, 1. Vulturnum, at 
the mouth of the River Vulturnus, and now Castel di Voltur- 
no. It was probably of Etrurian origin, but we do not find it 
named in history until it became a Roman colony, A.U.C. 558, 
According to Frontinus, a second colony was sent hither by 
Caesar. 2. Liternum, further on, to the southeast, celebrated 
as the spot to which Scipio Africanus retired into voluntary ex- 
ile, and where he is commonly said to have ended his days. It 
is supposed to correspond to Torre di Patria. The River Li- 
ternus or Cl&nius, now the Lagno, runs into the sea in its vi- 



cinity. This stream is apt to stagnate near its entrance into 
the sea, and to form marshes, anciently known as the Palus 
Literna, now Lago di P atria. In this vicinity, also, was the 
Gallinaria Silva, which Juvenal mentions as a noted haunt 
of robbers and assassins. 3. Cumce, a few miles further on, 
situate on a rocky hill washed by the sea. Its Greek name 
was Kvnr], in Doric Kvjtta. This city was founded at a very 
early period by a Greek colony from Chalcis in Eubcea, and 
hence it is commonly called by the poets the Euboic or Chal- 
cidian city. The colonization of Cumae at so early a period. 
(1050 B.C., according to Eusebius) is a remarkable event, as 
showing the progress already made by the Greeks in the art of 
navigation, and proving also that thejjwere then well acquaint- 
ed with Italy. Strabo informs us that from its commencement 
the state of the colony was most flourishing. The fertility of 
the surrounding country, and the excellent harbors which the 
coast afforded, soon rendered it one of the most powerful cities 
of southern Italy, and enabled it to form settlements along the 
coast, and to send out colonies as far as Sicily. In the second 
Punic war it was attacked by Hannibal, but was successfully 
defended by Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus. It became a Ro- 
man colony under Augustus, but, owing to the superior at- 
tractions of Baise and Neapolis, it gradually declined from its 
former prosperity, and in Juvenal's time it appears to have 
been nearly deserted. Cumae, however, still enjoyed great ce- 
lebrity as the abode in early times of the oracular sibyl, who 
dwelt in a cavern of the rocky eminence on which the city stood. 
4. Misenum, a harbor, on the promontory of the same name, 
and which became, under Augustus, one of the first naval sta- 
tions in the empire. We have already made mention of this 
in speaking of the promontory (page 254). 5. Bauli , on a hill 
commanding an extensive view of the sea, and thus forming 
one of the most attractive spots on the coast. Hortensius, the 
orator, had a villa and some remarkable fish-ponds here. Ac- 
cording to tradition, Bauli was originally called Boaulia, from 
the circumstance of Hercules having landed here with the oxen 
of Geryon on his return from Spain. 6. Baice, celebrated as 
a favorite place of resort with the rich and luxurious Romans. 
It owed its celebrity not only to the beauty of its shores and 
the advantages of its climate, but also to the numerous warm 

ITALIA. 339 

springs which burst forth at almost every step, and were 
considered to possess salutary properties for various disorders. 
Close to Baiee was the Lucrine Lake, of which mention has al- 
ready been made. Numerous villas graced the surrounding 
country, and many were likewise built on artificial moles pro- 
jecting into the sea. Now, however, owing to earthquakes 
and inundations of the sea, this once charming spot is complete- 
ly changed, and is a mere waste compared with what it once 
was. The modern name is Baia. The original appellation of 
Baise was Agues Cumdnce. 

7. Portus Julius. Of this harbor, constructed by Agrippa, 
we have already made mention (page 267). 8. Diccearchia, a 
short distance from the Lucrine Lake, and on the coast. When 
the Romans sent a colony to this place, they changed its Greek 
name to Putedli, probably from the number of its wells, or per- 
haps from the stench which w T as emitted by the sulphureous and 
aluminous springs in its neighborhood. Respecting the origin 
of the town, we learn from Strabo that it was at first the har- 
bor of CumsB, and hence we may fairly regard it as a colony of 
that city. It became, under the Romans, a naval station of con- 
siderable importance, and armies were sent thence to Spain. 
St. Paul landed here, and remained seven days at this place 
before he set forward on his journey by the Appian Way. The 
harbor of Puteoli was spacious, and of a peculiar construction, 
being formed of vast piles of mortar and sand, which, owing to 
the strongly-cementing properties of the latter material, became 
very solid and compact masses, and these being sunk in the 
sea, afforded secure anchorage for any number of vessels. Pliny 
also has remarked this quality of the sand in the neighborhood 
of Puteoli, which now goes by the name of Pozzolana. This 
sand is, in fact, volcanic ashes, and when mixed with a small 
portion of lime, it quickly hardens, and this induration takes 
place even under water. This singular property of becoming 
petrified under water renders it peculiarly valuable as a ce- 
ment in the erection of moles, and other buildings, in maritime 
situations. The modern name of Puteoli is Pozzuoli. Cicero 
had a villa between the Lucrine Lake and Puteoli, to which he 
gave the name of Academla, though he more generally terms 
it his Puteolanum. 

Above Puteoli was a spot called Forum Vulcani, from the 


number of holes upon its surface, all emitting smoke and a sul- 
phureous stench. It corresponds, probably, to the modern Sol- 
faterra, about a mile above Pozzuoli. The district between 
Puteoli and Cumse was sometimes called Leborlni Campi. 
The origin of this appellation is not known ; but from it ap- 
pears to have come the Terra di Lavoro of modern geography, 
corresponding to the ancient Campania. 

9. Neapolis ^ now Naples (in Italian, Napoli), and, accord- 
ing to the best authorities, a colony originally of Cumse. One 
of its earlier names appears to have been Parthenope ; or, at 
all events, this appellation is given to it by the poets, and is fa- 
bled to have been derived from the siren Parthenope, who was 
said to have been cast upon its shores. According to Strabo, 
the tomb of the siren was shown there in his time. An earlier 
name, however, resting upon better authority, is that of Palce- 
poliSj or " The Old City," which occurs in Livy, where the 
historian is describing the first transactions which connected 
the history of this city with that of Rome. This name of Palse- 
polis was changed, it would appear, to Neapolis, " The New 
City," in consequence of the increase of size which the place 
experienced on the accession of a new colony, composed of 
Chalcidians, Pithecusans, and Athenians. The indolence and 
luxury of Grecian manners attracted to Neapolis many a Ro- 
man whose age and temperament inclined them to a life of 
ease. It was also distinguished for attachment to literary 
pursuits, as appears from the epithet docta applied to it by 

The ridge of hills which separates the Bay of Naples from 
that of Pozzuoli was called Pausilypus, a name given it prob- 
ably on account of its delightful situation and aspect, causing, 
as it were, sorrow to cease (rravw, AVTT??), and which rendered it 
the favorite residence of several noble and wealthy Romans. 
This hill, at a period unknown to us, was perforated by art to 
admit of a communication between Neapolis and Puteoli, not 
only for men and beasts of burden, but also for carriages. The 
modern name of the hill is Posilippo. On its slope, and just 
above the entrance of the perforated passage, lies what popular 
tradition makes to be the tomb of Virgil. It is in the form of 
a small, square, flat-roofed building, placed on a sort of plat- 
form, near the brow of a precipice on one side, and on the other 

ITALIA. 341 

sheltered by a superincumbent roek. Cluverius and Addison, 
however, place Virgil's tomb on the other side of Naples, near 
the foot of Mount Vesuvius. 

10. Herculdneum, or, as Cicero writes it, Herculanum, the 
situation of which is no longer doubtful since the discovery of 
its ruins. It lay on the coast below Neapolis, at a distance 
from it of six miles, and the modern villages of Portici and 
Resina are built over part of it. Herculaneum is said to have 
been founded by Hercules ; it was, in all probability, of Pelas- 
gian origin, but its history is obscure, and it never attained 
to any importance. Being situated close to the sea, on eleva- 
ted ground, it was exposed to the southwest wind, and from 
that circumstance was reckoned particularly healthy. In the 
time of Titus, A.D. 79, it was overwhelmed by that memora- 
ble eruption of Vesuvius which also ruined Pompeii. It ap- 
pears to have been buried under showers of ashes, subsequently 
overflowed by streams of lava, and is stated to be seventy feet 
below the present surface of the ground. It was rediscovered 
by the sinking of a well in 1713, when several antiquities were 
found. Subsequent excavations were made by the Neapolitan 
government, and a magnificent collection, not only of statues, 
and paintings, and vases, but of domestic implements of every 
kind, has been deposited in the Royal Museum at Portici. The 
excavations, however, are by no means as extensive as those at 
Pompeii, for it being found impossible to remove the incum- 
bent soil in consequence of its thickness, as fast as one part was 
thoroughly searched it was filled up with rubbish from another. 
A small part of the theatre is all that is now accessible. Great 
expectations were excited by the discovery of a large number 
of manuscripts written on rolls of papyrus. The attempts to 
unroll these have hitherto had but very imperfect success, and 
those of which the subjects have been ascertained are of little 

Mount Vesuvius, of which mention has been made in the 
preceding paragraph, appears to have been at first known un- 
der the name of Vesevus, although the appellations of Vesvius 
and Vesbius are also frequently applied to it. Strabo describes 
this mountain as extremely fertile at its base, but entirely bar- 
ren toward the summit, which was mostly level, and full of 
apertures and cracks, seemingly produced by the action of fire ; 


whence Strabo was led to conclude that the volcano, though 
once in a state of activity, had been extinguished from want of 
fuel. Diodorus Siculus represents it also as being in a quiescent 
state, since he argues from its appearance, at the time he was 
writing, that it must have been on fire at some remote period. 
The volcano was likewise apparently extinct when, as Plutarch 
and Florus relate, Spartacus, with some of his followers, sought 
refuge in the cavities of the mountain from the pursuit of their 
enemies, and succeeded in eluding their search. It was in the 
reign of Titus, August 24th, A.D. 79, that the first eruption on 
record took place, when the cities of Herculaneum, Pompeii, 
and Stabice were buried under showers of volcanic sand, stones, 
and scoriae. Such was the immense quantity of volcanic sand 
(called ashes) thrown out during this eruption, that the whole 
country was involved in pitchy darkness ; and, according to Dio 
Cassius, the ashes fell in Egypt, Syria, and various parts of 
Asia Minor. This eruption proved fatal, also, to the elder Pliny, 
who commanded at the time the Roman fleet at Misenum, and 
having, through curiosity, visited the burning mountain, was 
suffocated by the sulphureous vapor. After this Vesuvius con- 
tinued a burning mountain for nearly a thousand years, having 
eruptions at intervals. The fire then appeared to become near- 
ly extinct, and continued so from the beginning of the twelfth 
to that of the sixteenth century. Since the eruption of 1506, 
it has remained burning to the present time, with eruptions of 
lava and ashes at intervals. 

11. Pompeii or Pompeia (the first being the Latin, the sec- 
ond the Greek form of its name), situate about thirteen miles 
southeast of Neapolis, in a plain at the foot of Vesuvius, through 
which ran the little river Sarnus, now Sarno. The city ap- 
pears to have been once close to the sea, but is now nearly two 
miles from it, in consequence of the physical changes which 
have taken place in this district. It stood on an eminence 
formed by a bed of lava, which seems to have been thrown up 
from the ground in this spot, and in several other places round 
the foot of Vesuvius, long before any of the eruptions recorded 
in history. Like Herculaneum, it was fabled to have been 
founded by Hercules, but, like that place, was probably of Pe- 
lasgian origin. We find it occupied in succession by the Os- 
cans, Etruscans, Samnites, and Romans. In the Social War 

ITALIA. 343 

(B.C. 90) it joined the Marsian confederacy along with the oth- 
er towns of Campania, but escaped without any severe punish- 
ment. It became at this period a military colony, and other 
colonies were subsequently sent by Augustus and Nero. In 
the reign of the latter, a bloody affray occurred at Pompeii, dur- 
ing th& exhibition of a fight of gladiators, between the inhab- 
itants of that place and those of Nuceria, in which many lives 
were lost. The Pompeiani were, in consequence, deprived of 
these shows for ten years, and several individuals were ban- 
ished. Shortly after we hear of the destruction of a consider- 
able portion of the city by an earthquake. The following year, 
while Nero was singing at Naples, another earthquake occurred. 
At last, in A.D. 79, in the month of August, the first recorded 
eruption of Vesuvius took place, which overwhelmed this city, 
and along with it Herculaneum and Stabiae. In 1689, the first 
indications of ruins protruding above the ground were noticed. 
In 1755 the excavations began. They have been interrupted 
and resumed- at various times, and the result has been that 
about a fourth part of the city has been excavated and cleared 
of the rubbish. For an account of the discoveries made at 
Pompeii, the student is referred to Gell's elaborate work on the 

The River Sarnus, now the Sarno, falls into the sea about 
a mile from Pompeii. This river, according to Strabo, formed 
the harbor of that town, which was also common to the inland 
cities of Nola, Acerrce, and Nuceria. The Pelasgi, who in- 
habited this coast at an early period, are said to have derived 
the name of Sarrastes from this river. 

12. Stdbice, about two miles beyond the Sarnus, and in the 
southeastern angle of the Bay of Naples. It is now Castela- 
mare di Stabia. This was once a place of note, but having 
been destroyed by Sylla during the civil wars, it became sub- 
sequently a mere village, and a part of the old site was occu- 
pied by villas and pleasure grounds. It was overwhelmed along 
with Herculaneum and Pompeii. According to Columella, this 
spot was celebrated for its fountains, and such was the excel- 
lence of the pastures in its immediate vicinity, that the milk 
of this district was reputed to be more wholesome and nutri- 
tious than that of any other country. 13. Surrentum, to the 
southwest, now Sorrento, celebrated in modern times as the 


birth-place of Tasso, and admired for the exquisite beauty of 
its scenery and the salubrity of its climate. This city is said 
to have been of very ancient date, and to have derived its name 
from the Sirens, who are fabled to have made this coast their 
favorite haunt, and who had here a temple consecrated to them. 
The wine of the Surrentine Hills was held in great estimation 
by the ancients. 

It will now be necessary to retrace our steps as far as the 
northern frontiers of Campania, in order to enter upon the de- 
scription of the interior of that province. It has been stated 
that the Massic Hills, the ancient Mons Masslcus, formed its 
boundary of separation from Latium. This celebrated range 
is entirely detached from the chain o the Apennines, and ex- 
tends from the sea in the immediate vicinity of Monte Dragone, 
the ancient Sinuessa, in a northerly direction, till it unites with 
the hills of Sessa, the ancient Suessa Auruncorum, being a 
distance of about ten miles in length, while its breadth scarcely 
equals three. The Latin poets are lavish in their encomiums 
on the excellence of the wine produced by this celebrated ridge. 
To the north of the Massic Hills, and on the left bank of the 
Liris, we find the Aurunci, who once occupied a more exten- 
sive territory in Latium ; but, on being expelled thence by the 
Roman arms, they retired to the mountainous tracts about 
Sessa and Rocca Monfina. Among their cities we may name, 
1. Suessa Auruncorum, now Sessa, the capital of the race, after 
their former capital, Aurunca, had been destroyed by the neigh- 
boring Sidicim. It became a Roman colony and a municip- 
ium. 2. Aurunca, the earlier capital, as just remarked. Some 
vestiges of it may still be seen near the church of Santa Croce, 
on the elevated ridge in the vicinity of Rocca Monfina. 

To the east of the Aurunci were the Sidtcini, once apparently 
an independent people, but afterward included under the com- 
mon name of Campdni. They were of Oscan origin. The only 
town which antiquity ascribes to them is Teanum, now Teano, 
about six miles to the east of Suessa, and fifteen to the north- 
west of Capua. Strabo informs us that it stood on the Latin 
Way, and was inferior to Capua alone among the Campanian 
cities in extent and importance. It became a Roman colony 
under Augustus. 

Resuming our account of the cities of Campania, we come 

ITALIA. 345 

to, 1. Venafrum, now Venafri, the last city to the north, and 
near the River Vulturnus. It was situate on the Latin Way, 
and was much celebrated in antiquity for the excellence of the 
oil which its territory produced. 2. To the southeast of Tea- 
num, and also on the Latin Way, we find Cales, now Calvi, 
and anciently a considerable city. The territories of Gales and 
Teanum were separated by two temples dedicated to Fortune, 
one on the right, the other on the left of the Latin Way. The 
Calenian territory was much celebrated for its vineyards, and 
was contiguous to the famous Falernian district, or Falernus 
Ager, so well known for producing the finest wine in Italy, or, 
indeed, in the ancient world. Without pretending to fix the 
limits of this favored portion of Campania with scrupulous ac- 
curacy, it seems evident, from the testimony of Livy and Pliny, 
that we must regard it as extending from the Massic Hills to 
the Vulturnus. That part of the district which grew the 
choicest wine was distinguished by the name of Faustianus, 
being that of a village about six miles from Sinuessa. We find 
the name of Ammece also given to some vineyards in this vi- 
cinity. Macrobius, indeed, states that there was a people called 

3. Cdsilinum, to the southeast of Gales, on the Appian Way, 
celebrated in history for the obstinate defence which it made 
against Hannibal after the battle of Cannae. The modern 
Capua is generally supposed to occupy its site. 4. Capua, to 
the southeast of Casilinum, once the capital of Campania, an<J 
inferior to Rome alone among the cities of Italy. Its original 
name was Vulturnus, which was changed by the Tuscans, 
when they became masters of the place, to Capua, calling it 
after their leader Capys, who, according to Festus, had received 
this appellation from his feet being deformed and turned inward. 
Capua was the chief city of the southern Etrurians, and, even af- 
ter it fell under the Roman dominion, continued to be a powerful 
and flourishing place. Before Capua passed into the hands of 
the Romans, a dreadful massacre of its Etrurian inhabitants by 
the Samnites put the city into the hands of this latter people. 
Livy appears to have confounded this event with the origin of the 
place when he makes its name to have been changed from Vul- 
turnus to Capua, after a Samnite leader dapys. Capua deeply 
offended the Romans by opening its gates to Hannibal after the 


battle of Cannae. The vengeance inflicted by the Romans was 
of the most fearful nature, when, five years after, the city again 
fell under their dominion. Most of the senators and principal 
inhabitants were put to death, the greater part of the remain- 
ing citizens were sold into slavery, and by a decree of the sen- 
ate the Capuani ceased to exist as a people. Julius Caesar 
sent a powerful colony to Capua, and under the emperors it 
again flourished. But it suffered greatly from the barbarians 
in a later age, so much so, in fact, that the Bishop Landulfus, 
and the Lombard Count Lando, transferred the inhabitants to 
Casilinum. This last, as already remarked, is the site of mod- 
ern Capua. The ruins of ancient Capua are about two miles 
to the southeast of the modern city, and close to the church of 
Santa Maria di Capoa. About a mile to the east of Capua 
rose Mons Tifata^ a branch of the Apennines, which now takes 
its name of Maddaloni from a village near Caserta. This ridge 
is often noticed by Livy as a favorite position of Hannibal 
when in the vicinity of Capua. 

5. Atella, to the south of Capua, and the ruins of which are 
still to be seen near the village of Sant 9 Elpidio or San? Ar- 
pino, about two miles from the town of Aversa. It is known 
to have been an Oscan city, and it has acquired some import- 
ance in the history of Roman literature from the circumstance 
of the name and origin of the Fdbulce Atelldme being derived 
from this place. Atella, having joined the Carthaginians, was, 
in consequence, subsequently reduced by the Romans to a prae- 
fecture. It was afterward colonized by Augustus. 6. Acerrce, 
to the southeast of Atella, and at the sources of the Clanius. 
It is now Acerra. This place is spoken of by Virgil as exposed 
to inundations from the neighboring stream, and therefore thinly 
inhabited (vacua). 7. Nola, to the east of Acerrae, and one of 
the most ancient and important cities of Campania. Its origin 
is ascribed by some to the Ausones, by others to the Tuscans 
or the Chalcidians, which means, probably, that it successively 
fell into the hands of these three communities. It was after- 
ward occupied by the Samnites, until they were driven out by 
the Romans. It was a strongly fortified place, and resisted all 
the efforts of Hannibal after the battle of Cannae, being defend- 
ed by Marcellus. It was burned to the ground in the Social 
War, but arose subsequently from its ruins, and was again 

ITALIA. 347 

ranked among the cities of Campania. Here Augustus breathed 
his last, in the same house and chamber in which his father 
Octavius had ended his days. Nola was colonized in the reign 
of Vespasian. 8. Abella, to the northeast of Nola, and the ru- 
ms of which still exist at Avella Vecchia. Virgil speaks of it 
as abounding in fruit, particularly apples. 9. Nuceria, to the 
southeast of Nola, now Nocera de* Pagani. It was situate on 
the Sarnus, and had the appellation of Alfaterna attached to 
its name, to distinguish it from some other places of the same 
name. It was sacked and burned by Hannibal. In the reign 
of Nero it was restored and colonized. 

South of Campania, properly so called, were the Picentini, 
who occupied an inconsiderable extent of territory from the 
Promontorium Minerva to the mouth of the River Sildrus. 
We learn from Strabo that they were a portion of the inhab- 
itants of Picenum, whom the Romans transplanted thither to 
people the shores of the Sinus Pcestanus. According to the 
same writer, the Picentini were, at a subsequent period, com- 
pelled to abandon the few towns which they possessed, and to 
reside in villages and hamlets, in consequence of having sided 
with Hannibal in the second Punic war. As a further punish- 
ment, they were excluded from military service, and allowed 
only to perform the duties of couriers and messengers. 

On the south side of the promontory of Surrentum, or Miner- 
va, were 'three small rocks, detached from the land, called Si- 
renusce Insulce, and formerly celebrated as the islands of the 
Sirens. They are now called Galli. Continuing along the 
coast, we find, 1. Martina, founded, as Strabo reports, by the 
Tuscans, but subsequently occupied by the Samnites. Its site 
answers to the modern Vietri. 2. Salernum, a short distance 
to the northeast of the preceding, and said to have been built 
by the Romans as a check on the Picentini. It was not, there- 
fore, situated, like the modern town of Salerno, close to the sea, 
but on the heights above, where considerable remains have been 
observed. Salernum became a Roman colony seven years after 
the conclusion of the second Punic war. 3. Plcentia, southeast 
of Salernum, and distant seven miles from it. This was once 
the capital of the Picentini. It is now Vicenza or Bicenza, on 
the little river Bicentino. 



1. Pandatdria, now Vandotina, assigned by some, less correctly, to Latium. 
Julia, the daughter of Augustus, was banished to this island, as were also the 
elder Agrippina, and Octavia, the wife of Nero. 

2. JSnan'a, called, also, Inarime and Pithecusa. The first name was the most 
common, and the best authenticated, and refers probably to the copper (as) 
found in it. The second, Inarimc, is only found in the poets, and appears to be 
formed from Homer's dv 'Ap//zotf (II, 2, 783). For it would seem, from an ex- 
amination of various passages, that Virgil, and after him the other Latin poets, 
have applied to this island more particularly Homer's description of the place 
of torment allotted to the earth-born Typhoeus. It is very uncertain, however, 
what people or country Homer intended to designate by the name of Arimi. 
The name Pithecusa, the third one of those mentioned above, is generally sup- 
posed to mean " Ape Island," from the great number of these animals which 
the island is said to have contained at an early n^riod. In Greek, TriOijuoe means 
" an ape." Pliny, however, says that the island took its name, not from apes, 
but from the number of earthen wine-jars (rridoi) which were made there, and 
used as casks. Sometimes the name is written in the plural, Pithecusa, and 
then the adjacent island of Prochyta, now Procida, is included along with ^Ena- 
ria. We are informed by Strabo that ^Enaria was first occupied by a colony 
of Eretrians and Chalcidians, which flourished for a time on account of the fer- 
tility of the soil, and the wealth produced by the discovery of some gold mines. 
A sedition, however, having disturbed the tranquillity of the colony, the Chal- 
cidians were the first to abandon the island ; and not long after the Eretrians 
followed their example, being alarmed by repeated earthquakes, and the burst- 
ing out of fire and hot springs, attended by irruptions of the sea. The same 
causes compelled another colony, sent by Hiero, king of Syracuse, to quit their 
settlement and a town which they had built. Strabo ascribes to these volcanic 
phenomena all the fabulous accounts of the poets respecting Typhoeus. He 
further quotes the historian Timaeus, who related that, a little before his time, 
Mons Epopeus, now sometimes called Epomeo, but more commonly Monte San 
Nicolo, burst forth with such fury that the sea retired from the island to the 
distance of three stadia, but that on its return it deluged the island and extin- 
guished the volcano. The inhabitants of the opposite coast were so alarmed 
that they fled into the interior of Campania. 

3. Nesis, between Puteoli and Neapolis, and "within a short distance of the 
shore. It is now Nisida. Cicero speaks of it as a favorite residence of his 
friend Brutus. 

4. Caprea, now Capri, near the promontory of Minerva, chiefly known in his- 
tory as the residence of the Emperor Tiberius in the latter part of his life. Au- 
gustus was the first emperor who resided here, having given the Neapolitans 
the island of ^Enaria, which belonged to him, in exchange for it. Tiberius was 
led to select it as his abode from its difficulty of access, being cut off from all 
approach, except on one side, by lofty and perpendicular rocks. The mildness 
of the climate, and the beauty of the prospect, which extends over the whole 
bay of Naples, might also, as Tacitus remarks, have influenced his choice. 
Here he caused twelve villas to be erected, which he is supposed to have named 
after the twelve chief deities. The ruins of the villa of Jove, which was the 
most conspicuous, and probably is the same with what Pliny styles the Arx 
Tiberii, are still to be seen on the summit of the cliff looking toward Sorrento. 

ITALIA. 349 

This same writer computes the circuit of the island to be' eleven miles. Strabo 
speaks of two small towns in this island, which probably answer to those of 
Capri and Anacapri at the present day. 


I. Samnium was called by the Greeks Sawm?, and the Sam- 
nltes were styled by the same people ^awlrai. Festus derives 
the name of this people from the peculiar kind of javelin used 
by them, and which was called, in Greek, aavvtov, but Sarnm- 
um and Samnltes are both historically and etymologically con- 
nected with the term Sabim. 

II. Samnium was bounded on the north by the territory of 
the Frentani ; on the northeast and east by Apulia; on the 
south by the Picentlni and Lucania ; and on the west by La- 
tium and Campania. 

III. It is usual with geographers to regard the ancient Sam- 
nites as divided into three distinct tribes, the Caraceni, Pen- 
tri, and Hirpini, to which others have added the Caudini and 
Frentani. But the former classification seems to rest on bet- 
ter authority, and may, therefore, be more safely adopted. The 
Caudini will be ranged with the Pentri, and the Frentani will 
be treated as a distinct people from the Samnites at the end of 
this section. 


I. THE Samnites are originally a colony of the Sabini, who migrate in re- 
mote times, probably before the building of Rome, to the bank*s of the Vulturnus 
and Tamarus, and thence spread on one side as far as the plains of Apulia, and 
on the other to those of Campania. They appear originally as an agricultural 
and pastoral people, and as their numbers increase beyond the means of sub- 
sistence, they follow the custom of their Sabine ancestors, and send forth colo- 
nies into the countries to the south. 

II. The Samnites, between A.U.C. 330 and 333, attack the Etruscans who 
had settled in Campania. The Etruscans at length, being weary of war, admit 
a Samnite colony to share with them their homes and fields ; but the latter, 
on the occasion of a great festival, when the old inhabitants are overcome by 
sleep after banqueting, murder them, and form the new state of Capua, which 
figured so much afterward in the history of the wars of Rome. 

III. About B.C. 340, the first war breaks out between the Samnites and Ro- 
mans, who had taken up arms to protect the Campanians against the Sam- 
nites proper of Samnium. The Romans are victorious in several encount- 
ers, and the Samnites are compelled to sue for peace. A new war, however, 
breaks out in 323 B.C., which is marked by varied success, and in the course 
of which the Roman army is compelled to pass under the yoke at the Caudine 
Forks. But the Samnites at length, after inflicting severe losses upon the Ro- 


mans, and not only overrunning Campania, but even invading the borders of 
Latium, are once more compelled to sue for peace. 

IV. A war breaks out again in 298 B.C., in which Q. Fabius Maximus and 
P. Decius Mus are the Roman commanders, and the Samnites, after a val- 
iant resistance, are again overcome, and in 290 B.C. sue for peace, which the 
Romans, likewise exhausted by their dearly-bought victories, are disposed to 
grant. The result of this war, or, rather, succession of wars, is, that the Romans 
extend their power over Southern Italy, Campania, and Apulia, and thus become 
neighbors, and soon after enemies, of the Tarentines. The Tarentine war brings 
on the expedition of Pyrrhus into Italy, and in the war with Pyrrhus the Sam- 
nites join that prince, after whose second retreat they are attacked by two Ro- 
man armies and utterly defeated, 272 B.C. Samnium now becomes a conquered 
country, and the Romans send colonies to Maleventum and other places. 

V. In the war of Hannibal the Hirpini join the Carthaginians, but the Pentri 
do not. At last, in the Social War, the Samnites having joined the Marsi, Ves- 
ting Peligni, and others, in the common league against Rome, are defeated and 
slaughtered without mercy by Sylla, who exclaims that Rome can enjoy no 
repose as long as a number of Samnites can collect together. The devastation 
of Samnium by Sylla is most effectual ; the towns are burned and razed to the 
ground. Beneventum alone is spared. 

VI. The last time the Samnites appear in history is during the war of Sylla 
against the younger Marius, when Pontius Teleslnus joins the latter at the 
head of 40,000 Samnites and Lucanians, steals a march upon Sylla, who is be- 
sieging Praeneste, and advances within ten stadia of Rome, which is without 
any adequate defence. Telesinus tells his Samnites that he is the enemy of 
both Marius and Sylla, and that his object is to destroy Rome and restore free- 
dom to Italy. Sylla, however, comes in time to save the city. A desperate 
battle ensues, and the Samnites, after having nearly gained the day, are obliged 
to retire to Antemnae, where Telesinus is killed. Between seven and eight thou- 
sand Samnites surrender to Sylla, who marches them to Rome, and, having shut 
them up in the Circus Maximus, has them all butchered in cold blood while he 
is haranguing the senate in the neighboring temple of Bellona. The remainder 
of the Samnites are slaughtered in the same manner at the taking of Praeneste. 


IN the territory of the Caraceni we find, 1. Aufidena, their 
capital, now Alfidena. Frontinus informs us that it became 
a military colony. 2. Samnium, near the source of the Vul- 
turnus, on the site now called Cerro. The existence of a city 
of this name was doubted for some time by modern writers, but 
the point has been fully established by Romanelli. 3. Castel- 
lum Cardcenorum, to the northeast of the preceding, near the 
Sagrus, now Sangro, and on the site of the fortress which 
takes its name from that river, Castel di Sangro. According 
to Zonaras, it served as a refuge for banditti until it was stormed 
by the Romans, who on this occasion are said to have acquired 
so rich a booty that they began from that time to coin silver 
drachmae. 4. Aqmloma, to the southeast, now Agnone, near 

ITALIA. 351 

the source of the Trinius, now Trigno. This place must not 
be confounded with another Aqmlonia, on the Appian Way, 
near the confines of Apulia, and now Lacedogna. 

In the territory of the Pentri we find, 1. Bovianum, their 
capital, situate among lofty mountains, and near the site of 
the modern Boiano. Livy describes it as a most opulent and 
important place, and the consequence attached by the Romans 
to its possession is evinced by the repeated efforts which they 
made to conquer it. In the Social War it became one of the 
strongest holds of the confederates, after Corfinium had been 
abandoned. Nothing of its former importance, however, re- 
mained in the time of Strabo, who describes it as ruinous and 
deserted. It became a military colony under Caesar. 2. Mser- 
nia, to the northwest of Bovianum, about twelve miles distant, 
and now Isernia. It was colonized about the beginning of the 
first Punic war, and is mentioned by Livy as one of those col- 
onies which distinguished themselves by their firm adherence 
to the Roman power during the war with Hannibal. It was 
recolonized by Augustus and Nero. 3. Treventum, to the north- 
east, now Trivento, on the Trinius, now Trigno. It was a 
Roman colony, and also a municlpium. 4. Maronea, to the 
northeast, taken by Marcellus in the second Punic war, together 
with some considerable magazines deposited there by Hannibal. 
Its site corresponds to Campo Marano^ on the right bank of 
the Trigno. 5. Tifernum, to the southeast, near the present 
Ponte di Limosano, on the River Tifernus, now the Biferno. 
The Mom Tifernus was at the source of the same river, near 
Bovianum. 6. Sepinum, to the southeast of Bovianum, a place 
of some note, and taken by the Romans under Papirius Cursor. 
It became a colony in the reign of Nero. The site answers to 
that which is now called Attilia, about ten miles from the mod- 
ern Sepino. The continual warfare to which the country of 
the Samnites was so long exposed, produced its natural effects 
on many of the ancient towns cited in the annals of Rome, but 
of which no vestige can now be traced with certainty. We 
must, therefore, be necessarily brief in the rest of our enumera- 

7. Allifce, to the southwest of Bovianum, now Allife. This 
place was noted for the large-sized drinking-cups made there. 
8. Telesia, to the southeast of the preceding, and the ruins of 


which are to be seen about a mile from the modern Telese, 
This town was taken by Hannibal on his first march through 
Samnium. It was the native place of C. Pontius Telesinus, 
who fought against Sylla. 9. Cdmmium Centum, northeast 
of the preceding, and now Cereto. 

On crossing the Vulturnus, we enter into that part of the 
Samnite territory which belonged properly to the Caudine Sam- 
nites. Among the cities in this quarter may be named, 1. Sd- 
tlcula, now St. Ag-ata dei Goti, a place of considerable anti- 
quity, and named by Virgil among those which sent aid to Tur- 
nus. It was colonized by the Romans, according to Festus, 
under the consuls Papirius Cursor and C. Junius. 2. Caudium, 
to the southeast of the preceding, and yie site of which is to be 
fixed at Paolisi or Cervinara. In the vicinity of this place 
was the famous pass called Furcce (or Furculcc) Caudlnce, " the 
Caudine Forks," where the Roman army, commanded by the 
consuls T. Veturius and Sp. Postumius, was entrapped by the 
Samnite leader C. Pontius, and compelled to pass under the 
yoke. According to the best opinion, the valley of Arpaia rep- 
resents the Furcee Caudinae, a circumstance which is strongly 
confirmed by the name of Furclce, which this valley is known 
to have borne in the Middle Ages, and which is still preserved 
in that of the little village in this quarter, now called Forchie. 
Among the mountains which form the passes of Arpaia and 
Montesarchio we must distinguish Mons Tdburnus, which rises 
to the east of Saticula. This lofty mountain, still called Ta- 
burno or Tabor, derives celebrity from Virgil, and is also men- 
tioned by the poet Gratius. 3. Beneventum, about ten miles 
to the northeast of Caudium, and on the Appian Way. Its 
earlier name was Mdleventum, which is said to have been given 
it on account of its unhealthy atmosphere. The more auspi- 
cious appellation of Beneventum was substituted when the Ro- 
mans sent a colony thither. Some, however, who think this 
explanation more fanciful than satisfactory, make the earlier 
name to have been Maluentum, without any reference to un- 
healthiness of situation, and as this sounded to Roman ears like 
Maleventum, it was deemed an inauspicious appellation, and 
Beneventum was substituted. Beneventum was situated near 
the junction of the Sabdtus and Color, now Sabbato and Galore. 

We have now to speak of the Hirpini, who, though compre- 

ITALIA. 353 

hended under the general denomination of Samnites, seem to 
have formed a distinct people. Their name was said to be de- 
rived from the word hirpus, which in the Samnite dialect sig- 
nified " a wolf;" and it has been supposed that they were orig- 
inally a Sabine colony, who were guided in their migrations to 
this quarter by following the tracks of this species of animal. 

Among the cities of the Hirpini we may name, 1. Abellinum, 
now Abellino, in the mountains which separated this people from 
the Picentini. Its inhabitants were distinguished from those 
of another Abellinum, which belonged to Lucania, by the ap- 
pellation of Abellinates Protrdpi. 2. J&culanum or JEclanum, 
on the Appian Way, about thirteen modern miles from Bene- 
ventum, in a southeast direction. It was besieged by Sylla 
during the civil wars. The ruins lie near Mirabella, on the 
site called by the natives Le Grotte. 3. Taurasium, a little to 
the southeast of the preceding, and now Taurasi. It is men- 
tioned in the inscription on the tomb of Scipio Barbatus as one 
of the towns taken by that general. In its vicinity were the 
Tauraslni Campi, where Pyrrhus, on his return from Italy, 
was totally defeated by M. Curius Dentatus. The name of 
these plains is incorrectly written Arusini Campi in Florus and 
other ancient authors. The Romans, many years afterward, 
settled in this district a numerous body of Ligurians whom they 
had conquered and removed from their country. 4. Mquus Tu- 
ticus or Equotuticus, to the northeast of Beneventum, and on 
the Appian Way. D'Anville places it at Castel Franco, which 
is nearly correct; the exact site, however, is occupied by the 
ancient church of St. Eleuterio, a martyr, who is stated in old 
ecclesiastical records to have suffered at .^Equum. This place 
is about five miles from Ariano, in a northerly direction. Tu- 
ticus is an Oscan word, and is said to be equivalent to the Latin 
Magnus. It is commonly supposed that Horace means this 
place in the account of his journey to Brundisium (Sat., i., 5, 
87), where he makes mention of a town having a name that 
could not be introduced into hexameter verse. This supposi- 
tion, however, is an erroneous one. After leaving Beneventum, 
Horace and his party passed the first night at a villa close to 
Trivlcum, now Trivivo, a place situate to the southeast of 
Equus Tuticus, among the mountains separating Samnium 
from Apulia. On the following night they lodged at the town 



with the untractable name, and on the third day reached Canu- 
sium. Now, if this town had been ^Equus Tuticus, they must 
have gone back in a northwestern direction, and one quite 
out of their way ; and, besides, they must then have travelled 
only twenty-two miles during the first and second day, and have 
left forty-two miles for the third. This, however, is both at va- 
riance with the text, and inconsistent with the manner in which 
the journey was performed. 5. Compsa, on the southern con- 
fines of this part of Samnium, now Conza. It was a city of 
some note, and revolted to Hannibal after the battle of Cannae. 
It was here that this general left all his baggage, and part of 
his army, when advancing into Campania. 

The small nation of the Frentani appear to ha*re possessed a separate political 
existence, independent of the Samnite confederacy, though we are assured they 
derived their descent from that warlike and populous race. From Plutarch we 
learn that they distinguished themselves in the war against Pyrrhus ; and it ap- 
pears that they faithfully adhered to the Roman cause throughout the whole of 
the second Punic war. Whatever may have been their former extent of terri- 
tory, we find it restricted by the geographers of the Augustan age to the tract 
of country lying between the mouths of the Aternus and Tifernus, the former 
separating it from the Marrucini on the north, and the latter from the country 
of Apulia to the south. The few cities of the Frentani with which we are ac- 
quainted appear to have been situate on the coast. These are, 1. Ortona, still 
retaining its ancient site and name. Strabo calls it the naval arsenal of the 
Frentani. 2. Anxdnum, south of the preceding, and more inland. The name 
of this town seems to have been also written Anxa and Anxia. It occupied the 
site now called Lanciano Vecchio. 3. Biica, beyond the River Sagrus, and a sea- 
port town. Its ruins may be seen at a place named Penna. 4. Histonium, further 
along the coast, and now Vasto (VAmmone. It was once the haunt of savage 
pirates, who, as Strabo reports, formed their dwellings from the wrecks of ships, 
and in other respects lived more like beasts of prey than civilized beings. A 
Roman colony was subsequently established here. Beyond this place is the 
mouth of the Trinius, now Trigno. 5. Interamna, a small town and port, now 
Termoli. The Tifernus, now the Biferno, terminates the description of the Ager 
Frenianus to the south. 


I. WE have now left central Italy or Italia Propria, and are entering upon the 
region called Magna Gratia (? *E/Uaf /zeyuAj?), a name given to it on account of 
the numerous and flourishing colonies established by the Greeks in this section 
of the peninsula. There is some difficulty in determining how far this appella- 
tion extended, but, according to the best authorities, it appears to have com- 
prised Apulia, Messdpia or lapygia, Lucdnia, and Bruttium ; or, in other words, 
the portion of Italy that remains still to be considered by us. 

II. It appears from Strabo's account that the name of Apulia was originally 
applie4 to a small tract of country immediately to the southeast of the Frentani. 

ITALIA. 355 

In the reign of Augustus, however, the term Apulia was used in a much more 
extended sense, and included not only Daunia, but also the country of Messapia 
or lapygia, 

III. On the other hand, what may be remarked as a singular circumstance, 
the term Messapia or lapygia appears to have been confined at first to that penin- 
sula which closes the Gulf of Tarentum to the southeast, but afterward to have 
had the same extension given to it by the Greeks which the Roman historians 
and geographers assigned to Apulia, a name of which the Greeks were ignorant 

IV. The boundaries of Apulia, then, in the widest sense of the term, were as 
follows : on the north by the territory of the Frentani and the Sinus Urias ; on 
the northeast by the Hadriatic ; on the southeast by the Hadriatic and a part of 
the Sinus Tarentinus ; and on the southwest by Samnium and Lucania* 

V. We will now proceed to consider the several portions of country compre- 
hended under this name, and which are, 1. Apulia Proper ; 2. Daunia ; 3. Pen- 

eetia ; and, 4. Messapia or lapygia. 



Apulia Proper, or Apulia originally so called, was a district 
of very limited extent. According to Strabo, it was contigu- 
ous to the Ager Frentanus on one side, and to Daunia on the 
other, and its lower limit was a line drawn from the coast a 
little below Uria or Hyrium and the Lacus Urianus, now 
Lago Varano, across the country to the Apennines above Lu- 

Beginning, then, from the River Tifernus, we come to, 1. Cli- 
ternia^ the ruins of which are to be seen at a small place called 
Licchiano, on the little river Sacchione, near the sea. 2. La- 
rinum, to the southwest, and the ruins of which occupy the site 
called Larino Vecchio. This was a place of considerable im- 
portance, and appears to have belonged at one time to the Fren* 
tani, from the name of Larinates Frentani attached to its in- 
habitants by Pliny. It formed in itself a small independent 
state before it became subject to the Roman power. We have 
frequent mention of Larinum in Cicero's defence of Cluentius, 
who was a citizen of the place. We gather, too, from the same 
oration, that it was a municipal town and in a flourishing con- 
dition. 3. Cdlela^ to the southwest, a fortress near which Mi- 
nucius was stationed during the absence of the dictator Fabius. 
Its site answers to Casa Calenda. 4. Gerunium, about two 
miles to the northeast of the preceding, selected by Hannibal 
for his winter-quarters after the campaign against Fabius. It 
had been previously carried by storm, the private dwellings had 
been destroyed, and the principal buildings were reserved only 
as magazines for the corn which the surrounding country sup- 


plied in great abundance. It was here that Hannibal was op- 
posed to the rash Minucius, who, but for the timely aid afforded 
him by Fabius, would have paid dearly for his presumption in 
supposing that he was able to cope with the Carthaginian leader. 
Gerunium appears to have been situated on a spot still known 
by the name of Girone, between Casa Calenda and Montorio. 

5. Tedte Apulum, so called to distinguish it from Teate of 
the Marrucini. It lay a short distance to the southeast of Cli- 
ternia, and its ruins bear the name of Chieti Vecchio. 6. Tea- 
num Apulum, so called to distinguish it from the Campanian 
Teanum. It lay to the southeast of the preceding. Strabo 
makes it to have been situate at the head of a lake formed by 
the sea, which encroached so considerably upon the land that 
the breadth of Italy between this point and Puteoli did not ex- 
ceed one hundred stadia. This lake was the Lacus Pantanus, 
now Lago di Lesina. The ruins of Teanum exist on the site 
of Civitate, about a mile from the right bank of the Fortore, 
the ancient Frento, and ten miles from the sea. 7. Uria or Urei- 
um (Ovpewv), as Strabo writes it, but, according to Ptolemy, 
Hyrium ("Ypiov), a place the situation of which has not yet 
been clearly determined, partly because there was another city 
of the same name in Messapia, and partly because Strabo and 
Pliny differ with regard to the position of the present one, Strabo 
placing it to the north of the promontory of Garganum, and Pliny 
to the south of it. Strabo's opinion is undoubtedly the true one, 
and his Ureium answers to the modern Rodi. Hence, too, the 
Sinus Unas, which is erroneously placed on most maps below 
the promontory of Garganum, is more correctly placed above it. 

Opposite to the Sinus Urias, and at no great distance from 
the coast, are some small islands, celebrated in mythology as 
the scene of the metamorphosis of Diomede's companions, who 
were changed into birds, and of the disappearance of that hero 
himself. Hence they were known by the name of Insulce Iti- 
omedece. Ancient writers differ as to their number. Strabo 
and Pliny recognize two, and the latter states that one was 
called Diomedea, the other Teutria. Ptolemy, however, reck- 
ons five, which is said to be the correct number, if we include 
in the group three barren rocks, which scarcely deserve the 
name of islands. The island which Pliny calls Diomedea ap- 
pears to have also borne the appellation Tremitus, as we learn 

ITALIA. 357 

from Tacitus, who informs us that it was the spot to which 
Augustus removed his abandoned grand-daughter Julia, and 
where she terminated a life of infamy. It is now called Tre~ 
miti. Teutria is now Pianosa. 


I. Daunia extended from the southern limits of Apulia Proper, as far south as 
a line drawn from the mouth of the Aufidus to Silvium, now Garagnone, in the 
Apennines, and passing to the east of Cannae and Cdniisium, which, therefore, 
both belonged to the Daunian territory. 

II. The Daunii appear to have been one of the earliest Italian tribes with 
which the Greeks became acquainted, from the circumstance of their having 
formed colonies, which they established at a remote period on the western 
shores of the Adriatic. This people, according to the received tradition, ob- 
tained their appellation from Daunus, the father-in-law of Diomede, the latter, 
on his return from Troy, having been compelled by domestic troubles to aban- 
don his native country, and having founded another kingdom in the plains wa- 
tered by the Aufidus. This tradition, whatever may be its truth in other re- 
spects, proves at least the great antiquity of the Daunians as an indigenous peo- 
ple of Italy. Other accounts, perhaps still more ancient, asserted that Daunus 
was an Illyrian chief, who, driven from his country by an adverse faction, formed 
a settlement in this part of Italy. 

III. According to some writers, the Apuli, Daunii, Peucetii, and Calabri were 
actually Illyrians ; but the safer opinion undoubtedly is to consider them as the 
descendants of a remnant of Liburni and other ancient Illyrians, mingled with 
a subsequent and preponderating influx of Oscans and different native Italian 

Among the cities on the coast of Daunia we may notice the 
following : 1. Merinum, to the northeast of Uria or Hyrium, 
and near the promontory of Garganum. Its inhabitants are 
called by Pliny " Mermates ex Gargano" The church of St. 
Maria di Merino marks the ancient site. 2. Agdsus Portus^ 
on the other side of the promontory, now probably Porto Greco. 
3. Matinum, at the foot of Mons Garganus, and the name of 
which is recalled by the modern Matinata, which probably also 
marks the ancient site. It was here, according to the best com- 
mentators on Horace, that Archytas, the celebrated philosopher 
of Tarentum, was interred, when cast on shore after shipwreck. 
The vicinity of this town was famed for its bees and honey. 
One of the summits of Garganus, inland from this place, was 
called Drium Mons. On it were two chapels sacred to Cal- 
chas and Podalirius. A rivulet issuing from the base of the 
mountain was said to have the property of healing all disorders 
incident to cattle. Mons Garganus is called at the present day 
Monte Sant' Angelo. 


4. Sipus (SiTToiJf, ovvrof), or, as the Latins write it, Sipon- 
tum, lower down on the coast, and southwest of Matinum. It 
was a city of Greek origin, and great antiquity, and was fa- 
bled to have been founded by Diomede. According to Strabo y 
the name of the place was derived from the circumstance of 
great quantities of cuttle-fish ((TT/TT/O, sepia) being thrown up by 
the sea on its shore. The ruins of this once flourishing city 
are said to exist about two miles to the west of Manfredonia, 
the founding of which city led to the final desertion of Sipon- 
turn by its inhabitants, as they were transferred by King Man- 
fredi to this modern town, which is known to have risen under 
his auspices. 

Turning our attention now to the Cities in the interior of 
Daunia, we come to, 1. Arpi, or, as it was first called, Argy- 
rippa, which last appellation was supposed to be a modification 
of "Apyof ITTTUOV, the name which it was said to have received 
originally from its reputed founder Diomede. Arpi lay in a 
southwest direction from Sipontum, and, whoever was its found- 
er, appears to have been a city of great antiquity. In Strabo's. 
time it was greatly reduced, but it still continued to exist un- 
der Constantine as an episcopal see. The ruins observable be- 
tween Foggia and Manfredonia are supposed to point out the 
exact situation of Arpi, and are said still to retain that name, 
2. Sdlapia, to the southeast, between a lake thence called Pa- 
lus Salapina and the River Auf idus. This also was a place 
of very early origin, and some suppose it to have been a Rho- 
dian colony. The inhabitants of this place, finding its proxim- 
ity to the lake or marsh injurious to health, removed eventually 
nearer the coast, where they built a new town, with the assist- 
ance of M. Hostilius, a Roman praetor, who caused a commu- 
nication to be opened between the lake and the sea. Consid- 
erable remains of both towns are still standing at some distance 
from each other, under the name of Salpi. The Pains Sala- 
pina is now called La go di Salpi. 

3. Luceria, to the southwest, another town of great antiquity > 
and said to have been founded by Diomede. It was an import- 
ant city, and was noted, also, for the excellence of its wool, a 
property, indeed, which, according to Strabo, was common to 
all Apulia. The town still retains its ancient site under the 
modern name of Lucera. 4. Herddnia, to the southeast, 

ITALIA. 359 

Ordona, on a branch of the Appian Way. It was burned by 
Hannibal, and the inhabitants were removed from the place. 
It must, however, have risen afterward from this state of ruin, 
since we find it mentioned as a colony by Frontinus, under the 
corrupt name of Ardona. Strabo calls it Cerdoma, and places 
it on the continuation of the Egnatian Way, between Canusi- 
um and Beneventum. 5. Asculum Apulum, to the southwest 
of Herdonia, and so called to distinguish it from Asculum in 
Picenum. It was under the walls of this town that Pyrrhus 
encountered a second time the Roman army, after having gained 
a signal victory in Lucania. The battle was obstinately con- 
tested, but attended with no decisive advantage to either side. 
The site of this place corresponds to the modern Ascoli. 6. Fe- 
nusia, to the southeast, on the great Appian Way leading to Ta- 
rentum. It is now Venosa. This place appears to have been 
a Roman colony of some importance before the war against 
Pyrrhus. After the disaster at Cannse, it afforded a retreat to 
the consul Varro and the handful of men who escaped with him 
from that bloody field. The services rendered by the Venusini 
on that occasion obtained for them afterward the special thanks 
and eulogium of the Roman senate. Venusia is remarkable, 
also, in literary history, from the poet Horace having been born 
within its territory, on the doubtful confines of Apulia and Lu- 
cania. To the south of Venusia rises Mons Vultur, now Monte 
Vulture, alluded to by Horace among the scenes of his early 
boyhood. From the conical shape of the mountain, and its min- 
eralogical character, naturalists have inferred that it is an ex- 
tinct volcano. 

7. Forentum, about eight miles south of Venusia, and now 
Forenza. It was on the other side of Mons Vultur, and is 
mentioned by Horace. 8. Bantta, more to the east, and higher 
up toward the mountains. In the vicinity of this place Mar- 
cellus fell a victim to the stratagem of Hannibal. Bantia is 
also mentioned by Horace. The modern name is Banza. 
9. Acherontia, now Acerenza, situate, as Horace describes it, 
on an almost inaccessible hill south of Forentum. Livy and Pro- 
oopius both mention it as a place of great strength. 10. Cd- 
nusium, on the right bank of the Auf idus, and about twelve 
miles from its mouth. This was a flourishing and very ancient 
caty, and its origin seems to belong to a period which reaches 


far beyond the records of Roman history, and of which we pos- 
sess no memorial but what a fabulous tradition has conveyed 
to us. Splendid remains of antiquity still exist among its ru- 
ins, which are known by the name of Canosa. This place, also, 
like Venusia, afforded shelter to the Roman fugitives after the 
battle of Cannae. Hadrian colonized the town, and procured 
for it a supply of good water, of which it stood in much need, 
as we learn from Horace. The epithet of " bilinguis" applied 
by the same poet to this place, refers to the mixed dialect of 
Oscan and Greek that was spoken here. 11. Canned, a village 
situated about five miles from Canusium, toward the sea, and 
at no great distance from the Aufidus. It is memorable for the 
great victory obtained by Hannibal in*its vicinity over the Ro- 
man consuls Terentius Varro and ^Emilius Paulus. The bat- 
tle was fought on the second of August, B.C. 216. Of the Ro- 
mans there fell 45,000, among whom were the consul ^Emilius 
Paulus, eighty senators, and a number of persons who had been 
invested with the highest offices of the republic. Varro escaped 
with a few horsemen to Venusia, and another small detachment 
threw itself into Canusium ; but Hannibal, unconcerned about 
the latter, marched toward Capua. It appears from Polybius 
that Cannae, as a town, was destroyed the year before the bat- 
tle was fought, and a village would seem to have sprung up 
on its site. The citadel, however, was preserved, and the 
circumstance of its occupation by Hannibal seems to have been 
regarded by the Romans of sufficient importance to cause them 
considerable uneasiness and annoyance. It commanded, in- 
deed, all the adjacent country, and was the principal southern 
depot of stores and provisions, on which they had depended for 
the approaching campaign. The field of battle was the plain 
between Cannae and the Aufidus. The site of Cannae is still 
known by the name of Canne. 


I. NEXT to the Daunii were the Peucetii, who, according to Dionysius of Hal- 
icarnassus, derived their name from Peucetius, son of Lycaon, king of Arcadia, 
who, with his brother (Enotrus, migrated to Italy seventeen generations before 
the siege of Troy. This, however, seems to be pure fable. The Peucetii are 
always spoken of in history, even by the Greeks themselves, as barbarians, who 
differed in no essential respect from the Daunii, lapyges, and other neighboring 

II. The name ofPadiciili was given to the inhabitants of that part of Peuce- 

ITALIA. 361 

tia which was more particularly situated on the coast between the Aufidus and 
the confines of the Calabri. It is stated by Pliny that this particular tribe de- 
rived their origin from Illyria. 

III. The Peucetii appear, then, to have extended along the coast of the Adri- 
atic, from the Aufidus to the neighborhood of Brundisium, which city belonged 
to lapygia ; and in the interior their territory reached as far as Silvium, in the 
Apennines, constituting principally what in modern geography is called Terra, 
di Bari. 

Omitting the mention of several places known only from the 
Itineraries, we come to, 1. Barium, now Bari, the first town 
of note we meet with on the coast after leaving the Aufidus. 
It is mentioned by Horace in the account of his journey to 
Brundisium, and the epithet "piscosi" employed by him in 
speaking of it, refers to the extensive fishery carried on here in 
former days. The inhabitants of the modern Bari are said to 
be still principally fishermen. 2. Egnatia, further on, situate 
upon the coast, and communicating its name to the consular 
way which followed the coast from Canusium to Brundisium. 
Its ruins are still apparent near the Torre d'Agnazzo and the 
town of Monopoli. Pliny states that a certain stone was 
shown at Egnatia which was said to possess the property of 
setting fire to wood that .was placed upon it. It was this prod- 
igy, seemingly, which afforded so much amusement to Horace 
on his Brundisian journey. 

In the interior of Peucetia we may notice the following 
towns : 1. Rubi, now Ruvo, to the east of Canusium, and on 
the Egnatian Way. It is alluded to by Horace in the account 
of his journey. 2. Rudice Peucetice, to the northwest of the 
preceding, and so called to distinguish it from RudicB in Cala- 
bria. Romanelli places it at the modern Andria. 3. Butun- 
tum, to the southeast of Rubi, and on the Egnatian Way. It 
is now Bitonto. 4. Grumum, to the southeast of the preceding, 
now Grumo, a village not far from Palo. The inhabitants are 
called Grumbestini by Pliny. 5. Azetium, to the northeast of 
the preceding, and now Rotigliano. It appears to answer to 
the Ehetium of the Theodosian Table. 6. Silvium, to the east 
of Venusia, now Garagnone. It was situate on the Appian 
Way, among the Apennines. 


I. ALL that now remains of Apulia may be classed under the head of Messa- 
pia or lapygia, comprising the whole of that remarkable peninsula which inclo- 
ses the Gulf of Tarentum to the northeast, and which has not unaptly been 


termed by modern geographers the heel of the boot. Under this appellation, 
therefore, will be included the Calabri, the Sallentini, and the city of Tarentum, 
with its territory. 

II. The name Messapia is supposed to have been applied to the whole country 
from the town of Messapia in Calabria, to which it originally belonged. The 
name lapygia was popularly derived from lapyx, the son of Daedalus. This, 
however, is a mere fable. Still, though we have no positive information re- 
garding the origin of the lapyges, their existence on these shores, prior to the 
arrival of any Grecian colony, is recognized by the earliest writers of that na- 
tion, such as Herodotus (vii., 170) and Hellanicus of Lesbos (ap. Dionys. Hal., 
i., 22). Thucydides evidently considered them as barbarians (vii., 33), as well 
as Scylax, in his Periplus (p. 5), and Pausanias (x., 10) ; and this, in fact, is 
the idea which we must form of this people, whether we look upon them as 
descended from an Umbrian, Oscan, or Illyrian race, or from an intermixture 
of these earliest Italian tribes. 

III. The name of lapygia was not known to the Romans except as an appel- 
lation borrowed from the Greeks, to whom it was ramiliar. We are not informed 
at what period the name of lapygia began to be superseded by that of Apulia, 
but we may observe that even the latest Greek writers always designate this 
part of Italy by the former appellation. 


THE district occupied by the Calabri seems to have been 
that maritime part of the lapygian peninsula extending from 
Brundisium to the city of Hydruntum, and answering nearly 
to what is now called Terra di Lecce. This branch of the la- 
pygian race does not seem to have been particularly distin- 
guished by the Greeks at least we do not find it noticed by 
any writer of that nation anterior to Polybius. 

Among the cities in this quarter, we may name, 1. Brundis- 
ium^ the most ancient and celebrated city on this coast, and 
now Brindisi. By the Greeks it was called Bpevreaiov, a word 
which in the Messapian language signified "a stag's head," 
from the resemblance which its different harbors and creeks bore 
to the antlers of that animal. Various accounts are given of 
the origin of the place, but all unsatisfactory. Its antiquity is 
evident, however, from the statement of Strabo, that Brundisium 
was already in existence when the Lacedaemonian Phalanthus 
arrived with his colony in this part of Italy. The advanta- 
geous situation of its harbor for communicating with the oppo- 
site coast of Greece naturally rendered Brundisium a place of 
great resort, from the time that the colonies of that country had 
fixed themselves on the shores of Italy. Brundisium soon be- 
came a formidable rival to Tarentum, which had hitherto en- 
grossed all the commerce of this part of Italy ; nor did the fa- 

ITALIA. 363 

cilities which it afforded for extending their conquests out of 
that country escape the penetrating views of the Romans. Un- 
der the pretence that several towns on this coast had favored 
the invasion of Pyrrhus, they declared war against them, and 
soon possessed themselves of Brundisium, whither a colony was 
sent, B.C. 245. From this period the prosperity of this port 
continued to increase in proportion to the greatness of the 
Roman empire. Large fleets were always stationed here for 
the conveyance of troops into Macedonia, Greece, or Asia ; and 
from the convenience of its harbor, and its facility of access 
from every other part of Italy, it became a place of general 
thoroughfare for travellers visiting those countries. When the 
rapid advance of Caesar forced Pompey to remove the seat of 
war into Epirus, he was for some time blockaded by his suc- 
cessful adversary in Brundisium. Caesar describes accurately 
the works undertaken there by his orders for preventing the 
escape of the enemy ; and from his account we learn that this 
place had two harbors, one called the interior, the other the ex- 
terior, communicating by a very narrow passage. Strabo con- 
sidered the harbor of Brundisium superior to that of Tarentum, 
for the latter was not free from shoals. It was at Brundisium 
that a convention was held for the purpose of arranging the ex- 
citing differences between Augustus and Marc Antony, and 
among the commissioners appointed by the former was Maece- 
nas, who was accompanied by Horace. It was this journey 
which the poet has so humorously delineated in the fifth Satire 
of the First Book of these productions. At the present day 
the commercial advantages of this once celebrated port are near- 
ly all lost by the entrance to the inner harbor being almost shut 
up, and allowing ingress to only the smallest vessels. 

2. Rudice, to the southeast of the preceding, and called Ru- 
dice Calabrce, to distinguish it from Rudice in Peucetia. It 
was celebrated as having been the birth-place of Ennius. Its 
remains are still known by the name of Ruge. 3. Hydrus 
("Ydpovg), called by the Latins Hydruntum, and now Otranto, 
to the southeast of Rudiae. This was a port of some note as 
early as the time of Scylax, who names it in his Periplus. It 
was deemed the nearest point of Italy to Greece, the distance 
being only fifty miles, and the passage might be effected in five 
hours. This circumstance led Pyrrhus, it is said, to form the 


project of uniting the two coasts by a bridge thrown across from 
Hydruntum to Apollonia ! In Strabo's time Hydruntum was 
only a small town, though its harbor was still frequented. 

In the interior of lapygia, which, properly speaking, seems 
to have been the territory of the Messapii, we may notice, 

1. Carminianum, now Carmignano. 2. Sturnium, to the south- 
east of the preceding, now Sternaccio. 3. Uria or Hyria, in 
the more northern part of the peninsula, between Brundisium 
and Tarentum, and now Oria. This was a place of great an- 
tiquity, and was said to have been of Cretan origin, a fable 
connected in some way with the legend that the lapygians 
were a colony from Crete. 4. Messapia, between Uria and 
Brundisium, and supposed by some to^have communicated its 
name to the Messapian nation. It coincides probably with the 
modern Messagna. 

The Sallentlni or Salentini can not be distinguished with 
accuracy from the Calabri, as we find the former appellation 
used by several writers in a very extensive sense, and applied 
not only to the greater part of lapygia, but even to districts 
entirely removed from it. Strabo himself confesses the diffi- 
culty of assigning any exact limits to these two people, and he 
contents himself with observing that the country of the Sal- 
lentini lay properly around the lapygian promontory. It was 
asserted that they were a colony of Cretans, who, under the 
conduct of Idomeneus, their king, had arrived in this quarter 
during their wanderings after the capture of Troy. 

Among the cities in this part of the peninsula, we may no- 
tice, 1. Sarmadium, an inland town of the Sallentini, now Muro. 

2. Basta, to the southeast, the people of which are called Bas- 
terbini by Pliny. The name of this city occurs, also, in the 
remarkable Messapian inscription found near its site. The an- 
cient appellation of Basta is yet partly preserved in that of 
Vaste. Close to the sea was a temple of Minerva, once very 
celebrated and wealthy. It was afterward called Castrum 
Minervce, and the spot is still called Castro. 3. Leuca , al- 
most at the extremity of the peninsula, and some traces of the 
name of which still exist on the spot in that of a church ded- 
icated to the Virgin under the title of S. Maria di Leuca. 
The lapygian promontory, also, is now called Capo di Leuca. 
For an account of this promontory, consult page 257. 

ITALIA. 365 

4. Callipolis, to the northwest of Leuca, and on the upper 
shore of the Sinus Tarentinus. It is now Gallipoli. The 
name alone of this place, if we had no other evidence of the 
fact, would indicate a Greek origin. It owed its foundation to 
Leucippus, a Lacedaemonian, who erected a town here with the 
consent of the Tarentines. 5. Manduria, to the northwest of 
the preceding, and southwest of Uria. This otherwise obscure 
place has acquired some interest in history from having wit- 
nessed the 'death of Archidamus, king of Sparta, the son of 
Agesilaus, who had come over to aid the Tarentines against the 
Messapians and Lucanians. A curious well is described by 
Pliny as existing near this town. According to his account, 
its waters always maintained the same level, whatever quan- 
tity was added to or taken from it. This phenomenon may still 
be observed at the present day. The site of Manduria is now 
called Casal Nuovo. 

6. Tarentum, in Greek Tdpas, and now Taranto. This city 
was situate in the northeastern angle of the Sinus Tarentinus, 
and may be regarded as the most distinguished colony ever 
founded by the Greeks, whether we consider its celebrity in the 
annals of Greece, its rank among the Italian states, or the im- 
portance subsequently attached to its possession by the Romans. 
It is said to have been originally a town of the Messapians, to 
which were joined some Cretan colonists. About B.C. 694, ac- 
cording to the story, Phalanthus, the leader of the Parthenise 
from Sparta, arrived on the coast of lapygia, took Tarentum, 
and expelled the original inhabitants. After a war with the 
lapygians, in which Tarentum sustained severe losses, it grad- 
ually became a flourishing commercial city, and the most pow- 
erful settlement in Magna Grsecia. About B.C. 338, the Ta- 
rentines, being engaged in war with their neighbors the Lu- 
canians, applied to Sparta for aid. Archidamus, the son of 
Agesilaus, was sent to them, but he was killed in battle. Some 
years after, being hard pressed by the Lucanians and Bruttii, 
they called in Alexander, king of Epirus, and uncle to Alexan- 
der the Great ; but he was surprised and killed by the Bruttii 
near Pandosia, B.C. 323. The Tarentines had by this time 
degenerated, like most of the Greeks on the Italian coast, and 
had become luxurious and effeminate. In B.C. 282 they be- 
came engaged in hostilities with the Romans, and called Pyr* 


rhus, king of Epirus, to their aid ; but, though this monarch 
was successful in the first instance, the Tarentines were too 
effeminate to give him much support, and the Roman arms 
finally triumphed. In the second Punic war, irritated at the 
cruel treatment of their hostages, who had attempted to es- 
cape from Rome, the Tarentines opened their gates to Hanni- 
bal. The citadel, however, still held out until the Romans, 
under Fabius Maximus, surprised and recaptured the city. 
Immense plunder was obtained on this occasion. From this 
period the prosperity and political existence of Tarentum may 
date its decline, which was further accelerated by the prefer- 
ence shown by the Romans to the port of Brundisium for the 
fitting out of their naval armaments,<fts well as for commercial 
purposes. The salubrity of its climate, the singular fertility 
of its territory, and its advantageous situation on the sea, as 
well as on the Appian Way, still rendered it, however, a city 
of consequence in the Augustan age. Horace calls it " molle 
Tarentum" and " imbelle Tarentum." The Greek language 
and manners were retained by the inhabitants even after 
the fall of the Western Empire. Tarentum was one of the 
chief strongholds retained by the Byzantine emperors in South- 
ern Italy. About A.D. 774, Romualdus, the Langobard, duke 
of Beneventum, took Tarentum from the Byzantines. The 
Saracens landed at this place about A.D. 830. The town was 
afterward several times taken and retaken and sacked, and it 
was during this period that the old city on the main land was 
abandoned, and the inhabitants retired to the island or penin- 
sula on which the Acropolis had stood. This is the site of 
modern Taranto, occupying only a small part of that of the an- 
cient city. Taranto has the advantage of being the only safe 
harbor in that part of the southeastern coast of Italy which ex- 
tends from the Straits of Messina to Capo di Leuca. The ter- 
ritory of ancient Tarentum was famed for its wool, and much 
wool is still grown in the neighborhood of the modern town. 
The River Gal&sus, now the Galeso, flowed within five miles 
of Tarentum, and fell into the inner harbor. The sheep which 
fed along the banks of this stream and in the adjacent valley 
of Aulon, had a wool so fine that they were covered with skins 
to protect it from injury. This stream is often mentioned in 
terms of, praise by the poets. Tarentum was also celebrated 
for its purple dye. 

ITALIA. 367 

The fertile ridge and valley of Aulon, just referred to, were 
situate on the left bank of the Galaesus, and to the northeast 
of Tarentum. The modern name is Terra di Melone. Hor- 
ace bestows a warm eulogium on this delightful spot. Satu- 
rium (Zarvpeov) is also a spot in the Tarentine territory fre- 
quently alluded to by the ancient writers. It was famed for 
its fertility and its breed of horses. The name is still preserved 
in that of Saturio, a hamlet on the sea-coast, about seven miles 
to the east of Taranto. To the west of Tarentum was the lit- 
tle river Taras, now Tara. 

Opposite to the entrance of the harbor of Tarentum were two 
small islands, anciently known as the Insulce Ch&rddce, but 
which derive their modern names from the apostles St. Peter 
and St. Paul. They deserve our notice as being mentioned by 
Thucydides, who states that Demosthenes and Eurymedon, 
who commanded the troops sent to re-enforce the Athenians in 
their expedition against Sicily, took on board here some Mes- 
sapian archers, supplied by Arta, a chief of that nation, with 
whom they had contracted an alliance. 


I. Lucdnia, considered as a Roman province, was bounded 
on the north by the territory of the Picentini, Samnium, and 
Apulia ; on the east by the Sinus Tarentinus ; on the south 
by Bruttium and the Mare Inferum ; and on the west by the 
Mare Inferum. It was separated from Apulia by the River 
Braddnus, and a line drawn from that stream to the Sildrus, 
which latter stream served also as a boundary on the side of 
the Picentini. To the south it was separated from Bruttium 
by the rivers Laus and Crdthis, the former emptying into the 
Mare Inferum^ the latter into the Sinus Tarentinus. 

H. The Lucani were descended from the Sabine stock. As 
their numbers increased, they gradually advanced from the in- 
terior toward the coast, and were soon engaged in hostilities 
with the Greeks, who, unable to make good their defence, grad- 
ually yielded, and allowed their hardy and resistless foes to ob- 
tain possession of all the settlements formed on the western 
; coast. The Romans, however, subsequently appeared upon the 
scene, and the Lucani, in their turn, were compelled to sub- 


mit to the victors of Pyrrhus. The war which Hannibal sub- 
sequently carried on in this and the adjoining parts of the pen- 
insula proved a source of serious injury, from which they were 
slow in recovering. 


BEGINNING with the cities situate on the eastern coast, and 
leaving the Bradanus, now the Bradano, we come to, 1. Metti- 
pontum, one of the most celebrated of the Grecian colonies. 
The original name of the place appears to have been Metabum, 
which, it is said, was derived from Metabus, a hero to whom 
divine honors were paid. Metabum, it seems, was in a deserted 
state, owing probably to the attacks othe neighboring barba- 
rians, when a party of Achseans, invited for that purpose by the 
Sybarites, landed on the coast, and took possession of the town, 
which thenceforth was called Mgrarrovriov, or, as the Romans 
afterward wrote it, Metapontum. The Achaeans, soon aftei 
their arrival, seem to have been engaged in a war with the Ta- 
rentines, and this led to a treaty, by which the Braddnus was 
recognized as forming the separation of the two territories. 
Pythagoras was held in particular estimation by the people of 
this place, and he is said to have resided here for many years. 
After his death, the house which he had inhabited was convert- 
ed into a temple of Ceres. In the time of Pausanias, this city, 
after a long and flourishing existence, was reduced to a mere 
heap of ruins ; but the causes which had led to this are not 
stated. Considerable vestiges still exist near the station called 
Torre di Mare. Crossing the Casuentus, now Basiento, flow- 
ing near Metapontum, and the Acalandus, now Salandella, 
we come to, 2. Heraclea^ situate between the Aciris^ now the 
Agri, and the Siris, now the Sinno. It was founded by the 
Tarentines after the desertion of the ancient city of Siris, which 
had stood at the mouth of the River Siris. Heraclea is remark- 
able as having been the seat of the general council of the Greek 
states in Italy. Its site has been fixed at Policoro, about three 
miles from the mouth of the Agri. 

3. Pandosia, to the northwest of the preceding, and not many 
miles from it. Plutarch, in his life of Pyrrhus, states that the 
first battle in which that monarch defeated the Romans was 
fought between this place and Heraclea. This city, however, 

ITALIA. 369 

must not be confounded with the Pandosia near which Alex- 
ander of Epirus lost his life. This last was in Bruttium. 
Traces of the Lucanian Pandosia are to be found on the right 
bank of the Agri, about five miles from the ruins of Heraclea, 
at a place called Anglona^ 4. Siris, at the mouth of the river 
of the same name, and fabled to have been founded by a Tro- 
jan colony, which was afterward expelled by some lonians, who 
migrated from Colophon during the reign of Alyattes, king of 
Lydia, and, having taken the town by force, changed its name 
to Policeum. The poet Archilochus, cited by Athenseus, speaks 
with admiration of the surrounding country. The inhabitants 
of the place are said to have rivalled in all respects the luxury 
and affluence of the Sybarites. When the Tarentines founded 
Heraclea, they removed all the Sirites to this city, and Siris 
then became its harbor merely. Siris is thought to have stood 
on the left bank of the Sinno, but no traces of it remain. 5. La- 
garia, to the southwest, said to have been founded by a party 
of Phocians headed by Epeus, the architect of the wooden horse. 
The wine of this district was in good repute, and is still much 
esteemed. The village of Nucara is supposed to represent the 
ancient site. 

6. SybariS) situate on the coast, between the Crathis, now 
the Crati, and the Sybaris, now the Sibari or Coscile. It was 
a colony founded about B.C. 720, by Achaeans and Troezenians, 
and, in consequence of the fertility of the district, increased with 
great rapidity in wealth and power ; for, at the time of its great- 
est prosperity, that is, about two hundred years after its foun- 
dation, it had, according to Strabo, acquired the dominion over 
four neighboring tribes, had twenty-five subject towns, the city 
itself occupied a space of fifty stadia in circumference, and the 
Sybarites were enabled to send an army of 300,000 men into 
the field. It became, also, the mother of other colonies, and 
carried on a considerable commerce, especially with Miletus in 
Asia Minor. But the prosperity of Sybaris had a pernicious 
influence on the people, and within the short period of two hund- 
red and ten years that Sybaris existed, the effeminacy and 
luxury of the inhabitants were carried to such a pitch that the 
name Sybarite became proverbial, and synonymous with a vo- 
luptuous person. Many curious particulars in illustration of 
their effeminate character are mentioned by Athenseus, which 



it would be difficult to believe if they were not reported on the 
authority of Aristotle, Timaeus, and Phylarchus. It is proba- 
ble, however, that all we read about the effeminacy of the Syb- 
arites applies only to the ruling aristocracy. The government 
appears always to have been in the hands of the aristocracy, 
which, as the words of Aristotle seem to suggest, consisted of 
the Troezenians, while the Achseans, who in numbers far ex- 
ceeded the Troszenians, formed the commonalty. These two 
parties were engaged in a continual struggle, which at last, 
when it broke out into a civil war, led to the total destruction 
of Sybaris. In an insurrection which occurred, the people drove 
out five hundred of the aristocracy, and divided their property 
among themselves. The exiles fled io Crotona, and implored 
the aid of its citizens. This was granted, and a battle ensued, 
in which the Sybarite army consisted of 300,000 men, while 
the Crotoniats could muster no more than 100,000. These 
X last, however, were under the command of Milo, the celebrated 

athlete, and his prowess made up for this great disparity of 
numbers. The Sybarites were totally defeated ; the conquer- 
ors advanced against the city, sacked and razed it to the ground, 
and most of the inhabitants were put to the sword. The Rive* 
Crathis was then turned through the ruins to obliterate every 
trace of its former greatness (B.C. 510). Within seventy days, 
Sybaris, from one of the most flourishing cities of Italy, became 
a heap of ruins. A few of the former inhabitants, who survived 
the fate of their native city, still clung, however, to the spot, 
and fifty-eight years later, some Thessalian adventurers having 
arrived there, the town was rebuilt ; but, after it had existed 
for five years, it was again destroyed by the Crotoniats. Its in- 
habitants now solicited the aid of Athens and Sparta ; but the 
former alone sent them ten ships, under Lampon and Xenoc- 
rates, and, on the advice of an oracle, these Athenians, with 
whom was Herodotus the historian and Lysias the orator, to- 
gether with many other Greeks and the remnant of the Syba- 
rites, founded, in B.C. 444, the colony of Thurii, a little to the 
south of the site of Sybaris. In this new colony, however, the 
Sybarites wished to form a kind of aristocracy, and claimed 
privileges which their fellow-settlers were unwilling to allow 
them. The consequence was, that in the ensuing struggle all 
the remaining Sybarites were destroyed. Thurii, after this, at- 

ITALIA. 371 

tained to a considerable degree of prosperity, but at a later pe- 
riod it became so weakened by the attacks of the Lucanians 
and the enmity of the Tarentines that it was compelled to seek 
the aid of Rome, which was thus involved in a war with Ta- 
rentum. About eighty-eight years afterward, Thurii, being 
nearly deserted, received a Roman colony, and took the name 
of Copia. The site of Sybaris is at present unknown, but it 
is generally supposed to have been situated near the modern 
Torre Brodog-nato. Thurii should be placed at a greater dis- 
tance from the sea, and between the probable position of that 
town and Terra Nuova, 

Having now examined the whole of the eastern coast of Lu- 
cania, we will cross over to the other sea in order to describe 
the cities and other remarkable places on its shores. The Si- 
larus, which divides this province from the Picentini, rose in 
that part of the Apennines which belonged to the Hirpini, and 
after receiving the Tanager, now the Negro, and the Calor, 
now Galore, emptied into the Sinus Pcestanus. The waters 
of this river possessed the property of incru sting, by means of 
a calcareous deposit, any pieces of wood or twigs thrown into 
them. At its mouth was the Portus Alburnus. A little far- 
ther from the coast was a celebrated temple of Juno Argiva^ 
which was plundered by the Cilician pirates. Advancing from 
this point, we come to, 1. Posidonia, the ruins of which are so 
celebrated under its Latin name of Pcestum. This city was 
situated about four miles southeast of the mouth of the Silarus, 
and near the coast of the Sinus Pcestanus. Its origin is involv- 
ed in obscurity. Solinus makes it a colony of Dorians, while 
others maintain, though apparently without any authentic 
grounds, that it was first a Phrenician settlement, and was 
afterward colonized by the Dorians. Others, again, ascribe its 
foundation to the Etrurians, and the massive construction of 
its walls, as well as the fact of Etruscan medals having been 
dug up here, would seem to favor this idea. Strabo says it 
was built by a colony of Sybarites, close to the shore in the 
first instance, but that it was afterward removed farther in- 
land. There is every reason, however, to believe that Paestum 
existed as a city before it was colonized by the Sybarites. The 
medals of this place show by their devices that the inhabitants 
were a sea-faring people. Strabo says that the Lucanians took 


this city from the Sybarites, and that the Romans afterward 
took it from the Lucanians. At the end of the war against 
Pyrrhus, a Roman colony was sent to Posidonia, and after this 
Livy speaks of Paestum as a town allied to Rome. It proved 
faithful to Rome in the second Punic war, and subsequently 
obtained the rank of a municipium. Nothing is known of it 
under the empire, but the surrounding country is celebrated by 
Virgil, Ovid, and other Roman poets, for the abundance and 
luxuriance of its roses, and the " Pcestance Valles" are extolled 
for their fertility, a quality which they have retained to this 
very day. The country southeast of Paestum, as far as Cape 
PalinurO) is one of the finest districts in the kingdom of Na- 
ples. Bishops of Pcestum are mentioned in the annals of the 
Church in the fifth century of our era. In the tenth century, 
the Saracens, having invaded this part of the country, formed a 
settlement at Acropoli, in the neighborhood of Pcestum. This 
was the period when they devastated Beneventum, Barium, and 
other towns, and it seems that Paestum was ruined about the 
same time. In the following century, after the expulsion of 
the Saracens, King Roger the Norman ransacked the temples 
and other buildings at Paestum of their marble and other orna- 
ments, to adorn the cathedral which he raised at Salerno. The 
ruins of Paestum, however, still remain to this day noble records 
of the genius and taste which inspired the architects of Greece. 
2. Petilia, to the southeast, called Petllia Lucana, to distin- 
guish it from another place of the same name in Bruttium. 
Its ruins exist on the Monte delta Stella. S.Elea, called also 
Velia> and Hyele, to the south of the preceding, and about three 
miles from the left bank of the River Heles or Elees, now the 
Alento. It was founded by the Phocaeans of Asia Minor, after 
they had left their native city to avoid the Persian yoke, and 
had first tried a settlement at Alalia in Corsica. The Phocaeans, 
according to Strabo, called the new city Hyele ('Te'A?;), but in 
the time of the geographer this form of the name had been 
changed to Elea ('EAea). The Romans, on the other hand, 
wrote the name Velia, as formed from the earlier appellation 
'TeA?/, with the substitution of the v sound for the aspirate. 
From the excellence of its constitution, the new colony was en- 
abled to resist with success the aggressions of both the Posido- 
niatae and the Lucani, though very inferior to these adversaries 

ITALIA. 373 

both in population and fertility of soil. Velia is particularly 
celebrated for the school of philosophy founded within its walls 
by Xenophanes of Colophon, but brought to its highest rank 
by Parmenides and Zeno. It was a bold attempt to construct 
a system of the universe on metaphysical principles. This sect 
is known by the name of the Eleatic. When the Romans 
formed the design of erecting a temple to Ceres, they sought a 
priestess from Velia, where that goddess was held in great ven- 
eration, to instruct them in the rites and ceremonies to be ob- 
served in her worship. This place subsequently became a Ro- 
man maritime colony, as may be inferred from Livy, but the 
period when this occurred is not mentioned Velia is often 
spoken of in the letters of Cicero, who occasionally resided there 
with his friends Trebatius and Thalna. The situation of the 
place seems to have been considered very healthy, since Plu- 
tarch says that Paulus ^Emilius was ordered thither by his 
physicians, and that he derived considerable benefit from the 
air. Horace was also recommended to visit Velia for a disorder 
in his eyes. In Strabo's time this ancient town was greatly 
reduced, its inhabitants being forced, from the poorness of the 
soil, to betake themselves to fishing and other sea-faring occu- 
pations. The ruins of Velia stand about half a mile from the 
sea, on the site now called Castelamare della Bruca. 

4. Pyxus (TLvgovg, ovvrof), called by the Latins Buxentum. 
This was the name of a promontory, river, and city, and the 
appellation alludes to the adjacent country's being covered with 
box-trees (?n;of, buxus). The promontory is now called Capo 
deg-P Infreschi. The city, according to Diodorus Siculus, was 
founded by Micythus, prince of Rhegium and Zancle, about 
471 B.C. Stephanus Byzantinus, however, makes it of CEno- 
trian origin. The Romans colonized it A.U.C. 558, calling it 
Buxentum, and afterward sent a new colony to it when the 
previous one had nearly failed. The site of this place appears 
to have been near the modern Policastro. The River Pyxus 
is now the Busento. 5. Blanda, to the southeast, and on the 
Aquilian Way. Its site corresponds to the modern Maratea. 
6. Laiis, the last Lucanian city on this coast, situate on a gulf 
and river of the same name. The river is now the Lao; the 
Sinus Laiis is now the Gulf of Policastro. This city was a 
colony of Sybarites. According to Strabo, the allied Greeks 


met with a signal defeat in the vicinity of this place from the 
Lucanians, a disaster which probably led to the downfall of 
their several towns. In Pliny's time Laus no longer existed. 
It is thought that Scalea represents this ancient city. 

We will now retrace our steps toward the northern frontier 
of Luoania, in order to give some account of the towns situate 
in the interior of the province. Near the junction of the SH&- 
rus and Tanag-er, and between the latter river and the Cal&r, 
is a ridge of mountains known formerly by the name of Mons 
Albumus, and now commonly called Monte di Postiglione, 
and sometimes Alburno. Beginning, then, from the northern 
frontier, we come to, 1. Vulceittm or Volcentnm, now Buccino r 
to the north of the Tanag-er. 2. Numistvo, to the northeast 
of the preceding, and near the frontiers of Apulia. A battle 
was fought here between Marcellus and Hannibal. Its site is 
near the modern Muro. 3. Potentia, some distance to the 
southeast of the preceding, and near the modern Potenza. 
This was a considerable city, as may be inferred from the ru- 
ins which are yet standing. Near it were the Campi Veteres, 
at the modern Vietri, where Tiberius Gracchus was slain by 
a band of treacherous Lucanians. 4. Marciliana, to the south- 
west, on the Aquilian Way. It was, in fact, a suburb to the 
more ancient and important town of Cosilynum^ and Cassio- 
dorus informs us that in his time a great concourse of people 
used to assemble here annually on the day of St. Cyprian, 
This custom, he affirms, was of a very ancient date, being, 
in fact, a remnant of pagan superstition. The site of this 
place corresponds to La Scala, on the right bank of the Ne- 
gro, the ancient Tanager. 5. Cosilynum, one of the prcefec- 
tune of Lueania, situate not far from the modern Padula. 
6. Abellmum Marsicum^ to the northeast of the preceding, and 
near the sources of the Aciris. It corresponds to Marsico Ve- 
tere. 7. Grumentum, to the southeast of the preceding, a place 
of some note, and mentioned by Livy as one of the towns of 
Lueania which Hannibal wished to recover from the Romans, 
and near which he fought an unsuccessful battle with them. 
It was subsequently colonized by Augustus. This place was 
situate near the modern Saponara, where extensive ruins are 
still visible. 8. Nerulum, to the southeast, and near the south- 
ern frontier of Lueania. According to Livy, it was one of the 

ITALIA. 375 

first towns of Lucania conquered by the Romans. It appears 
to have been situate near La Rotonda. 


I. THE Bruttii were called by the Greeks BpeTTtot, and the name is said to 
have signified in the Lucanian language "Renegades" or "Deserters," the 
Bruttians being the descendants of some refugee slaves and shepherds of the 
Lucanians, who, having concealed themselves from pursuit in the forests and 
mountains with which this part of Italy abounds, became, in process of time, 
powerful from their numbers and ferocity. 

II. This savage race is represented as pouring forth to attack their Lucanian 
masters, and to molest the Grecian settlers on the coast of either sea ; and so 
formidable had they at last rendered themselves, that the Lucani were com- 
pelled to acknowledge their independence, and to cede to them all the country 
south of the rivers Laus and Crathis. This advancement of the Bruttii to the 
rank of an independent nation is supposed by Diodorus Siculus to have taken 
place about 397 years after the foundation of Rome. 

III. The enterprising and turbulent spirit of this people was next directed 
against the Greek colonies ; and in proportion as these were rapidly declining, 
from jealousies and internal dissensions, and still more from luxury and indo- 
lence, their antagonists were acquiring a degree of vigor and stability which 
soon enabled them to accomplish their downfall. The Greek towns on the 
western coast, from being weaker and more detached from the main body of 
the Italiot confederacy, first fell into the hands of the Bruttii. 

IV. The principal cities of which this league was composed now became 
alarmed for their own security, and sought the aid of the Molossian Alexander 
against these dangerous enemies, with whom the Lucanians also had learned 
to make common cause. This gallant prince, by his talents and valor, for a 
time checked the progress of these active barbarians, and even succeeded in 
penetrating into the heart of their country ; but after his death, which occurred 
before the fatal walls of Pandosia, they again advanced, like a resistless torrent, 
and soon reduced the whole of the peninsula to the south of the Laus and Cra- 
this, with the exception of Crotona, Locri, and Rhegium. 

V. At this period, Rome, the universal foe, put an end at once to their con- 
quests and their independence. After sustaining several defeats, both the Lu- 
cani and Bruttii are said to have finally submitted to L. Papirius Cursor, two 
years after Pyrrhus had withdrawn his troops from Italy. 

VI. The arrival of Hannibal once more, however, roused the Bruttii to exer- 
tion. They flocked eagerly to the victorious standard of that leader, who was 
by their aid enabled to maintain his ground in this corner of Italy when all hope 
of final success seemed to be extinguished. But the consequences of this pro- 
tracted warfare proved fatal to the country in which it was carried on, many 
of the Bruttian towns being totally destroyed, and others so much impoverished 
as to retain scarcely a vestige of their former prosperity. To these misfortunes 
was added the weight of Roman vengeance ; for that power, when freed from 
her formidable enemy, too well remembered the support she had derived from 
the Bruttii for many years to allow their defection to pass unheeded. A decree 
was therefore passed, reducing this people to a most abject state of dependence : 
they were pronounced incapable of being employed in a military capacity, and 
their services were confined to the menial offices of couriers and letter-carriers. 


VII. Bruttium, as a Roman province, had the same extent as previously, be 
ing bounded on the north by Lucania, from which it was separated by the rivers 
Laus and Crathis ; on the east by the Sinus Tarentinus and Mare Ionium ; on 
the south by the Mare Ionium ; and on the west by the Mare Inferum. 


COMMENCING from the mouth of the Crathis, on the eastern 
coast, we come to, 1. Portus Roscia, the haven of the Tlmrians. 
According to Procopius, the Romans constructed a fortress 
higher up the country, called Roscianum, now Rossano. Two 
passes led from this to the Lucanian and Bruttian mountains. 
According to Holstenius, these are the defiles of Morano and 
Roseto. The River Hylias, just below Portus Roscia, formed 
the line of separation between the territories of Thurii and Cro- 
tona, and answers now to a rivulet named Calonato. The Tra- 
ens which follows is now the Trionto, and is rendered memora- 
ble for the bloody defeat of the Sybarites on its banks, already 
alluded to. Some years afterward, a remnant of this unhappy 
people were again attacked on this spot, and destroyed by the 
Bruttii. 2. Crimisa, just below the Crimisa Promontorium, 
or Capo deW Alice. It was said to have been founded by Phil- 
octetes after the Trojan war, and contained what was called 
his tomb. It subsequently changed its name to Patcrnum, 
and became a bishop's see after the fall of the Western Empire. 
The modern Giro is supposed to answer to it. 3. Petllia, be- 
low the preceding, and said to have been likewise founded by 
Philoctetes. It occupied the site of the modern Strongoli. 
This small town gave a striking proof of its fidelity to the Ro- 
mans in the second Punic war, by the long siege which it stood 
against Hannibal, amid all the horrors of famine. It did not 
surrender until all the leather in the place, as well as the 
bark and young shoots of the trees, and the very grass in the 
streets, had been consumed for subsistence. The River Nece- 
thus, now Nieto, below Petilia, was fabled to have derived its 
name from the circumstance of the captive Trojan women hav- 
ing there set fire to the Grecian fleet (vav$, aldu), a circum- 
stance alluded to by many of the ancients, but with great di- 
versity of opinion as to the scene of the event. The use which 
Virgil has made of this tradition is well known. 

4. Croto (Kporwv), called by the Romans more commonly 
Crotona, and now Cotrone, was situate on the 

ITALIA. 377 

and was one of the most celebrated and powerful states of Mag- 
na Grcecta. Its foundation is ascribed to Myscellus, an Achaean 
leader,' soon after Sybaris had been colonized by a party of the 
same nation, which was about 715 B.C. According to some 
traditions, however, the origin of Crotona was much more an- 
cient, and it was said to derive its name from the hero Croton. 
The residence of Pythagoras and his most distinguished follow- 
ers in this city, together with the overthrow of Sybaris which 
it accomplished, and the exploits of Milo and several other Cro- 
toniat victors in the Olympic games, contributed in a high de- 
gree to raise the fame of Crotona. Its climate, also, was pro- 
verbially excellent, and supposed to be particularly calculated 
for producing in its inhabitants that robust frame of body re- 
quisite to insure success in those contests. Hence it was com- 
monly said that the last wrestler of Crotona was the first of 
the other Greeks. This city was also celebrated for its school 
of medicine, and was the birth-place of the celebrated Demo- 
cedes. However brilliant an epoch in the history of Crotona 
its triumph over Sybaris may appear, that event must be re- 
garded also as the term of her own greatness and prosperity, 
for from this period it is said that luxury and the love of pleas- 
ure, the usual consequences of great opulence, soon obliterated 
all the good effects which had been produced by the wisdom 
and morality of Pythagoras. As a proof of the remarkable 
change which took place in the warlike spirit of the people, it 
is said that on their being subsequently engaged in hostilities 
with the Locrians, an army of 130,000 Crotoniats was routed 
by 10,000 of the enemy on the banks of the Sag-ras. Such, 
indeed, was the loss they experienced in this battle, that, ac- 
cording to Strabo, their city henceforth rapidly declined, though 
it was still a considerable city when Pyrrhus invaded Italy, ex- 
tending on both sides of the ^Esarus, and its walls embracing a 
circumference of twelve miles. But the consequences of the 
war which ensued between that king and the Romans proved 
so ruinous to its prosperity* that above one half of its extent 
became deserted, and the ^Esarus, which previously flowed 
through the town, now ran at some distance from the inhabit- 
ed part, which was again separated from the fortress by a va- 
cant space. During the second Punic war it was besieged by a 
combined force of Carthaginians and Bruttians, and the inhab- 


itants, who were reduced to 20,000, were unable to defend the 
large extent of their walls. They surrendered, and afterward 
sought a refuge among their ancient enemies, the Locrians. 
The Romans subsequently sent a colony to this place. It be- 
came afterward of some consequence in the time of Belisarius, 
on account of its position, and was made by him a chief point 
in his operations along the coast. Its harbor, however, does 
not seem to have been any of the best, or well calculated to 
afford protection against storms and winds. It was rather what 
Polybius calls a summer harbor, and was formed by the mouth 
of the JEsarus. This little river is entitled to notice from its 
banks being made the scene of some of the prettiest bucolics 
in Theocritus. 

Passing the celebrated Lacinian Promontory, of which we 
have elsewhere spoken (page 256), and the three promontories 
of the lapyges, of which mention has also been made (ib.) 9 we 
first find several navigable rivers, the Targines, now Tacina ; 
the Arocha, now the Crocha or Crocchio ; the Semirus, now 
Simmari ; and the Crotalus^ now Cor ace. Near this last- 
mentioned stream we find the station marked in the Theodo- 
sian table as Castra Hannibalis, and noticed by Pliny as sit- 
uate at the narrowest part of the isthmus which terminates 
Italy. We then come to, 5. Scyllacium or Scylletium, a Greek 
city of considerable note, now Squillace. According to Strabo, 
it was colonized by the Athenians under Mnestheus. It was 
the birth-place of Cassiodorus. Virgil calls the place " Navi- 
fragum" an epithet which alludes either to the rocky and dan- 
gerous shore in its vicinity, or else to the frequent storms which 
prevailed in this quarter. The elder Dionysius at one time 
entertained the design of carrying a fortification across the 
isthmus in this quarter, which would have been the means of 
cutting off the more southern Greeks from communicating 
with their allies to the north of this narrow peninsula ; but he 
was prevented by the latter from executing his plan. The dis- 
tance across was not more than twenty miles. Passing down 
the coast, we come to the litt